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■J  ia>,  ■  e  .  ns~ 


.    t 


THE  GENERAL 


BIOGRAPHICAL   DICTIONARY. 


A  NEW  EDITION. 


sat 


VOL.  XX. 


r 


\ 


InnteJ  by  Nichols,  Son,  and  Bentuey, 
lied  Ldon  Passagi*,  Fleet  Street,  Loiuloii. 


THE   GENERAL 

BIOGRAPHICAL  DICTIONARY: 

CONTAINING 
AN  HISTORICAL  AND  dUnCAL  ACCOUNT 

OF  THE 

LIVES  AND  WRITINGS 

OP  THS 

MOST   EMINENT    PERSONS 

IN    EVERY   NATION; 

PARTICULARLY  THE  BRITISH  AND  IRISH} 
VrOM  THE  EARLIEST  ACCOUNTS  TO  THE  PRESENT  TIME. 


A  NEW  EDITION, 

REVISED  AND   ENLARGED    BY 

ALEXANDER  CHALMERS,  F.  S.  A. 


VOL,  XX, 


LONDON: 


PRINTED  FOR  J.  NICHOLS  AND  SON;  F.  C.  AND  J.  RITINOTON ;  T.  PAYNE | 
OTSIDGB  AND  SON;  G.  AND  W.  NICOL  ;  G.  WILKIS ;  J.  WALKER;  R.  LEA; 
W.  LOWNDES  ;  WHITE,  COCHRANE,  AND  CO.  ;  T.  EGERTON ;  LACKINGTON, 
ALLEN,  AND  CO.;  J.  CARPENTER;  LONGMAN,  HURST,  REES,  ORME,  AND 
BROWN;  CADBLL  AND  DA  VIES;  CLAW;  J.  BOOKER;  J.  CUTIIELL  ;  CLARKE 
AND  SONS;  J.  AND  A.  ARCH;  J.HARRIS;  BLACK,  PARRY,  AND  CO. ;  J.  BOOTH; 
J.  MAWMAN;  GALE,  CURTIS,  AND  FENNBR;  R.  H.  EVANS}  J.  HATCHARD; 
J.  MURRAY;  R.  BALDWIN;  CRADOCK  AND  JOY;  B.  BENTLEY  ;  J.  FAULDER  j 
OGLE  AND  CO.;  W.  GINGER^  J.  DFJGHTON  AND  SON,  CAMBRIDGE |  CONSTABLE 
AND  CO.  EIMNBURGH;  AND  WILSON  AND  SON,  YORK. 

IS15. 


/ 


,.'./<  ■ 


A  KEW  AND    GENERAL 
BIOGRAPHICAL  DICTIONART. 


XjANGUET  (Hubert),  a  native  of  France,  and  minister 
of  state  to  Augustas  elector  of  Saxony,  was  born  at  Vi- 
teaux  io  1518  ;  and,  having  passed  through  his  studies  at 
home,  went  to  Italy  in  1347,  to  complete  his  knowledge 
in  the  civil  law,  of  which  he  commenced  doctor  at  Padua. 
Thence  going  to  Bologna,  he  met  with  one  of  Mekncthon's 
works,  which  raised  in  hi  [uainted  with 

that  eminent  reformer;  B'  :  a  tour  into 

Germany,  on  purpose  to  vi  'g  in  Saxony, 

where  he  arrived  in  1 54^,  tmbraced  the 

protestant  religion.     Fron:  ommenced  a 

strict  friendabip  between  tion,   so  that 

they  became  inseparable  ,  Melancthon> 

finding  Languet  well  acquainted  with  the  political  interest 
of  princes,  and  with  the  history  of  illustrious  men,  was 
wonderfully  delighted  with  his  conversation,  and  his  ex- 
tensive fund  of  information,  in  all  which  he  Was  not  only 
minutely  correct  as  to  facts,  but  intelligent  and  judicious 
in  his  remarks  and  conjectures. 

This  connexion  with  Melanctbon  did  not,  however,  ex- 
tinguish the  incliuation  which  Languet  bad  to  travel.  la 
1551,  betook  up  a  resolution  to  visit  some  part  of  Europe 
every  year,  for  which  he  set  apart  the  autumn  season,  re- 
turning to  pass  the  winter  at  Wittenberg.  In  the  course 
of  these  travels,  he. made  the  tour  of  Rome  in  1555,  and 
thatpf  Livonia  and  Laponia  in  1558.  During  this  last  tour, 
he  became  known  to  Gustavus  king  of  .Sweden,  who  con- 
ceived a  great  affection  for  him,  and  engaged  him  to  go 
into  France,  in  order  to  bring  him  thence  some  of  the  best 
scholars  and  artists:  for  which  purpose  his  oaajeaty  gava:^ 

Vol.  XX.  B 


2  L  A  N  G  U  E  T. 

him  a  letter  of  credit,  dated  Sept  1,  1557.  Two  years 
after,  Languet  attended  Adolphus  count  of  Nassau  and 
prince  of  Orange,  into  Italy;  and  at  his  return  passed 
through  Paris,  to  visit  the  celebrated  Turnebus ;  but  it  was 
a  great  deductt()n  from  the  pheasnre  of  this  interview,  thi^t 
he  heard  at  this  time  of  the  death  of  his  friend  Melancthon. 

In  1565,  Augustus  elector  of  Saxony  invited  him  to  his^ 
cou¥\  ^d  apppkited  him  envdy  to  that  of  France  the  same 
year,  after  which  he  sent  him  as  his  deputy  to  the  diet  of 
the  empire,  which  was  called  by  the  emperor  Maxiiiiilian 
in  1568,  at  Augsburg.  Thence  .the  same  master  dispatched 
him  to  Heidelberg,  to  negotiate  some  business  with  the 
elector  palatine ;  and  from  Heidelberg  he  went  to  Cologfne, 
where  he  acquired  the  esteem  and  confidence  of  Charlotte 
Ae  Bourbon,  princess  of  Orange.  The  elector  of  Saxony 
feeiit  him  also  to  th6  diet  of  Spires ;  and  in  1570  to  Stetin, 
in  quality  of  plenipotentiary,  for  mediating  a  peace  be- 
tween the  Swedes  and  the  Muscovites,  who  had  chosen 
this  elector  for  their  mediator.  This  prince  the  same  year 
sent  Languet  a  second  time  into  France,  to  Charles.  IX. 
and  the  queen-mother  Catharine  of  Medicis,  in  the  exe- 
cution of  which  commission  he  made  a  remarkably  bold 
speech  to  the  French  monarch,  in  the  name  of  the  pro* 
testant  princes  in  Germany.  He  was  at  Paris  upon  the 
memorable  bloody  feast  of  St.  Bartholomew,  in  1572,  when 
he  saved  the  life  of  Andrew  Wechelius,  the  famous  printer, 
in  whose  bouse  he  lodged  ;  and  he  was  also  very  instru^- 
mental  in  procuring  the  escape  of  Philip  de  Momay  count 
de  Plessis ;  but,  trusting  too  much  to  the  respect  due  to 
his  character  of  envoy,  was  obliged  for  his  own  safety  to 
the  gopd  offices  of  John  de  Morvillier,  who  had  been 
keeper  of  the  seals.  Upon  his  recal  from  Paris,  he  re- 
ceived orders  to  go  to  Vienna,  where  he  was  in  1574 ;  and 
ia  15^75  he  was  appointed  one  the  principal  arbitrators 
for  determinipg  of  the  disputes,  which  had  lasted  for  tiiirty 
years,  betiveen  the  houses  of  Longueville  and  Badenj^  con«> 
cpning  the  succession  of  Rt)thelin* 

At  length,  in  the  controversy  which  arose  in  Saxony 
between  the  Lutherans  and  Zuinglians,  respecting  the 
tacharist,  Languet  was  suspected  to  favour  the  latter^^  and 
in  consequence  wai$  obliged  to  beg  leave  of  the  elector, 
being  then  one  of  his  chief  ministers,  to  retire ;  which  was 
granted,  with  a  liberty  to  go  where  be  pleased.  He  chose 
Prague  for  4he  place  „  of  hia  residence,  where  he  wa»  in 


L  A  N  G  U  E  T.  t 

1577 ;  and  in  this  situaftion  applied  himself  to  John  Ca»i«' 

mir,  cpant  Paiatkie,  and  attended  hinfr  to-  Ghent,  in*  Flan« 

ders)  the  inhabitants  of  i^hich  city  had  chosen  the  count' 

jbr  their  govei^ior.     On  his  quitting'  the  gorernmenty  Lafn« 

guet  accepted  an  invitation  from  WiHtaaa' prince  of  Omnge» 

sad  reosained  with  him  until  the  bad  state  of  hi9  heakh^ 

obliged  him  to  go  in  1 579  to  the  wells  of  Baden ;  and  theirtf 

he  became  acquainted  with  Thuamas,  who  was  niuth  strnek^ 

with  his  con«reiMtion)  probity,  and  judginent,  net  only  iii' 

the  sciences,  but  in  public  aliairB.    Tbuantts  i^ls  uir  thcrti 

Languet  was  so  well  acquainted  with  the  afiairs  of  Oer* 

Btany,  that  he  could'  instruct  the'  Germans  themselves  im 

the  affairs  of  their  own  country.    After  Thuanus  had  left 

■  that  place,  they  appear  to  haire  corresponded,  andTh^anui 

sjpeaks  of  sdme  meuibin(  then  in  his  possession,  which  Lau- 

.guetgent  tb  him,  coiitaining  an  account  of  the  presenll 

state  of  GernAany,  of  the  right  of  the  diets>  of  the  niimbe^ 

of  the  eircles,  i^ud  of  the  order  or  rtmk  of  the  difielrent 

councils  of  that  country. 

Languet  returned' to  Antwerp  in  1580';  and  in  ISB\  the'' 
prince  of  Orange  sent  him  to  France  to  negoclate  a  recon<- 
45ilUtioA  between  Charlotte  of  Bourbon,  his  consort;  andt 
htft  b«x>tber  Louis,  duke  of  Montpensier ;  which  he  ef- 
ibeted.  He  died  at  Antwerp^  Sept.  20^  1561',  and  waa 
interred  with  great  funeral  solemnity,  theprin<$e  of  Orange 
going  at  the  bead  of  the  train.  During  bii^  illness  he  wa^ 
fmtwl  by  madam  Dii  Piessis,  who,  though'  sick  hefself^ 
attended  him  to  his  last  moment.  His  dying  words  weie^ 
that  **  the  only  thing  which  grieved' him  was,  that  he  bad 
not  been  able  to  see  mens.  Du  Plessia  ag^in  before  ba^ 
died,  to  whom  he  would  have  lefl:  bis  veryheatt,  bad  it 
been  in  his  po^er :  that'he  badn^ished  to  live  to  see  the 
worid  reformed^  but^  since  it'became  daily  worse,  he  haedno 
longer  any  business  in  it :  that  the  princes  of 'these  timed  were? 
strange  men :  that  virtue  had  much  to  suffer^}  and  little  to 
get :  that' he  pitied  mens.  Du  Piessis  very  much,  to  whose 
share  8  great  part  of  the  misfbrturies  of  the  time  wootd'fid}^ 
and'  who  would  see^  many  unhlippy  dayd ;  but  that  he  must 
take  courage^  for  God  would  assist  him.  For  the  rest,  he 
begged  one  thing  of  him  in  his  last  farewell,  •  namely,  that 
he  would  mention  something  of  their  friendship  in  the  first 
book  heshohld  publish.*'  This  request  was  performed  by 
Du  Piessis,  soon  after,  in  a  short  preface  to  his  treatise 
*'  Of  the  Truth  of  the  Christian  religion  j*'  where  he  nsakea 

12 


4  LANGUET. 

the  following  eloge  of  this  friend  in  a  few  eomprehen^ve 
words :  ^^  Is  fuit  qualis  muUi  videri.vQlunt:  is  vixit  qual|ter 
optioii  mori  cupiunt.**  * 

Of  this  eminent  statesman  we  have  some  works  not 
wholly  unknown  in  this  country.  The  first  mentioned  is  a 
history  in  Latin  of  the  siege  of  Gotha,  which  Schardius 
has  inserted  in  his  History  of  Germany  during  the  reign  of 
Ferdinand  L  but  without  mentioiung  Languet^s  name.  2. 
<'  Epistolfls  ad  principem  suum  Augustum  Saxoni^  duceit),^* 
Halle,  1699, 4t6.  3.  ^*  £pistolae  Politicae  et  hIstoricsB  ad  Phi- 
lippum  Sydnaeum/'  12mo.  Of  this  collection  of  letters  to 
Qur  sir  Philip  Sydney,  the  late  lord  Hailes  published  a  correct 
edition  in  1775,  8vo.  They  are  97  in  number,  dated  from 
1573  to  1580,.  and  are  remarkable  for  purity  of  language 
and  excellenjL^e  of  sentiment.  4.  '^  Epistolse  ad  Joachim 
Camerarium,  &c.^'  and  other  learned  men,  12mo.  Carp- 
zovius  published  a  new  edition  of  these  at  Leipsic,  with 
additions.  5.  ^'  Hist,  descriptio  susceptss  a  Caesarea  ma- 
jestate  executionis  Augusto  SaxoniaB  duce  contra  S.  Ro-. 
mani  imperii  rebeUes,"v&c.  1563, 4to.  6.  **  Vindiciae  contra 
TyrannoS)  sive  de  principis  in  popuium,  populique  in  prin- 
cipem legitima  potestate,*'  1579,  12mo.  This  bears  the 
name  of  Stephanus  Junius  Brutus,  and  the  place  Edin- 
burgh, but  the  place  was  Basil,  and  it  never  was  doubted 
that  Languet  was  the  author  of  this  spirited^attack  on  ty- 
ranny. It  was  often  reprinted  and  translated  into  French. 
There  are  are  a  few  other  tracts  attributed  to  Languet, 
but  upon  more  questionable  authority.^ 

LANGUET  (John  Baptist  Joseph),  great  grand  ne- 
phew of  the  preceding,  doctor  of  the  Sorbonne,  the  ce- 
lebrated yicar  of  St.^  Sulpice,  at  Paris,  and  a  man  of 
extraordinary  benevolence,  -  was  born  at  Dijon,  June  6, 
1675.  His  father  was  Denis  Languet,  procurator-general 
of  that  city.  After  having  made  some  progress  in  his 
studies  at  JQijpn,  he  continued  them  at  Paris,  and  resided 
in  the  seminary  of  St.  Sulpice.  He  was  received  in  the 
ISofbonne,  Dec.  31,,  1698,  and^  took  his  degree  with  ap- 
plause. He  was  ordained  priest  at  Vienna,  in  Dauphiny ; 
aftei"  which  he  returned  to  Paris,  and  took  the  degree  of 
doctor  Jan.  15,  1703.  He  attached  himself  from  that 
time  to  the  community  of  St.  Sulpice ;  and  la  Chetardie, 
who  was  vicar  there,  chose  him  for  his  curate.     Langtiet 

1  GeD,  Pi<^— NiceroDy  vol.  f  It— Moreri.<*Saxii  Onomast. 


L  A  N  G  U  E  T.  ^• 

continued  in  that  office  neur  ten  years,  and  sold  bis  patri-* 
ikiony  to  relieve  the  poor.  Daring  this  period,  St.  Valier, 
bishop  of  Quebec,  being  prisoner  in  England,  requested 
of  the  king  that  Languet  might  be  his  assistant  in  North 
America.  Languet  was  about  to  accept  of  the  place^ 
prompted  to  it  by  his  ;ceal  for  the  conversion^  of  infidels ; 
but  his  patrons  and  friends  advised  him  to  decline  the 
voyage,  as  hir  constitution  was  by  no  means  strong.  He 
succeeded  la  Chetardie,  as  vicar  of  St.  Sulpice,  in  June 
1714. 

His  parish-church  being  out  of  repair,  and  scarce  fit  to 
hold  1200  or  1500  persons  out  of  a  parish  which  contained 
125,000  inhabitants,   he  conceived  a  design  to  build   a 
church  iQ  some  degree  proportionable  to  them ;  and  un- 
dertook this  great  work  without  any  greater  fund  to  begin 
with  than  the  sum  of  one  hundred  crowns,  which  had  been 
left  him  for  this  design  by  a  pious  and  benevolent  lady* 
He  laid  out  this  money  in  stores,  which  he  caused  to  be 
carried  through  all  the  streets,  to  shew  his  design  to  the 
public.     He  soon  obtained  considerable  donations  from  all 
parts ;  and  die  duke  of  Orleans,  regent  of  the  kingdom^ 
granted  him  a  lottery.     That  prince  likewise  laid  the  first 
6t6ne  of  the  porch  in  1718  ;  and  Languet  spared  neither 
labour  nor  expence  during  his  life,  to  make  the  church 
one  of  the  finest  in  the  kingdom,  both  for  architecture  and 
ornaments.     It  was  consecrated  in  1745,  with  so  much 
splendour,  that  Frederic  XL  of  Prussia  wrote  the  vicar  a 
congratulatory  letter,  in  which  he  not  only  praises  the 
building,  but  even  the  piety  of  the  founder,   a  quality 
which  Frederic  knew   how  to  notice  when  it  served  to 
point  a  compliment. 

Another  work,  which  does  no  less  honour  to  Languet, 

is  the  house  de  Venfans  J^sus.    The  nature  of  this  estah* 

lishmenty   as  originally  constituted,   will  best  evince  his 

piety  and  talents.     It  consisted  of  two  parts ;  the  first  com- 

•  posed  of  tbtrty'i-five  poor  ladies,  descended  from  families 

illustrious  from  1535  to  the  present  time;  the  second,  of 

/  more  than  four  hundred  poor  women  and  children  of  town 

and. country*     Those  young  ladies  whose  ancestors  had 

been  in  the  king's  service,  were  preferred  to  all  others, 

and  an  education  given  them  suited  to  the  dignity  of  their 

birth.    They  were  employed,  by  turns,  in  inspecting  the 

bake-house,  the  poultry-yard,  the  dairies,  the  laundries, 

the^  gardensi  the  lahojeatoryi  the  linen- warehottses,  the 


6  LANGUET. 

spinning-roomSj  Itad  oduer  places  bek>nging  <to  the  bouse* 
By  these  means  th^y  became  good  housewives^  und  able 
to  relieve  their  poor  relations  in  the  country;  and  it  was 
alsp  part  of  the  duty  to  succour  by  a  thousaitid  ViUtle  kind 
offices^  the  poor  wocaeu  and  girls  who  worked  there,  and 
tp  acquire  those  habits  of  condescension  aiid  bei^voleuee 
which  are  of  gre&t  service  to  society. 

Languet  used  besides  to  grant  great  sums  of  money  to 
9.uch  ladies  as  were  examples  of  oeconomy,  virtue^  and 
piety,  in  those  religious  houses  which  he  superintendecL 
The  poor  women  and  children  who  formed  the  second  part, 
were  provided  with  food  every  day,  and  work  u  the  spin* 
Ifing-wheel.  They  made  a  great  quantity  of  linen  and 
cotton.  Different  rooms  were  assigned  to  them,  and  they 
fvere  arranged  under  different  classes.  In  each  rOom  were 
iwo  ladies  of  the  society  of  St.  Thomas,  of  Vili^e  Neqve^ 
pf  .which  Languet  was  superior*  general.  These  ladies 
pera  placed  there  to  oversee  the  work,  and  to  give  such 
instructions  as  they  thought  proper*  The  women  ajnd  the 
girls  who  found  employment  in  this  house,  had  in  a  former 
period  of  their .  lites  been  licentious  and  dissolute,  but 
ivere  generally  reformed  by  the  example  of  virtue  before 
ihieir  eyes,  and  by  the  salutary  advice  given  to  tbem^  and 
had  the  amount  of  their  work  paid  them  i|i  money  when 
they  left  the  house.  By  these  means  they  became  indus- 
frious  and  exemplary,  and  were  restored  to  the  community. 
There  were  in  the  house  de  Venfms  Jems,  iii  1741,  more 
than  1400  women  and  girls  of  this  sort ;  and  the  vicar  of 
St.  Sulpice  employed  all  the  means  in  his  power  to  make 
their  situation  agreeable.  Although  the  land  to  the  house 
measured  only  17  arpens  (about  100  perches  square,  each 
^perch  18  feet),  it  had  a  large  dairy^  which  gave  milk  to 
2000  children  belonging  to  the  parish,  a  meiiagery,  poultry 
erf  all  sorts,  a  bake-house,  spiuning-rooms,  a  ?ery  neat 
axid  well  cultivated  garden,  aud  a  magnificent  laboratory, 
where  all  sorts  of  medicines  were  made.  The  order  and 
peconomy  observed  in  this  house  in  the  education,  instruo* 
tioii,  and  employment  of  so  many  people,  were  so  admi* 
rable,  and  ^ve  so  great  an  idea  of  the  vicar  of  8t.  Sul- 
pice, that  cardinal  Fleury  proposed  to  ipake  him  superin- 
Irendant^generai  of  all  the  hospitals  iq  the  kingdom ;  but 
Xai^et  used  to  answer  him  with  f  smile,  ^*  i  have  always 
tud,  my  lord,  that  it  was  the  bounty  of  ycmr  highness  Idd 
me  to  the  hospital^''    ^he  ^i^eoee  of  tius  esldbUahiiieiit 


L  A  N  Q  U  E  T.  1 

%as  immease.  '  He  spent  bis  revenue  on  it ;  an  iDberitance 
which  came  to  him  by  the  death  of  the  baron  of  Montigni, 
his  brother,  and  the  estate  of  the  abb£  de  Bamay,  granted 
him  by  the  king. 

Languet  was  not  less  to  be  esteemed  for  bis  beneficence 
and  his  zeal  in  aiding  the  poor  of  every  sort  Never  piaii 
took  more  pains  than  he  did  in  procuring  donations  and 
legacies,  which  he  distributed  fvitb  admirable  prudence 
and  discretion.  He  inquired  with  care  if  the  legacies  whic^ 
were  left  him  were  to  the  disadvantage  of  the  poor  relat 
tions  of  the  testator ;  if  he  foand  that  to  be  the  case,  he 
restored  to  them  not  only  the  legacy,  but  gave  them,  wheo 
wanting,  a  large  sum  of  his  own.  Madame  de  Camois,  as 
illustrious  for  the  benevolence  of  her  disposition  as  for  hef 
rank  in  life,  having  left  him  by  her  last  will  a  legacy  of 
more  than  600,000  hvres,  he  only  took  30,000  livre9  for 
the  poor,  and  returned  the  remaining  sum  to  her  relations. 
Jt  is  said  frotn  good  authority,  that  he  disbursed  near  a 
million  of  livres  in  charities  ev^y  year.  He  always  chose 
noble  families  reduced  to  poverty,  before  all  odiers ;  and 
there  were  ^me  families .  of  distinction  in  his  pari^»  to 
each  of  whom  be  dialaribuled  30,000  livres  pet  aanum. 
Alwiiys  willing  to  serve  mankuid,  Ik^  gave  liberally,  and 
often  before^:  any  application  was  made  to  him.  Whea 
there  was  a  general  dearth  in  1 72S,  be  sold,  in  order  to 
relieve  the  poor,  his  .h^sebald  goods^  his  pictures,  and 
some  scarce  and  curious  pieces  q[  furniture,  which  he  had 
procured  with  difficulty.  From  that  time  he  had  taljr 
three  pieces  of  pktie«  no  tapestiy,  and  but  a  mean  serge 
bed,  which  madaaoe  de  Camois  had  lent  him,  having  be^ 
fore  sold  all  the  presents  she  had  made  him  at  different 
periods.  His  charity,  was  9ot  confined  to  his  own  paiish. 
At  the  time  that  the  plague  raged  at  Marseillels,  he  aenft 
large  8iums  into  Provenoe  to  assist  tlie  distressed.  He  itif- 
tereited  himself  with  great  zeal  in  the  promotion  of  arts 
,and  conimerqe,  and  in  whatever  concerned  the  glory  of 
tfa^  natiop,  In  timesi  of  public  calamity^  lis  conflagrations, 
Sec.  his  prudence,  and  assiduity  have  been  much  admired. 
H^.  understood  well  the  diifereat  dispositions  of  men. '  He 
knesir  ho^  to  employ  every  one  aocording  ito  his  talent  or 
{Capacity.  In  the  most  intricate  and  perplexed  aflhini  he 
decided  with  a  sagacity  and  judgment  that  surprieed  every 
.one,  Languet  refused  the  bishopric  of  Couserans  and 
that  of  J^xctiers,  and  several  others  which  were  offered 


ii  LANG  U  E  T. 

t 

him  by  Lotils  XIV.  and  Louis  XV.  under  the  ministry  of 
the  dule  of  Orleans  and  cardinal  Fleury.  He  resigned  his 
vicarage  to  Mons.  TAbb^  du  Lau,  in  1748,  but  continued 
to  preach  every  Sunday,  according  to  his  custom,  in  his 
own  parish  church*;  and  continued  also  to  support  the  house 
de  Venfans  JBsus  till  his  death,  which  happened  Oct.  1  \ , 
1750i  in  his  seventy-fifth  year,  at  the  abbey  de  Bernay,! 
to  which  place  he  went  to  make  some  charitable  establish-^ 
ments.  His  piety  and  continued  application  to  work^  of 
beneficence  did  not  hinder  hito  from  being  lively  and 
chearfui ;  i^nd  he  delighted  hi^  friends,  by  the  agreeable 
repartees  and  sensible  remarks  he  made  in  conversation  J 
'  LANGUET  (John  Joseph),  brother  of  the  preceding, 
'  a  doctor  of  the  Sorbpnne,  and  bishop  of  Soisson,  to  which 
see  he  was  promoted  in  1715,  and  afterwards  •  archbishop 
of  8ens,  was  distinguished  for  his  polemical  wriftings,  and 
published  numerous  pieces  in  defence  of  the  bull  Unige^ 
nitus,  in  which  he  vva^  much  assKted  by  M.  Tournely, 
professor  at  the  $>brbonne;  and  this  celebrated  doctor 
dying  1729,  the  appellants  then  said  that  Pere  de  Tour- 
tiemine  directed  bis  pen.  M.  Langoet  was  appointed 
;  ^rchbishop  of  Sens,  17^1.  He  was  v^  zealous  against 
^the  miracles  attributed  by  the  appellants  to  M.  Paris, 
and  against  the  famous  convulsions.  He  died  May  3; 
1753,  at  Sens,  in  the  midst  of  his  curates,  whom  he  thell 
kept  in  retirement.  M.  Lianguet  was  a  member  of  the 
French  academy,  superior  of  the  royal  society  of  Navarre^ 
apd  counsellor  of  state.  His  works  are,  three  "  Adyerr 
tisements^'  to  the  appellants ;  several  '^  Pastoral  Letters, 
Instructipns,  Mandates,  Letters,'-  to  different  persons,  and 
other  writings  in  favour  of  the  bull  Unigenttus,  and  against 
•the  Aoti^Constitutionarians,  the  miracles  ascribed  to  M. 
Paris,  and  the  convulsions,  which  were  impostures  then 
obtruded  on  the  credulity  of  the  French,,  but  which  he 
•proved  to  have  neither  certainty  nor  evi^nce.  All  the 
above  have  been  translated  into  Latin,  and:printed  at  Sens, 
1753,  2  vols.  foL;  but  this  edition  of  M.  Languet's  <^  Po- 
lemical Works,^'  was  suppressed  by  a  decree  of.  council. 
He  published  also  a  translation  of  the  Psalms,  12oio;  a 
refutation  of  I>om.  Claudius  de  Vert^s  treatise,  ff  On  the 
Chorch  Ceremonies,^'  12mo.  Several  books  of  devptioa ; 
^Ad  *^  The  Life  of  Iflsxy  Alacoque, -/  .wMch  laade  miiid^ 

1  Mafcri««*Dkt  QkUT^Poa^ev't  Anniul  Register  fw  1763* 


LANG  U  E  T.  * 

tioise,  add  b  by  no  means  worthy  of  this  celebrated  arch- 
•bishop,  on  account  of  its  romantic  and  fabulous  style,  the 
inaccurate  eitpressions,  indecencies,  dangerous  princtplesi 
and  scandalous  maxiois  which  it  contains.  Languet  is  es* 
teemed  by  the  catholics  as  among  the  divines  who  wrote 
best  against  the  Aoti-oonstitutionarians,  and  is  only  charge«t 
able  with  not  having  always  distinguished  between  dogmas 
and  opinions,  and  with  not  unfrequently  adva.ncing  as  ar* 
ticles  of  faith,  sentiments  which  are  opposed  by  orthodox 
and  very  learned  divines.^ 

LANIERE  (Nicholas],  an  artist  of  various  talents  in 
tbe  seventeenth  century,  was  born  in  Italy,  and  appears 
to  have  come  oyer  to  England  in  the  time  of  James  i.  He 
had  a  great  share  in  the  purchases  of  pictures  made  for 
the  royal  collection.  He  drew  for  Charles  I.  a  picture  of 
Mary,  Christ,  and  Joseph  ;  his  own  portrait  done  by  him* 
self  with  a  pallet  and  pencils  in  his  hand,  and  musical 
Dotes  on  a  scrip  of  paper,  is  in  the  music*sch<>ol  at  Oxford, 
He  also  employed  himself  in  etching,  but  his  fame  waa 
most  considerable  as  a  musician.  It  is  mentioned  in  the 
folio  edition  of  Ben  Jonsoh's  works,  printed  1640,  that  in 
1617,  his  whole  masque,  which  was  performed  at  the 
house  of  lord  Hay,  for  the  entertainment  of  the  French 
ambassador,  was  set  to  music  after  the  Italian  manner^ 
^sHlo  recUativa^  by  Nic.  Laniere,  who  was  not  only  ordered 
to  set  the  music,,  but  to  paint  tbe  scenes.  This  short 
piece  being' wholly  in  rhyme^  though  without  variation  in 
the  measure,  to  distinguish  airs  frpm  recitation,  as  ^  was 
all  in  musical  declamation,  may  be  safely  pronounced  the 
first  attempt  at  an  opera  in  the  Italian 'manner,  after  the 
invention  of  recitative.  In  the  same  year,  the  masque 
called  ^<  The  Vision  of  Delight,^'  was  presented  at  court 
during  Christmas  by  tbe  same  author ;  and  in  it,  says  Or. 
'  Burney,  we  have  all  the  characteristics  of  a  genuine  opera, 
or  musical  drama  of  modern  times  complete :  splendid 
scenes  and  machinery ;  poetry ;  musical  recitation ;  air ; 
chorus ;  jlvA  dancing.  Though  the  music  of  this  masque 
it  not  to  be  found,  yet  of  Laniere^s  *>  Musica  narmtiva*' 
we  have  several  examples,  printed  by  Playford  in  the  col* 
-lections  of  the  time ;  particularly  the  '^  Ayres  and  Dia- 
legUjes^"  1653,  and  the  second  part  of  the  *^  Musical 
(Companion/'  which  appeared  in  1667;  and  in  which  his. 


to  L  A  N  tE  RrEi 

nvusic  to  tbe  dialogues  b  lafiaitely  superiol-.id  the  t€it; 
tb^re  is  melody,  ueaaiirey  and  mewing  io  it.  His  reci^ 
tative'is  more  like  that  of  hk  countrymen  at  pfescDt,  (baa 
any  contemporary  £nglishn»afi^8.  However,  tbese  dia*- 
logiies  were  oomposed;  before  tbe  laws  and  phraseology  of 
recitative  were  sealed,  even  in  Italy.  His  cantata  of 
*^  Hero  and  Leander"  was  uriuch  celebrated  during  these 
tknes,  and  the  recitative  regarded  as  a  model  of  true  Italian 
■msical  declamation.  Laniere  died  at  tbe  age  of  seventy^- 
eight,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Martinis  ia  tbe  Fields,  Nov. 
4,  1646.* 

JLANINI  (Bernahpi^o),  an  bistarical  painter,  was  a 
Bfelive  of  Yerceili,  a  pupil  of  Gaudeneio  Ferrari,  and  imit 
tated  the  style  of  that  master  in  bis  first  works  to  a  degree 
of  iiiosion.  As  he  advanced  in  practice  he  cast  a  holder 
eye  on  nature,  and  by  equal  vigour  of  conception  and 
execution,  proved  to  the  ficst  artists  of  Milan,-  that,  like 
^  Ferrari,  iie  was  born  for  grand  subjects ;  such  is  tbat  of 
fi«  CJatarba,  near  S.  Celso  :  tbe  face  and  attitude  of  tbe 
keroine  anticipate  tbe  graces  of  Guido ;  the  colour  of  tbe 
v^ole  appreachea  the  tones  of  Titian,  tbe  glory  of  tbe 
angds  rivals  Gioidensio ;  a  Jess  neglected  style  of  drapery 
iroidd  have  left  Uttle  to  wish  for.  Ainong  his  copious 
wodct  ac  Milan^  and  in  its  districts,  tbe^  dome  of  Novara 
daims  distinguisfaed  notice.  There  be  {minted  those 
Sybils^  and  that  semUance  of  an  Etenial  Faitber,  so  much 
adnired  by  Lomazzo;  and  near  them  certain  subjects 
frcMiktbe  Ihb  of  Mary,  which  even  now,  in  a  ruined  state 
ofcoloar,  enchant  by  spirit  and  evidence  of  design.  His 
Tiersatiie'  talent  indniged  sometioies  in  imitafcioiia  of  Lie*- 
murdo  da  Vinci;  and  at  tbe-Basalica  of  St  Arabrogto,  the 
figure  of  Christ  between  two  Angels,  in  forn>,  expression^ 
and  effect,  folly  proves  with  what  felicity  he  penetrated 
the  principles  of  that  genius. 

He  bad  two  brothers  unknown  beyond  Vercelti.;  Gau<- 
BEKZio,  of  whom  some  sainted  subject  is  said  to  exist  in 
the  sacristy  of  the  Bamabites;  and  GiROL^UiiO  LANiNi,  of 
whom  Lanai  mentions  a  Christ  taken  from  the  Cross,  in 
aome  pnvate  oollection.  They  approach  Bersardino^  in 
tfaehr  stjie  of  faces,  and  tbe  former  ^ren  in  strength  of  co- 
lour ;  but  they  renain  far  behind  him  in  design.  This 
artist  died  abdut  157  &.*  ,J 

1  Walpole'8  ADecdotes.— *])r.  Siome^  la^Bees's  Cyclopaedia. 
*  PilkiDgton,  last  edit,  by  Fuselj.    •  '  *  "      ' 


L  A  N  S  B  E  R  G.  II 

LANSBERG  (Philip),  a  mathema^ian,  vm  born  in 
Zealand,  mi  1561,  and  was  a  pfeacber  at  Antwerp,  in 
1586,  and  afterwards  for  sereral  years;  Vossius  mentions 
that  he  was  minister  at  Goese  in  Zealand,  twenty-ntHa 
years ;  and  betng  then  discharged  of  his  functions,  on  ae«» 
count  of  his  old  age,  lie  retired  to  Middleburgb,  where 
he  died  in  1632.  His  works  were  principally  the  following: 
h  ^^Sia  Books  of  sacred  Chikxiology,'*  printed  in  1626. 
2.  **  Essays  on  the  Restitution  of  Astronomy,'^  printed  ai 
Middleburgh,  16^9.  3.  ^<  Four  Books  of  Geometrical 
Triangles,"  printed  in  1631.  4.  "  Of  Measuring  the 
Heavens/*  in  three  books,  in  the  same  year.  5.  ^^  Aa 
Acoount  of  the  diurnal  and  annual  Motion  of  the  Earth 
and  of  the  true  Sitnation  of  the  visible  celestial  Bodies.'' 
In  this  work  be  declares  himself  openly  for  Copernicus*s 
System,  and  even  pretends  to  improve  it  He  composed 
this  work  in  Dutch,  and  it  was  translated  into  Latin  by 
Martinus  Horteosius,  and  printed  at  Middleburgb,  16$^ 
Fromond,  a  doctor  of  Louvaio,  wrote  an  answer  to  it,  and 
endeavoured  to  prove  the  earth  stood  still ;  and  Us  soa 
publisbed  an  answer  not  only  to  Fromond,  but  to  Moriti^ 
regiiis  professor  at  Paris,  and  to  Peter  Bartholin  us,  wfaiclt 
is  entitled  **  A  Defence  of  the  Account,*'  &c.  This  ooca^ 
sioned  a  contraversy,  but  of  no  long  duration.* 

LANZI  (Lewis),  an  able  Italian  antiquary,  was  bon 
June  13,  1732,  at  Mohtte-del-Celmo^  near  Macerata,  and 
was  educated  in  the  schools  of  the  Jesuits,  wfaera  he  was 
distinguished  for  the  rapid  progren  he  made  in  theology^ 
philosophy,  rhetoric,  and  poetry.  After  being  admitted 
into  the  order  of  the  Jesuits,  he  taught  rhetoric  in  various 
academies  in  I^ly  with  great  success.  When  the  ^rder  of 
the  Jesuits  was  suppressed,  he  was  appointed  sub«director 
of  the  gallery  of  Florence,  by  Peter  Leopold,  grand  doka 
of  Tuscany;  and  that  noble  collection  was  considerably 
improved  and  enriched  by  his  care.  His  first  work  was  a 
*^  Guide*'  to  this  gallery,  which  he  printed  in  1782,  and 
whieh  IjiftAk  in  mai^r  and  style  is  far  superior  to  perform<«> 
9iaceB  of  that  kind*  In  1789  he  publisbed  his  **  Essay  on 
tiu  Tuscan  Language,**  3  vols.  8vo,  which  gave  him  a  re^ 
putation  over  all  Europe,  and  was  followed  by  h»  dabo-^ 
rate  '^  History  of  Painting  in  Italy ^*'  the  best  edition,  of 
irinck  is  that  printed  at  Bassano^  in  1809,  6  vols.  8vo. 


Oi«t,«^iii«ri.«»M«rtm'»  Biog.  ffiaiow#ks. 


ta  L  A  N  Z  I.    '    ! 

BKs  next  publication,  much  admired  by  foreign  antiquarife^ji 
was  his  '^  Dissertations  on  the  Vases  commonly  called 
Etroscan.^'  In  1 808  appeared  his  translation  of  ^'  Hesiod/* 
4to,  of  which  a  very  high  character  has  been  given.  He' 
died  March  3*1,  1810^  at  Florence,  a  period  so  recent  as 
to  prevent  our  discovering  any  more  particular  memoirs  of 
him  than  the  above.^ 

.  LANZONI  (Joseph),  a  physician,  was  born  at  Ferrara, 
October  26th,  1663,  and  after  a  careful  education  under  the 
bestmasters,  distinguished  himself  particularly  in  theschools 
of  philosopbyand  of  medicine,  and  graduated  in  both  these 
sciences  in.  1683.  In  the  following. year  he  was  appointed 
ordinary  professor,  and  displayed  talents  which  did  honour 
to  the  university  of  Ferrara,  during  the  long  period  in 
which  be  filled  that  office.     He- died  in  February,  1730. 

Lanzoni  acquired  a  high  reputation  by  the  success  of 
bis  practice,  and  obtained  the  confidence  and  esteem  of 
many  illustrious  personages.  His  attachment  to  study  in* 
creased  with  his  years ;  and  every  moment  in  which  he  was 
not  employed  in  the  duties  of  his  profession,  was  devoted 
to-  literature,  philosophy,  or  antiquarian  researcht  His 
character  as  a  physician  and  philosopher,  indeed,  ranked 
so  high,  that  if  any  question  upon  these  subjects  was  agi- 
tated in  Italy,  the  decision  was  commonly  referred  to  him. 
He  was  distinguished  likewise  by  his  genius  in  Latin  and 
Italian  poetry ;  and  he  was  the  restorer  and  secretary  of 
tb^  academy  of  Ferrara,  and  a  member  of  many  of  the 
learned  societies  of  his  time-  He  left  a  considerable 
number  of  works,  a  collection  of.  which  was  printed  at 
Lausanne,  in  1738,  in  3  vols-  ^to,  with  an  account  of 
his  life,  under  the  title  of  <^  Josephi  Lanzoni,  Philor 
sopbiaQ  et  Medicinse  Doctoris,  in  Patria  Universitate  Lec^* 
toris  primarii,  &c.  Opera  omnia  Medico-pbysica  et  Pbi-> 
lologica."* 

LAPIDE,  (Cornelius  a).    See  PIERRE. 

LARCHER  (P£T£R  Henry),  an  eminent  French  scholar 
and  translator,  was  born  at  Dijon,  Oct.  12,  1726,  of  an- 
cestors who  were  mostly  lawyers,  connected  with  some  of 
the  first  names  in  the  parliament  of  Burgundy,  and  related 
to  the  family  of  Bossuet.  His  father  was  a  counsellor  ia 
the  office  of  finance,  >vho  died  while  his  son  was  an  infant, 
leaving  him  to  the  care  of  his  mother.     It  was  her  intention 

}  Diet.  Hiifcf  Sopplcpient  ^  Moreri.«?-Reet'8  Cyclop«dia|  ffop  Eloy. 


larcher:  13 

to  brriig  him  up  with  a  view  to  the  magistracy,  but  yotin^ 
Larcher  wais  too  much  ^enamoured  of  poKte  literature  to 
accede  to  tins  plaa.     Having  therefore  finished  his  studies 
among  the  Jesuits  at  Pont-a«M6us8on,  he  'went  to  Paris 
and  entered  himselfof  the  college  of  Laon,  wb<ere  he  knew 
^e:shonId  be  at  liberty  to  pursue  his  own  method  of  study. 
]^e  wastheii  about  eightelen  yeai»  of  age.'  His  modier  albwed 
him  oiily  500  livres  a  year,  yet  with  that  scanty  allowance 
be  contrived  to  b^uy  books,  and  when  it  was  increased  to 
TOO,  he  fancied  himself  independent.     He  gave  an  early 
proof  of  his  love  and  care  for  valuable  books,  when  at  the 
ix>yal  college.     While  studying  Greek  under  John   Cap'? 
peronnier,  he  became,  quite  indignant  at  having,  every  day 
placed  in  his  hands,  at  the  risk  of  spoiling  it,  a  fine  copy^ 
of  Duker's  Thucydides,  on  large  paper.     He  had,  indeed, 
from  his  infanqy,  the  genuine  spirit  of  a  coUector^  which 
became  an  uuconquerable  passion  in  his  more  mature  years. 
A  few  months  before  his  death  he  ifefused  to  purchase  the 
new  editions  of  Photius  atid  Zoiiaras,  because  he  was  too 
old,  as  be  said,  to  make  use  of  tbegn,.  but  at  the  same  time 
he  could   not  resist  giving  an  enormous  price  for  what 
seemed  of  less  utility,  the  princepr.ediiio  of  Pliny  the  na- 
turalist,    it  is  probable  that  during  his  first  years  at  Paris/ 
he  had  made  a  considerable  collection  of.  bdoks,  for,  when 
at  that  time  he  intended,  unknown. to  his  family,  to  visijt 
England  for  the  purpose  of 'forming  an  acquaintance  with 
the  literati  there,  and  of  learning  Englishi  to  which  he  w^s 
remarkably  partial,  he  sold  bis  books  to  defray  the^xpence 
of  his  journey.     In  this  elopcTnentf -{qv  such  it  was,  he  was 
assisted  by  father  Patouiltet,  who  undertook  to  receive  and 
forward  bis  letters  to  his  mother,  which  he  was  to  date'firom 
Paris,  and  make  her  and  his  friends  believe  that  he  was 
still  at  the  college  of  Labn.  , 

It  does  not  appear  that  Larcher  published  any  thing  be^ 
fore  his  translation  of  the  ^^  Electra'*  of  Euripides,  which 
appeared  in  1750;  for  the  "  Calendrier  perpetuel"  of  1747^: 
although' attributed  to  him,  was  certainly  not  bis.  The 
'^  Electra,''  as  v/ell  as  many  other  of  his  publications,  ap* 
peared  without  his  name,  which,  indeed,  he.  appended 
only  to  his  "  Memoire  sur  Venu$,"  his  "  Xenbphon,'V 
f*  Herodotus,*'  knd  "  Diisertations  academiques.'^  The: 
V  Electra"  had  not  much  success,  and  was  never  reprinted,* 
iipless  by  a  bookseller,  who  blunderingly  inserted  it* among 
a.collectioii . of  a«rft>i^  plays.  v   .     * 


14  L  A  R  C  H  £  B. 

In  list  LtfchtriB  supposed  to  have  contributed  to  « 
lifeeratyjouraai  called  ^^Lettrea  d'une  Society ;"  and  after-* 
wards,  in  the  '^  Melange  litteraire,*'  he  published  a  transia* 
tioD  ot  Pope^s  essay  on  Pastoral  Poetry.  He  was  also  a 
.  eontributor  to  other  literary  journals,  but  his  biographer 
has  not  been  able  to  specify  his  articles  with  certainty^ 
unless  those  in  the  '^  Collection  Academique*'  for  1755, 
where  his  articles  are  marked  widi  an  A«  and  in  which  he 
trandated  the  Philosophical  Transactions  of  London.  He 
translated  also  the  *^  Martinus  Scriblerus**  from  Pope^s 
works,  and  Swift's  ironical  piece  on  the  abolition  of  Chris* 
tiani^.  Having  while  in  England  become  acqoainted  with 
Mr  John  Pringle,  he.  published  a  translation  of  his  work 
^  On  the  Diseases  of  the  Army,*'  of  which  an  enlarged 
edition  appeared  in  1771. 

In  1757  he  revised  the  text  of  Hudibras,  which  accom- 
panies the  French  translation,  and  wrote  some  notes  to  it. 
But  these  performances  did  not  divert  him  from  his  Greek 
studies,  and  his  translation  of  <*  Chereas  and  Calliroe,'* 
which  appeared  in  1758,  was  considered  in  France  as  Mi 
production  of  one  who  would  prove  an  honour  to  the  class 
of  Greek  scholars  in  France.  This  was  reprinted  in  the 
*^  Bibliotheque  des  Romans  Grecs,"  for  which  also  Larcber 
wrote  '^  Critical  Remarks  on  the  £thiopics  of  Heliodoms,*' 
but  for  some  reason  these  never  appeared  in  that  work* 
In  1767  the  quarrel  took  place  between  him  and  Voltaire. 
Larcber,  although  intimate  with  some  of  those  writers  who 
called  themselves  philosophers,  and  even  favourable  to 
some  of  their  theories,  was  shocked  at  the  impiety  of  Vol«' 
taire^s  extremes  -,  and  when  the  ^'  Philosophy  of  History'* 
appeared,  was  induced  by  some  ecclesiastics  to  undertake 
a  refutation,  which  was  published  under  the  title  of  **  Sup- 
plement a  la  Philosophie  de  PHistoire,''  a  work  which  Vol- 
taire himself  allowed  to  be  full  of  erudition.  He  could  not, 
however,  conceal  his  chagrin,  and  endeavoured  to  answer' 
Larcher  in  his  *^  Defense  de  mon  oncle,''  in  vriiich  he' 
treats  his  antagonist '  with  unpardonable  contempt  and 
abuse.  Larcher  rejoined  in  '^  Reponse  i  la  Defense  dCT 
mon  oncle."  Both  these  pampbleu  added  much  to  hitf 
reputation ;  and  although  Voltaire,  whose  resentmenti  were 
implacable,  continued  to  tr^t  Larcher  ifith  abuse  in  kii^ 
writings,  the  latter  made,  no  reply,  content  with  the  ap- 
plause of  the  really  leurned,  particularly  Brunck  and  Laf 
Harpe^  which  last^  although  at  that  time  the  wargiestof 


£.  A  R  C  H  E  B.  IS 

Voksdre's  adtmrers,  disapproved  of  bis  ttesCaient  of 'siich  a 
man  as  Lurcher  ;*and  in  tlii*  opiutoit  he  was  jomed  erca 
hj  D'Aleo^bert.  ^ 

Hift  reputation  is  a  translator  firom  the  Giisek  being  now 
acknowledged,  some  bookaellers  in  Parts* who  vmre  in  po»* 
session  of  a  manuscript  translation  of  Herodetns  left  by 
the  abb^  Belianger  wi<lK>ttt  revision,  applied  to  Laroher  na 
prepare  it  for  the  press;  and  be,  dnnkiog  be  bad  oobjr  to 
eorrect  it  few  dips  of  the  pea,  or  at  most  «d'  add  a  few 
notes,  readtiy  undertook  the  task,  but  before  he  |iad  pm<» 
eeeded  fisr,  the  many  imperfections,  and  the  style  of  Bel* 
laoger,  appeared  to  be  such,  that  be  coneetved  it  would 
be  easier  to  make  aa  entire  new  translation.     He  did  uot^ 
however,  consider  this  as  a  trifling  undertaking,  bufe  pre* 
pared  himself  by  profound  consideration  of  the  text  of  his 
author,  which  he  collated   with    the  MS  copies  in  the 
royal  library,  'and  read  with  equal  care  every  contempa^ 
fary  writer  from  whom  he  might  derive  information  to  il* 
lustrate  Herodotus.    While  engaged  in  these  studies.  Paw 
poblidied  his  <^  Recherohes  philosophiquessac  les  Egyptiens 
et  les  Cbinois^'^  and  Larcher  borrowed  a  iitde  time  to  pub* 
Itsh  an  acute  review  of  that  author^s  p^radoKes  in   the 
^'  Journal  des  Savana^'for  1774.    The  ye»r following,  while 
inteirupted  by  sickness  from  his  inquiries  into  Herodotus, 
he  published  his  very  learned  <<  Memoire  sur  Venus,'*  to 
which  the  academy  of  insortptions  awarded  their  prize. 
During  another  interruption  of  the  Herodotus,  incident  to 
itself,  be  wrote  and  published  his  translation  of  Xenophon^ 
which  added  much  to  the  reputation  he  had  already  ac* 
quired,  and-«|though  his  style  is  not  very  happily  adapted 
to  transfuse  the  spirit  of  Xenophon,  yet  it  produced  the 
fallowing  high  compliment  fpom  Wyttenbach  (Bibl.  Critica) 
'^  Larcberus  is  est  quern  non  dubitemus  omnium,  qui  nos* 
tra  sBtat^  veteres  soriptores  in  linguas  vertunt  recentiores, 
antiquitfttis  linguseque  GrteciB  scientissimum  vocare."   Lar* 
cber'&  critical  remarks  in  this  translation  are  very  \taluable, 
particulady  bis  observations  on  the  pronunciation  of  the 
Qreek«     The  rqiutation  of  his  ^  Memoire  sur  Venus,"  and 
his  '*:XenophOn,''  procured  him  to  be  elected  into  the 
Academy  of  inscriptions,  on  Misy  10^  1778.     To  the  me^ 
Inoirs  of  this  tfocfiety  he  contributed  many  essays  on  classic 
cal  antiqiiities,  wh^ch  are  inserted  in  vols.  43,  45,  46,  47^ 
and  48 ;  and  these  probably,  which  he  thought  a  duty  to 
the  ae$iMemy>  interrupted  hi&  labours  on  Herodotus,  nor 


M  L  A  R  C  H  E.Ri 

did  it  issue  frmn  the  press  until  17j86.    The  stjlef  of  tbi^ 
translation  is  liable  to  some  objections^  4)ut  in  other  re-« 
spects,  his  profound  and  learned  researches  into  points  of 
geography  tad  chcondogj^  and  the  general  merit  and  im*- 
portance  of  his  comments^  gratified  the  expectaticAis  of 
every  scholar  in  Europe.     It  was  Iraoslated  into  Latin  by 
Borhecky  into  German  by  Degan,/ and  his  notes  have  ap-« 
peared  in  all  the  principal  languages  of  Europe.    We  may 
here  conclude  this  part  of  our  subject  by  noticing  bis  new 
and  very  much  improved  edition:  of  *}  Herodotus,"  pub* 
lisbed  in  1802,  9  vols.  Svo.    The  particulars  wjaticb  dis« 
tinguish  this  edition  are,  a  correctipnof  those  passages^ 
in  which  he  was  not  satisfied  with  having  expressed  the 
exact  sense ;.  a  greater  degree  of  precision  and  more  coni-> 
pres^ton  ctf  style;  a  reformation  of  such  notes  as  wanted 
exactness;  with  the  addition  of  several  that  were  judged 
necessary  to  illustrate  various  points  of  antiquity,  and  ren- 
der: the  historian  better  understood.     We  have  already 
fainted  that  Larcher  was  at  one  time  not  unfriendly  to  the 
infidel  principles  of  some  of  the  French  'encyclopedists* 
It  is  with  the  greater  pleasure  that  we  can  now  add"  what 
he  say:s  on  this  subject  in  his  apology  for  further  alterations. . 
<'  At  length/'  he  says,  <<  being  intimately  convinced  of  all 
the  truths  taught  by  the  Christian  religion,  I  have  re-* 
treA'cbed.  or.  reformed  aU  the  notes  that  could  offend  it. 
From  some  of  them  conclusions  have  been  drawn  which  I 
disapprove,  and  which  were  far  from  my  thoughts ;  others 
of  them  contain  things,  which  I  must,  to  discharge  my 
conscience,  confess  friedy,  that  more  mature  examination 
and  deeper  researches  have  demonstrated  to  have  been 
built  on  slight  or  absolutely  false  foundations.     The  truth 
cannot  but  be  a  gainer  by  this  avowal :  to  it  alone  have  I 
consecrated  all  my  studies  :  I  have  been  anxious  to  return 
to  it  from  the  moment  I  was  persuaded  I  could  seize  it  with 
advantage.     May  this  homage,  which  I  render  it  in  all  the 
sincerity  of  my  heart,  be  the  means  of  procuring  me  abso- 
lution for  all  the  errors  I  have  hazarded  or  sought  to  pro- 
pagate."— In.  this  vast  accumulation  of  ancient  learning, 
the  jBnglish  reader  will  find  many  severe  strictures  on 
Bruce,  which. he. may  not  think  compatible  with  the  ge- 
neral opinion  now  entertained  both  in  France  and  England 
on  the  merits  of  that  traveller. 

During  the  revolutionary  storm  Larcher  lived  in  privacy, 
employed  on  his  studies^  and.  especially  bd  the  second 


edkktt  of  Us  <<  Herodoto^'*  Md  was  bdt  ihllt  disturbed. 
He  was  indeed  carried  before  the  reTolnlionary  cdminittee^ 
and  his  papers  very  much  perplexed  those  gentleflaen,  who 
knew  little  of  Gr^ek  or  Latin.  For  one  nigiit  a  sentinel 
waa  placed  at  his  door,  who  was  set.  asleep  by  a  bottle  of 
viae,  and  next  morning  Larch^r  gave  him  a  ssaall  assign 
natt  and  he  came  back  no  more.  When  the  republican 
government  became  a  little  more  quiet,  and  affected  to 
encourage  men  of  letters,  Larcher  received,  by  a  decree^ 
the  sum  of  ^000  litres.  He  wasafterwards^  ndtwithstand^ 
ing  his  opiniops  were  not  the  fashion  of  the  day,  elected 
into  the  Institute ;  and  when  it  was  divided  into  four  classes* 
and  by  that  change  he  became  again,  in  some  degree,  a 
member  of  the  Academy  of  inscriptions,  he  published:  four 
dtss^tations  of  the  critical  kind  ia  their,  memoirs.  TJie 
last  honour  paid  to  him  was  by  appointing  him  professor  of 
Greek  in  the  imperial  university,  as  it  was  then  called ;  but 
he  was  now  too  fsr  advanced  for  active  services,  and  died 
after  a  short  illness,  in  his  eighty^sixth  year,  Dec.  aS, 
1812,  regretted  as  one  pf  the  most  eminent  acholars  and 
amiable  men  of  his  time.  His  fine  library  was  sold  by 
auction  in  Nov.  1814.^ 

LAilDN£R  (Natbani£L),  a  very  learned  dissentbg  cler- 
gyman, was  bom  at  Hawkburst,  in  Kent,  June  6, 1684. 
He  was  educated  for  some  time  at  a 'dissenter's  academy 
in  I^ondon, .  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Oldfidd,  whence  he  went  to 
Utrecht,  and  studied  under  Gnetius  and  Burman,  and 
made  all  the  improvement  which  might  be  expected  under 
such  masters.  From  Utrecht  Mr.  Lardner  went  to  Leyden, 
whence,  after  a  short  stay,  he  came  to  England,  and  em« 
ployed  himself  in  diiigent  preparation  for  the  sacred  pro* 
fession.  He  did  tmt,  however,  preach  bis  first  sermon  till 
be  was  twenty^five. years  of  age.  In  1713  he  was  invited 
to  reside  in  the  house  ^  lady  Treby,  widow  c^  the  lord 
chief  justice  of  common  pleas,  as  domestic  ebaplain  to  the 
lady^  and  tutor  Xo  her  youngest  son.  •  He  accompanied  his 
pupil  to  France,  the  N^stheriaods,  and  United  Pro^ocea^ 
and  continued  in  the  family  till  the  death  of  lady  Treby. 
It  ceBecis :  no  honour  upon. the  dissenters  that  sneh  mwam 
shouM  be. so  long  n^lected;  but^  in  1728,  he  was  ea« 
gaged  with  other  mkusters  to  carry  on  m^m^oHi  qf  lectures 

at  the  Old.  Jewry*    The  gentlemen  who  cpodocted  these 

■      •         . .  ■  ,  ■«  •         •.  , 

iUte  ptt^xed  tp  the  caUlof  ue  of  bis  )ibnTj,pt9hMfhj  oM  of  tht  jpl  Burt'i. 
VQL.XX.  C 


i&  X  A  R  D  N  E  BL 

lectures  preak^bed  a  course  of  sermonst  oil  the.  evidences  o^ 
natural  and  revealed  religion.  The  proof  of  the  credibiHtjr 
of  the  gospel  history  was  assigned  to  Mr  Lardner,  attd  be- 
delilrered  three  sermons  on.  this  subject,  which  probably, 
laid  the  foundation  of  his  great  work,  as  from  this  period 
he  was  diligently  engaged  in  writing  the  first. part  of  the 
Credibility.  In  1727  he  published,  in  two  volumes  octavo^ 
Che  first  part  of  ^'  The  Credibility  of  the  Gospel  History ; 
or  the  facts  occasionally  mentioned  in  the  New  Testament, 
confirmed  by  passages  of  ancient  authors  who  were  con- 
temporary, with  our  Saviour,  or  his  apostles,  or  lived  near 
their  time.  It  is  unnecessary  to  say  how  well  these  vo<« 
lumes  were  received  by  the  learned  world,  without  any 
distinction  of  sect  or  party.  Notwithstanding,  however, 
his  great  merit,  Mr.  lAirdner  was  forty*  five  years  of  age 
before  he  obtained  a  settlement  among  the  dissenters )  biit^ 
in  1729,  be  was  invited  by  the  congregation  of  Crutched-' 
friurs  to  be  assistant  to  their,  minister.  At  this  period  thm- 
enthusiasmof  Mr.  Woolston  introduced  an  important  con«i 
troversy.  In  various  absurd  publications  he  treated  the 
miracles  of  our  Saviour  with  extreme  licentiousness.  The89 
Mr.  Lardner  confuted  with  the  happiest  success,  in  a  woite 
which  he  at  this  time  published,  and  which  was  entitled 
<^ A  Vindication  of  three  of  our  Saviour-s  Miracles*'^  About 
the  same  time  also  he  found  leisure  to  write  othef  occaaional 
pieces,  the  principal  of  whioh  was  his  ^^  Letter  on  the  Logos;'^ 
In  1 73^5  appeared  the  first  volume  of  the  second  :part  of  tho 
'^  Credibility  of  the  Gospel-histoiy,"'  which,  besides  being 
universally  well  received  at  bome^  was  so  much  approved 
abroad,  that  it  was  translated  by  two  learned  foreigners  f 
by  Mn  Cornelius  Westerbaeu  into. Law  Dutch,  and  by  Mr^ 
J.  Christopher  Wolff  into  Latin.  The  second  volume  of 
the  second  part  of  this  work  appeared  in  17S5 ;  and  the 
farther  Mn  Lardner  proceeded  in  his  design,  the  more  he 
advanced  in  esteem  and  reputation  among  learned  men  of 
all  denominations*  In  17S7  hie  published  his  '*  CouusoU 
of  Prudence''  for  the  use  of  young  people,,  on  account  of 
which  he  received  a  complimentary  letter  from  Dr.  Seeker^, 
liisbop  of  Oxford.  The  third  and  fourth  volumes  of  the 
second  part  of  the  ^<  Credibility,"  no  less  curious  than  the 
preceding^  were  publsshed  in  173d  and  1740.  T^e  fifth 
volume  in  l!7434  To  be  circumstantial  in  tbe>accottnto£ 
all  the  writings  which  this  eminent  man  produced  would 
greatly  exceed  our  limits.    Tbey  were  all  (considered  as  '6i 


L  A  R  D  NrE  R*  \9^ 

distinguished  usefulness  and  merit     We  may  in  par^cular 
notice  the  "  Supplement  to  the  Credibility,"  which  has^ 
a  place  in  the  collection  of  treatises  published  by  Dr.  Wnt- 
son,  bishop  of  Llandaff.     Notwithstanding  Dr.  Lardner's 
life  and  pen  were  so  long  and  so  usefully  devoted  to  the 
public,  he  never  received  any  adequate  recom pence.    The 
college  of  Aberdeen  conferred  on  him  the  degree  of  doc\ 
tor  of  divinity,  and  the  diploma  had  the  unanimous  signa- 
ture of  the  professors*     But  his  salary  as  a  preacher  ws^s 
inconsiderable,  and  his  works  often  published  to  his  loss^ 
instead  of  gain.    Dr.  LaHner  lived  to  a  very  advanced  age^ 
and,  with  the  exception  of  his  liearing,  retained  the  use  of. 
bis  faculties  to  the  last,  in  a  remarkably  perfect  degree^ 
In  1768  he  fell  into  a  gradual  decline,  which  carried  him. 
off  in  a  few  weeks,  at  Hawkburst,  his  native  place,  at  the, 
a^e  of  eighty-five.     He  had,  previously  to  his  last  illness,. 
'*parted  with  the  copy-right  of  his  great  work  for  the  mi-» 
terable  sum  of  160/.  but  he  hoped  if  the  booksellers  had 
the  whole  interest  of  his  labours,  they  would  then  do  their, 
utmost  to  promote  the  sale  of  a  work  that  could  not  fail  to 
be  useful  in  promoting  the  interests  of  his  fellow  creatures^ 
by  promulgating  the  great  truths  of  Christianity.     After 
the  death  of  Dr.  Lardner^  some  of  his  posthumous  pieces 
made  their  appearance;  of  these  the  first  consist  of  eight, 
sermons^  add  brief  memoirs  of  the  author.     In  1776  was 
published  a  short  letter  which  the  doctor  had  written  in 
1762,  ".Upon  the  Personality  of  the  Spirit.*'     It  was  |5art 
of  bis  design,  with  regard  to  "  The  Credibility  of  the  Gos« 
pel  History,"  to  give  an  account  of  the.  heretics  of  the  first 
two  centuries     In  1780  Mr.  Hogg,  of  E^xeter,  published 
another  of  Dr.  Lardner's  pieces,  upon  which  he  had  be- 
stowed much  labour,  though  it  was  not  left  in  a  perfect 
•late;  this  was  *^  The  History  of  the  Heretics  of  the  first 
two  centuries  after  Christ,  containing  an  account  of  their 
time,  opinions,  and  testimonies  to  the  books  of  the  New 
Testament;    to  which  are  prefixed  general  observations 
concerning  Heretics.'*     The  last  of  Dr.  Lardner's  pieces 
was  given  to  the  world  by  the  late  Rev.  Mr.  Wiche,  thea 
of  Maidstone,  in  Kent,  and  is  entitled  ^'  Two  schemes  of  a 
Trinity   considered,  and  the  Diviue  Unity  asserted ;"  it 
consists  of.  four  discourses ;  the  first  represents  the  com*, 
monly  received,  opinion  of  the  Trinity;  the  second  de* 
scribes  the  Arian  scheme ;  the  third  treats  of  the  Nazarene 
doctriT^ ;  and  the  fourth  explaiSs  the  text  according  to 

C   2  ■ 


80  L  A  R  D  N  E  R. 

• 

that  doctrine.  This  work  may  perhaps  be  regarded  as 
iiupplemei^tary  tb  a  piece  which  he  wrote  in  early  life,  and 
which  he  published  in  1759,  without  his  name,  entitled  '^A 
Letter  written  in  the  year  1730,  concerning  the  question. 
Whether  the  Logos  supplied  the  place  of  the  Human  Soul 
in  the  person  of  Jesus  Christ  f  *  in  this  piece  his  aim  was  to 
prove  that  Jesus  Christ  was,  in  the  proper  and  natural 
meaning  of  the  word,  a  man,  appointed,  anointed,  beloved^ 
honoured,  and  exalted  by  God,  above  all  other  beings. 
Dr.  Lardner,  it  is  generally  known,  had  adopted  the  So* 
cinian  tenets. 

For  the  many  testimonies  given  of  Dr.  Lardner^s  cha- 
racter, the  reader  must  be  referred  to  the  very  elaborate 
and  carious  life  written  by  Dr.  Kippis,  and  prefixed  to  a 
icomplete  edition  of  his  works,  published  in  1788,  in  eleven 
very  large  volumes,  by  the  late  J,  Johnson.  This  edition, 
on  which  uncommon  carie  was  bestowed,  has  of  late  become 
very  scarce  and  dear,  and  another  has  just  been  under* 
taken,  to'be  printed  in  a  4to  size.  ^ 

LARREY  (Isaac  de),  a  French  historian,  was  born  Sep- 
tember 7,  1638,  at  Montivilliers,  of  noble  parents,  who 
were  Protestants.  After  having  practised  as  an  attorney 
some  time  in  his  native  country,  be  went  to  Holland,  was 
appointed  historiographer  to  the  States  General,  and  set- 
tled afterwards  at  Berlin,  where  he  had  a  pension  from  the 
elector  of  Brandenburg.  He  died  March  17,1719,  aged 
eighty.  £[is  principal  works  are,  the  '^  History  of  Augus- 
tus," 1690,  12mo;  "The  History  oi  Eleanor,  queen  of 
France,  and  afterwards  of  England,'*  1691,  8vo;  *VA  His* 
tory  of  England,"  1697  to  1713,  4  vols.  fol.  the  most  va- 
lued  of  all  Larrey's  works  on  account  of  the  portraits,  bul 
its  reputation  has  sutik  in  other  respects  since  the  publica« 
tion  of  the  history  written  by  Rapin.  He  wrote  also  the 
history,  or  rather  romance  of  "  the  Seven  Sages,"  the  mos| 
complete  edition  of  which  is  that  of  the  Hague,  1721,  2 
vols.  8 vo ;  and  "  The  History  of  Frx^nc^,  under  Louis  XIV." 
5  vols.  4to,  and  9  vols.  l2mo,  a  work  not  in  much  estimar 
tion,  but  it  was  not  entirely  his.  The  third  volume  4co  wa,s 
the  production  of  la  Martiniere.  * 

LARROQUE  (Matthew  de),  in  Latin  Larroquanus^ 
whom  Bayle  styles  one  of  the  most  illustrious  ministers  tb(» 

I  Life  by  Kippis,  as  above. 

%  Kiceroo,  vol.  L  aud  X. — Bibl.  6erniiinique>  rpU  I.-*Morert«^*Iltfft.  Hiil^ 


L  A  R  R  OQ  U  £.  81 

reformed  ever  had  in  France,  was  bom  at  Letrac,  a  small 
city  of  Guienne,  near  Agen,  in  1619.    He.  was  hardly  past 
his  youth  when  he  lost  bis  father  and  Diotber,  who  werc^ 
persons  of  rank  and  character.     This  misfortune  was  soon 
followed  by  the  loss  of  his  whole  patrimony,  although  by 
What  means  is  not  known  ;  but  the  effect  was  to  animate 
him  more  strongly  to  his  studies,  and  to  add  to  polite  li- 
terature, which  he  had  already'  learned,  the  knowledge  of 
philosophy,  and  above  all,  that  of  divinity.     He  made  a 
considerable  progress  in  these  sciences,  and  was  admitted 
a  minister  with  great  applause.     Two  years  after  he  had 
been  admitted  in  his  office  he  was  obliged  to  go  to  Paris  to 
answer  the  cavils  of  those  who  intended  to  ruin  his  churo)^ 
in  which,  although  he  was  not  successful,   he  met  with 
such  circumstances  as    proved  favourable   to   him.     lie 
preached  sometimes  at  Charenton,  and  was  so  well  liked 
1>y  the  duchess  de  la  Tremouille,  that  she  appointed  him 
minister  of  the  church  of  Vitre,  in  Britany,  and  gave  him 
afterwards  a  great  many  proofs  of  her  esteenp;  nor  was  b^ 
less  respected  by  the  prince  and  princess  of  Tarente,  and 
the  duchess   of  Weimar.     He  served   that  church  aboojt 
twenty*seveh  years,  and  studied  the  ancient  fathers  with 
the  utmost  application.     He  gave  very  soon  public  proofr 
of  the  progress  he  had  made  in  that  study,  for  tb«  answer 
he  published  to  the  motives  which  an  opponent  had  aliedged 
for  his  conversion  to  popery,    abounded   with   passages 
quoted  from  the.  fathers,  and  the  works  which  be  published 
afterwards  raised  his  reputation  greatly.     There  was  an 
intimate  friendship  between  him  and  Messieurs  I>aill£,  fu^ 
ther  and  son,  which  was  kept  up  by  a  constant  literary  oor* 
respondence ;  and  the  joujrney  be  took  to  Paris  procured 
him  the  acquaintance  of  several  illustrious  men  of  letters. 
The  church  of  Charenton  wished  to  have  iuvited  him  in 
1669,  but  his  enemies  had  so  pr^ossessed  the  cotirt .against 
bim,  that  his  majesty  sent. a  prohibition  to  that  church  not 
to  think  of  calling  bim,  notwithstanding  the  deputy  general 
of  the  reformed  bad  offered  to  answer  for  Mona.  de  Lar« 
roquets  good  behaviour.     He  was  afterwards  chosen  to  fa|e 
both  miuister  and  professor  of  divinity  at  Saumur.     The 
former  be  accepted^  but  refused  the  professorship  of  d^« 
vinity,  as  it  might  interfere  with  the  study  of  church  his- 
tory, to  which  he  was  very  partial;     The  intendant  of  the 
province,  however,  forbad  him  to  go  to  Saumur;  and  aU 
though  the.  church  complained  of  this  unjust  prohibition, 


i 

I 


2r2  LA  R  R  O  QUE. 

And  petitioned  vfery  zealously  for  tbe  necessary  pertnission^ 
which  she  obtained,  Larroque  did  not  think  it  proper  to 
enter  upon  an  employment  against  the  will  of  the  intend- 
ant.  He  continued  therefore  still  at  Vitr^,  where  he  did 
.  not  suffer  his  pen  to  be  idle.  Three  pf  the  most  consi- 
derable churches  of  the  kingdom  chose  him  at  once,  the 
church  of  Montauban,  that  of  fiourdeaux,  and  that  of  Roan. 
He  accepted  the  invitation  of  Roan,  and  there  died,  Jan. 
31,  1684,  having  gained  the  reputation  not  only  of  a 
learned  man,  biit  also  pf  an  honqst  man^  and  a  faithful 
pastor. 

His  principal  works;  are,  a  "  Histpire  de  PEucharistie," 
Elzevir,  1669,  4to,  and  1671,  8vo;  An  answer  to  M.  Bos- 
•uet's  treatise  "De  la  Conimunion  sous  les  deux  espec^esj" 
**  An  Answer  to  the  motives  of  the  minister  Martinis  Con- 
version •/'  ^  An  Answer  to  the  office  of  the  Holy  Sacra- 
ment of  Port  Royal  ;*'  two  Latin  dissertations,  "  Ue  Pho- 
tino  et  Liberio  ;'*  "  Considerations  servant  de  reponse  k  ce 
que  M.  David  a  ecrit  contre  la  dissertation  de  Photin,"  4to ; 
**  Observations,"  in  Latin,  in  support  of  Daill^^s  opinion, 
that  the  epistles  of  St.  Ignatius  are  spurious,  against  Pear- 
son and  Bev^ridore ;  "  Conformity  des  Esflises  reforra^es  de 
France  avec  les  anciens;"  **  (Donsiderations  sur  la  nature 
de  PEglise,  etsur  quelques-tines  de  ses  propri^t^,^'  12mo; 
a  treatise  in  French  on  the  Regal  and  Sacred  Observations, 
in  Latin,  witli  "  A  Dissertation  on  the  Thundering  Legion." 
These  two  last  works  were  published  by  his  son.* 

LARROQUE  (Daniel  de),  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
borri  at  Vitr^.  He  retired  1681,  to  London,  on  the  revo- 
cation of  the  edict  of  Nautes,  and  afterwards  to  Ct)pen- 
hagen,  where  his  father's  friends  promised  him  a  settlfe- 
ment,  but  finding  them  unsuccessful,  he  went  into  Holland, 
where  he  reniained  till  1690,  and  th^n  going  into  France, 
^abjured  the  protestant  religion,  and  turned  Roman  catholic. 
Hie  usually  resided  at  Paris,  but  having  written  the  preface 
-to  a  satirical  piece,  in  which  great  liberties  were  taken  with 
Louis  XIV.  on  account  of  the  famine  in  1693,  be  was  ar- 
rested and  sent  to  the  Ch&telet,  and  then  removed  t6  tt^e 
castle  of  Saumur,  where  he  reniained  five  years;  At  the 
end  of  thatjtime,  however,  be  regained  his  Kberry  by  the 
abbess  of  Fontevraud's  solicitations,  and  got  a  place  in  M. 
de  Torcy's  office,  minister  and  secretary  of  state.     When 


L  A  Jl  R  O  Q  U  E.    .  «S 

the  regency  CDauaeDcedy  Larroque  was  appointed  tecre* 
tary  to  the  interior  council,  and  on  the  suppression  of  that 
council,  bad  a  pension  of  4000  livres  till  bis  death,  Sep* 
tember  5,  1731,  when  b^  was  about  seventy.  He  leftie^ 
veral  worlLs^  but  inuob  inferior  to  bis  fatber^s  :  tbe  princi* 

£al  are,  '^  La  Vie  de  rimppsteur  Mahomet,*'  12ino,  trans- 
ited froQ^  tbe  English  of  Dr.  Prideaox ;  **  Les  v6ritables 
Motifs  de  la  Conversion  de  M»  (le  Boutbiiier  de  ^Ranci) 
TAbbiS  de  1^  Trappe,'*.  wi^b  some  reflections  on  bis  life  and 
writings,  1^85,.  l^mo,  a  satirical  work.     *^  Nouvelles  Ac^ 
cusatioiis  centre  Varillas,  ou  R6marques  critiques  centre 
une  Partie  de  son  Histoire  de  TH^resie,**  8vo;  <*LaVie 
de  Francois  £udes  de  Mezerai,''  12fno,  a  satirical  romance  s 
a  traoslatiqu  of  Ecbard's  Rqn^an  History,  revised  and  pub« 
lisbed  by  the  abbe  Desfc^n^aines.    Larroque  also  assisted, 
during  some  n^onths^  in  tbe  ^^  Nouvelles  de  la  Republique 
des  Lettre^,''  while  Bi^yle  was  ill.    The  *^  Advice  to  the  " 
Refugees''  is  a^Uo  attributed  to  him,  which  was  believed  to 
,  bs^ve  been  written  by  Bayle,  besause  tbe  latter  would  never 
betray  Larroque,  who,  it  is  supposed,  was  the  real  author 
.  of  it,  chusing  rather  to  suffer  the  persecution  which  this 
:  publication  raised  against  him,  than  prove  false  to  bis  friend,* 
.  who  hs^d  enjoined  him  secrecy. ' 
LASCA.     SeeGRAZZINL 

I^ASCARIS  (CpNSTANTiNE),  a  learned  Greek,  descend- 
.  ed  from  tbe  imperial  family  of  that  name,  was  born  at  Con- 
stantinople, but  became  a  refugee  when  it  was  taken  by 
;  tbe  Turks  in  14jf4,  and  went  to  Italy,  where  he  was  most 
.  amics^ly  received,  by  duke  Francis  Sfora^a  of  AJilan,  jivbo 
.  placed  bis  own  daiighter,  a  child  of  ten  years  of  age,  under 
,  the  care  of  Laacaris  for  instrqctiop  in  Uie  Greek  language, 
and  it  is  said  to  have  been  for  her  iise  be  composed  bis 
Greek  grammar*     From  Mils^n  be  went  to  Rome,  about 
1463,  or  perhaps  later,  add  fropi  thence,  9^t  the  invitation 
.of  king  Ferdinan.d,  to  Naples,  where  he  openied  a  public 
school  for  Greek  find  rhetoric.     leaving  spent  some  years 
in.  this  employment,  be  was  desirous  of  repose,  and  em- 
.  barked  with  tbe  intentioi)  of  settling  at  a  town  of  Greece ; 
bi|t  having  touched  at  Measina,  be  was  urged  by  such  ad- 
vantageous offers  to  make  it  his  residence,  that  he  com- 
plied, and  passed  there  tbe  remainder  of  bis  days*     Here 
)ie  received  the  honour  of  citizenship,  which  be  merited 


1  lloreri.^Dict.  Hist.  d<  L'Advoc^t, 


1>y  His  virttic^  as  wdl  fis  htis  teaming,  and  by  llie  tnHuie  t)f 
scholars  which  his  reputation  drew  thither.  He  lived. tcy  a 
*  veiT'advanced  age,  and  fs  supposed  to  have  died  about  the 
'  efind  of  the  fifteenth  century.  He  bequeathed  his  library 
to'the  city  of  Messina.  His  Greek  graminar  was  printed 
^^  Milan  in  f416\  reprinted  in  1480,  and  was,  aecorditig 
to  Zen6^  ^*  prima  Grs^oo-Latina  prseiorum  foetura,"  the  first 
Greek  and  Latin  book  that  issued  from  the  Italian  press. 
A'  better  edition  of  it  was  given  in  1495,  by  Aldus,  from  a 
copy  corrected  by  the  author,  and  with  which  the  printer 
wa&  furnished  by  Ben^bo  and  Gabrielli.  This  was  the  firttt 
essay  of  the  Aldine  press.  Bembo  and  Gabrielli  had  been 
the  scholars  of  Lasoaris,  although  in  his  old  age,  as  they  did 
not  set  out  for  Messina  until  1493.  A  copy  of  this  Greek 
.  grammar  of  the  first  edition  is  now  of  immense  value* 
Erasmus  considered  it  as  the  best  Greek  grammar  then 
extant,  excepting  that- of  Theodore  Gaza.  Lascaris  was 
author  likewise  of  two  tracts  on  the  Sicilian  and  Calabrian 
Greek  writers,  and  some  other  pieces,  which  remain  in 
manuscript.^ 

LASCARIS  (JoHK,  or  John  Andrew),  called  Rhyndti- 
cenus,  as  Constantine.  was  called  Byzantinus,  was  a  learnt' 
Greek  of  the  same  family  with  the  preceding,-  who  came 
either  from  Greece  or  Sicily  to  Italy,  en  the  ruin  of  his 
country.  He  was  indebted  to  cardinal  6essarion  for  his 
^ucation  at  Padua,  where  he  obtained  a  high  reputatidn 
for  his  knowledge  in  the  learned  langnages,  and  received 
the  patronage  of  Lorenzo  de  Medici,  who  sent  him  into 
Greece  with  recommendatory  letters  to  the  sultan  BajaMt, 
in  order  tp  collectandent  manuscripts t  fomhis  purpose  he 
took  two  journeys,  in  the  latter  of  which  he  appears  to 
have  been  vety  successful.  After  the  expulsion  of  the 
Medici  family  from  Florence,  in  1494,  he  was  carried  to 
'France  by  Charles  Vltl.  after  which  he  was  patronized  by 
Louis  XI L  Wibb  sent  him,  in  1503,  as  his  ambassador  to 
Venice,  in  which  office  he  remaiined  till  150B.  He  joined 
the  pursuit  of  literature  with  hii  public  employment,  and 
held  a  Correspondence  with  many  learned  men.  After  the 
ierminati6n  bf  bis  etilbassy,  he  remained  some  years  at 
Venice,  as  an  instructoir  in  the  Greek  language.  On  the 
election  of  pope  Leo  X.  to  the  popedom  in  1513,  he  set 

1  Hodius  de    Oraecis  iilastribat.->Saxii  ODpoiMticoo.— Bibliotbeea  Spea- 
Sfsrianfty  vol.  II!.«-BrttDei'ft  MAnael  du  Libraire. 


L  A  8  C  A  RI  S.  S5 

Mt  J*  B«iM^  wher^fat  hb  ittiligiltoot  Loo  fbonded  m 
coUegft  for  noble  Gredmn  youifaii  at  Roifte,  at  tlie  bead  of 
irfaicb  fa^  placed  the  ambor.  of,  ibe  pl^af  aodlikedrife 
leade  bim  so|ieriDteDdaot  M  the  Greek  preta;  faitdbjlities 
aa  a  tenrector  and  ectttoi!^  kad  beeo  idr^^dy  sofiicientiy 
fiiin^ed  bv  bis  magnificeiit  editiao  of  ibe  Greek  *'  Abtbo* 
h^gie,"  pnoted  in  capital  letters  at  Florence  in  1414^  aiid 
b^  dmt  of  **  Calltmacbus/'  printed  in  the  same  forai.  Mail* 
tasre  thinks  be  was  also  editor  of  foiir  of  the  tragedies  of 
^SEaripides/'  of  the  *^  Gnonw  Moilasticboi,*'  and  the 
^^Argonaotios**  of  Apdlonius  Rbodius.  He  now  printed 
the  G#eiek  <<  Scholia''  on  Homer,  in  1517;  and. in  1518 
tto.^'.Soholia"  ot>  Sophocles.  Having  in  this  last-raen- 
tioned  year -qaitted  Home  for  Fiance,  whither  hb  was  in- 
v^bsd  i^  Francis  I.  be  was  employed  by  that  monarch 
ia  forming  the  royal  library.  He  was  also  sent  as  bis 
aad»ftasador  to. Venice,,  with  a  view  of  procuring  Greek 
yoaths  for  the  purpose  of  founding  a  college  at  Paris  simi- 
lar to  that  of  Rome.  After  the  accbmpiisbment  -of  dtber 
jimpoitaot . missions,  be  died  at  Rome  in  1535,  at  anad« 
vattoed:  age.  He  translated  into  the  Latin  language,  a 
wndi^  extracted  from  Polybius,  on  the  military  constitutions 
of  >jtbe  Romans;  and  composed  epigrams  in  Greek  and 
Latin  ;  this-  rare  volame  is  entitled  '*  Lascaris  Rhydacehi 
ep^jraaofflsata,  Gr.  Lat  edente  Jac.  Tossano,"'  printed  at 
Paris,  1527,.  8vo.  There  is  anotber  Paris  edition  of  1544, 
4tou:  :JMr.  Dibdin  has  given  an  aimple  and  interesting  ac- 
eoont  of  bis.^Antbologia*' from  lord  Spencer's  splendid 
veUom  copy*^ 

LASENA,  or  LASCENA  (P£T£R),  a  learned  ItaHan, 
was.boni  at '.Naples,  Sept.  25,  1590.  In  compliance  with 
bis.fatb^r^  be  first  cQltivateU  and  practised  the  law ;  but 
afterwards  followed 'the  bent  of  liis  inclination  to  polite 
literature;  applying  himself  diiigeiitly  to  acquire  the 
Greek  language,  in  which  his  education  bad  been  defec- 
txve.  He  also. learnt  French  and  Spanish.  From  Naples 
be  removed  .to  Rome ;  whene  be>  was  no  sooner  settled, 
tbali'he  obtained  the  protection  of  cardinal  Francis  JBar* . 
berini,  besides >other  prelates ;  he  also  procnred  the  friend- 
shift  of  Lucas  Hblstenius,  Leo  Allatids,  and  other  persons 
of  rank  in .  the  republic  of  letters.     He  made  use  of  the 

^  Hodius  de  Graci«  illustribus.-*-Oresswell's  Poliiiao.^-Rotcoe's  Leo. — BibU 
Spenceriaoa,  toI.  II.  , 


9^  :   i.  A  S^.N  A.. 

rrepose  he  enjoyed  ill  this  sitaation  .to  put  the  Iifist  faandtd 
. some  works  whicbibe  bad  began  at  Naples;  but  bis  conti-» 
MMisfti  intense  application, 'And  (iao~great  abstinence  (for  he 
;  made' but  one^oieal  in  t^entyt^four  bour^),  threw  him  ioto 
a  fever,  of^which : be  died;  Sept  ^0^  1636:     At  bis  dea^fa^ 
•  he^iefc  to  cardinsil  Barberinii  two  Latin  discourses,  which 
lie  bad4pfronoanced  before  the  Greek  academy  of  tb^  monks 
-of  £t..Ba8il,"^''De  Lingua  Heilenistica,''  in  which  he  dis- 
itfuss^d,  with  great  learning,  a  point  upon  that  isubject^ 
'  which  then  divided  tbe  literary  world.    He  atiso  left  to  car- 
dinal Bracucaccio  his  book  entitled  *'  Dell"  antioo  Giniiasio 

<  Napolitanc^"  which  was  afterwards  published  in  16S8,'4to. 

-  It  contains  a  description  of  the  sports,  shows,  spectacles, 
'  and  combats,  which  were  formerly  exhibited  to  the  pec^le 
.  of. Naples:    .He  was  tbe  author  likewise  of  ^f  Nepenth<i^ 

<  Homeric  seu  deabolendo  luctu,?'  Lugd.  1624,  8vo;  and 
;  *^  Cleombrotus^  sive  de  iis  aui  in  aquis  pereont,"  Roma^ 

-  163^7,  8vo.» 

LASCOv.    SeeALASCO. 

LASSALA  (Manuel),  a  Spanish  Ex-jeaoit,  was  born 

jatValentiain  1729/ and  died  in  1 7 98v at  Bologna,  to  which 
be  had  retired  on  the  expulsion  of  his  order.  Our  autho* 
rity  gives  little  of  his  personal  history.  .  He  owed  his  cele- 
brity to  bis  knowledge  of  the  ancient  languages,:  and  of 
.  poetry  and  history,  which  be  taught >  in.  tbe  univ^ersity  of 
Valentia.  His  works  are  in  Spanish,  Italian,  and  Latin  ; 
in  the  Spanish. be  wrote,  1.  ^*  An  essay  on  general  History, 

1  ancient  and  modem,**  Valentia,  1755,  SLvols.  4to^  ftaid  to 
be  the  best  abridgment  of  the  kind  which  'the  Spaniards 

,  have';  at  the  end  he  gives  the  lives  of  the  Spanish  poets , 
2*  ^^  Account  of  the  Castillian  poets,*',  ibid.  175.7,  4ta  He 
wrote  also  tragedies;  1.  ^^  Joseph,**  acted  and  printed  at 
Valentia  :in  1762.     2.  *^  Don  Sancho  Abarva,**  ibid.  1765, 

'  in  Italian,  and  such  pure  and  elegant  Italian  as;  to  astonish 
the  critics  of  Jcaly.    He  wrote  three  tragedies;  1.  >^  Ipbi* 

,  genia  in  Aulis.**     2.  >'  Ormisinda.**     3.  ^^  Lucia  Miranda.^* 

.  In  Latin,  he  exhibited  his  talents  for  poetvy,  and  is  bighlj 
eommendeii  for  the  classical  purity  of  style  of  his  .^<  Rhe- 

•  nus,**  Bologna,  1781 ;  the  subject,  tbe  inundations  of  the 
Rhine :  and  his  "  De  serificio  clvium  Bologniensium  libel- 
lus  singularis,**  ib.  1782,  composed  in.honour  of  afdte  giveii 
by  tbe  merchants  of  Italy.     He  also  made  a  good  tran^U*? 

« 

1  Niceron^  vol.  XV.— ^Sai^  Ooooiatiieou. 


' 


L  A  8  S  d  N  E.  -   2f 

tlon  fcom  the  Arri)ic  into  Hebrew  of  *^  Loknaan^s  FaMes,^ 
Bologna,  1781,  4to.' 

LASSONE  (Joseph  Maria  Francis  de),  an  emmenfc 
French  physician,  was  born  at  Carpentras,  oh  the  Sd-of 
July,  1717.  He  was  removed  for  education  to  Paris,  but 
in  bis  early  years  be  waa  less  remarkable  for  his  perseTe- 
rtfitce  in  study,  tliah  for  a  propensity  which  be  shewed  for 
the  gmy  pleasures  of  youth ;  yet  even  then  he  raised  the 
hopes  of  his  friends  by  some  ii>genious  performances,  which 
merited  acadeihic  honours.  At  length  he  applied  iimh  se- 
Yiousness  to  study,  and  devoted  himself  wholly  to  the  puif* 
suits  of  anatomy,  in  which  he  made  such  rapid  progress, 
that,  at  thie  age  of  twenty* five,  he  was  received  into  the 
academyof  sciences  as  asaociate^anatomtst:     An  extraor- 

'  dinary  event,  however,  p%it  a  period  to  his  anatomical  pur- 
suits,    lo  selecting  among  some  dead  bodies  a  proper  sub- 

/  jeetfor  dissection,  he  fancied  he  perceived  in  one  of  them 
some  very  doubtful  signs  of  death,  and  endeavoured  to 
re-animate  it}  his  efforts  were  for  a  long  time  vain  ;  but 
bis  %st  persoa^on  induced  him  to  persist,  and  be  ultirtiately 

:  cucceeded  in  brtogitig  his  patient  to  Kfe,  wlio  proved  t6  be 
a  poor  peasant.  This  (Mr^umstance  impressed  so  deep  a 
sense  of  horror  on  the  mind  of  the  anatontist,  -  that  be  de- 
ciified  ttiese  pursnits'iit  future.  "Natural  history  succeeded 
the  study  of  anatomy,  and  mineralogy  becoming  a  favourite 
object  of  his  pursuit,  he  pnblisbed  bia  observatiotis  on  the 

.  crystallized  free-stones  of  Foiuakibleau  ;  but  -  chemistry 
finally  became  the  beloved  occnpation  of  M.  de  Laasone. 
•His  oamerous  memoirs,  which  were  read  bejfbre  the  royal 
^academy  of  sciences,  presented  a  valuable  train  of  new 
observations,  useful  both  to  the  progress  of  that  study, 'and 
to  the 'art  of  compounding  remedies ;  and  in  every  part  of 

■  these  he  evinced  the  sagacity  of  an  attentive  observer^  and 
of  an  ingenious  experimentalists'  After  having  practised 
medicine  for  a  long  time  in  the  hospitals  and  cloisters,  he 
was  setit  for  to  court ;  and  held  the  office  of  first  physician 
at  Versailles.  •  He  lived  in  friendship- with  Fontenelle, 
Wihslow,  D'Alembert,  BufTon,  and  other  scientific .  cha- 
racters; an^d  the  affability  of  his  manners,  and  his  ardent 
zeal  for  the  advancement  of  knowledge,  among  the  young 
•scholars,  whose  industry  he  encouraged,  and  whose  fepu* 
|ation'waa  become  one  of  his  most  satiafactoiy  enjoymeotSji 

•      »  fiiot^  IinftrSuppleiiMtitv' 


,  I 


U  L  A  S  S  O  N  E. 

gained  him  general  respect.  When  from  a  natural  ielu 
cacy  of  constitution,  M*  de  Lassone  began  to  experience 
the  inconireniencea  of  a  preoiature  old  age,  he  became 
forrowful  and  fond  of  solitude  ;  yet,  reconciled  to  his  situa^ 
tioD,  he  calmly  observed  his  death  approaching,  and  ex^ 

Eired  on  Dec»  8,  1788.  Lassone,  at  the  time  of  his  deaths 
eld  the  appointment  of  first  physician  to  Louis  XVI.  and 
bis  queen ;  be  was  counsellor  of  state,  doctor*regent  of 
the  faculty  of  medicine  at  Paris,  and  pensionary «-veteraii 
of  the  9.cademy  of  sciences,  menober  of  the  academy  of 
medicine  at  Madridf  and  honorary  associate  of  the  coilegf 
of  medicine  at  Nancy  .^ 

LASSUS  (Ob]lanou8),  or,  as  he  is  called  by  the  Jta<^ 
Jians,  Orlando  di  Lasso^  an  eminent  musician,  was  a  na^ 
live  of  Moos,  in  Haioault,  bora  in  1520,  and  not  only 
apent  many  years  of  bis  life  in  Italy,  but  had  his  musical 
^idu^ation  there,  having  been  carried  thither  surreptitiously, 
when  a  child,  on  account  of  bis  fine  voice.  The  historian 
Thuanus,  who  has  given  Orlando  a  place  among  the  illus*- 
trious  men  of  bis  time,  tells  us  that  it  was  a  common  prac>- 
iice  for  young  tingen  to  be  forced  away  from  their  parent^ 
and  detained  in  the  service  of  princes ;  and  that.  Orlando 
.was  carried  to  Milan,  Naples^  and  Sicily,  by  Ferdinand 
Oonaaffo.  Afterwards,  when  h^  was  grown  up,  and  had 
probably  lost  his  voice*  he  went  to  Rome,  where  be  taught 
music  during  two  years;  at  the  expiration  of  which,  be 
travelled  through  different  parts  of  Italy  and  France  witb 
Julius  Cttsar  Brimcatius,  and  at  length,  returning  to  Flan^ 
d^rs,  resided  many  years  at  Antwerp,  til}^  being  inyite(|, 
by  tbe  duke  of  Bavaria,  to  Munich,  he  settled  at. that  court, 
and.  married*  He  had  afterwards  an  invitation,  acqon^f- 
pariiefl  with .  the  promise  of  great  emoluments,  frooi 
Charles  IX.  Mng  of  France,  to  take  upon  him  the  oflSce 
of  master  and  director  of  bis  bi^nd ;  an  honour  which  be 
ficc/epted,  but  was  stopped  on  the  road  to  Paris  by  tb^ 
.newa  of  that  n^onarcb's  death.  After  this  event  he  returned 
tQ  Municbf  whither  be  was  recalled  by  William*,  jthe  son 
.J9i,ndi  succe^or  of  bis  ptitrpn  Albert,  to  the  same  oflSce  wbicii 
^e  bad  be)d  uader  bijB  father.  Orlando  con^niied  at  tb^ 
i(H>wrt  till  his  death,  in  1593,  at  upwards  of  seventy  years 
of  age.  His  reputation  was  so  great,  that  it  was  said  of 
him ;  ^^  Hie  ille  Orlandus  Lassus,  qui  recreat  orbem.*' 

I  Hnteli!Mmi!9  Me^csl  Biogfmpli7.-*-Itees't  Cydop^dia. 


L  A  S  S  U  S.  t9 

As  he  lited  to  a  considerable  age,  and  never  seems  to 
have  checked  the  fertility  of  bis  genias  by  indolence,  his 
compositions  exceed,  in  number,  even  those  of  Palestrina. 
There  is  a  complete  catalogue  of  them  in  Draadius^ 
amounting  to  upwards  of  fifty  different  works,  consisting 
of  masses,  magrnificats,  piassiones,  motets,  and  psalms : 
mtli  Latin,  Italian,  German,  and  French  songs,  printed  in 
Italy,  Germany,  France,  and  the  Netherlands.  He  ez- 
icelled  in  modulation,  of  which  he  gave  many  new  speci- 
mens, and  was  a  great  master  of  harmony.* 

LATCH  (John),  an  English  lawyer,  was  a  native  of 
Somersetshire,  and  educated  at  Oxford,  in  St*  John^s  coI« 
lege,  as  Wood  was  informed,  where,  he  adds,  he  made 
considerable  proficiency  in<  literature.  Afterwards  he  re- 
lAoved'to  the  Middle  Temple,  but  being  of  a  delicate 
habit,  does  not  appear  to  have  practised  as  a  barrister, 
^ome  years  before  bis  death,  he  had  embraced  the  Roman 
catholie  religion^  influenced  by  the  artifices  of  a  priest  or 
ilesait  who  prevailed  on  him  to  leave  bis  estate  to  the  so- 
ciety of  Jesuits.  He  died  at  Hayes  in  Middlesex,  in  Au- 
gust i655.  He  was  the  reporter  of  certain  **  Cases  in  the 
first  three- years  of  K.  Car.  L'*  which  were  published  in 
French,  by  Edivard  Walpole,  1662,  folio.* 

LATIMER  (Hugh),  bishop  of  Worcester,  one  of  the 
6rst  reformers  of  the  church  of  England,  was  descended 
of  honest  parents  at  Tburcaston  in  Leicestershire ;  where 
his  father,  though  he  had  no  land  of  his  own,  rented  a 
small  farm,  and  by  frugality  aud  industry,  brought  up  a 
family  pf  sis:  daughters  besides  this  son.  In  one  of  his 
court  sermons,  in  Edward's  time,  Latimer,  inveighing 
against  the  nobility  and  gentry,  and  speaking  of  the  mo- 
deration of  landlords  a  few  years  before,  and  the  plenty  in 
which  their  tenants  lived,  tells  his  audience,  in  his  familiar 
way,  that,  ^*  upon  a  farm  of  four  pounds  a  year,  at  the 
utmost,  his  father  tilled  as  much  groutid  as  kept  half  a 
dozen  men;  that  he  had  it  stocked  with  a  hundred  sheep 
and  thirty  cows  ;  that  he  found  the  king  a  man  and  horse, 
himself  remembering  to  have  buckled  on  his  father's  har- 
ness when  he  went  to  Blackheath ;  that  he  gave  his 
daughters  five  pounds  apiece  at  marriage;  that  he  lived 
hospitably  among  his  neighbours,  and  was  not  backward  in 

'     y  Bantey'i  Hitt.  of  Music*  sod  in'Re<«i*t  Cvclopadia. 
s  atb.  Ox,  vol.  ll.-*BridfBiAn*s  JLe;gal  hkuUogt  tipby. 


30  LATIMER. 

his  alms  to  the  poor.*'  He  was  born  in  tbe  farm-house 
about  1470;  and,  being  put  to  a  grammar-school)  he  took; 
learning  so  well,  that  it  was  determined  to  breed  him  to« 
the  church.  With  this  view,  be  was  sent  to  Cambridge^ 
Fuller  and  others  say  to  Christ's  college^  which  must  be  a 
tradition,  as  the  records  of  that  college  do  not  reach  his 
time.  At  the  usual  time,  be  took  the  degrees  in  arts^ 
and,  entering  into  priest's  orders,  behaved  with  remarka- 
able  zeal  and  warmth  in  defence  of  popery,  the  established, 
religion.  He  read  the  schoolmen  and  the  Scriptures  with 
equal  reverence,  and  held  Thomas  a  Becket  and  the  apos- 
tles in  ^qual  honour.  He  was  consequently,  a  zealous  op^- 
ponent  of  the  opinions  which  had  lately  discovered  them** 
selves  in  England;  heard  the  teachers  of  them  with  high 
indignation,  and  inveighed  publicly  and  privately  against 
the  reformers.  If  any  read  lectures  in  tbe  schools,  Latimer 
tvas  sure  to  be  there  to  drive  out  the  scholars,  and  could 
not  endure  Stafford,  the  divinity-lecturer,  who,  howeveri 
is  said  to  have  been  partly  an  instrument  of  his  conversion. 
When  Latimer  commenced  bachelor  of  divinity^  he  gave 
an  open  testimony  of  his  dislike  to  their  proceedings  in  an 
oration  against  Melancthon,  whom  he  treated  most  severely 
for  bis  impious,  as  he  called  them,  innovations  in  religion.' 
HiszeaLwas  so  much  taken  notice  of  in  the  university, 
that  he  was  elected  cross-bearer  in  ail  public  processions;- 
an  employment  which  he  accepted  with  reverence,  and; 
discharged  with  solemnity. 

Among  those  in  Cambridge  who  favoured  the  reforma- 
tion, the  most  considerable  was  Thomas  Bilney,  a  clergy- 
man of  a  most  holy  life,  who  began  to  see  popery  in  a  very 
disagreeable  light,  and  made  no.  scruple  to  own  it.  Bilney 
was  an  intimate,  and  conceived  a  very  favourable  opinion, 
of  Latimer ;  and,  as  opportunities  offered,  used  to  suggest 
to  him  many  things  about  corruptions  in  religion,  till  he 
gradually  divested  him  of  his  prejudices,  brought  him  to. 
think  with  moderation,  and  even  to  distrust  what  he  had 
so  earnestly  embraced.  Latimer  no  sooner  ceased  from 
being  a  ;zealous  papist,  than  he  became  (such  was  bis  con-, 
stitutional  warmth)  a  zealous  protestant ;  active  in  support- 
ing the  reformed  doctrine,  and  assiduous  to  make  converts 
both  in  town  and  university.  He  preached  in  public,  ex- 
horted in  private,  and  everywhere  pressed  the  necessity 
of  a  holy  life,  in  opposition  to  ritual  observances;  A  be- 
haviour of  this  kind  Was  immediately  taken  notice  of^  X^m^ 


L  A  T  I  ME  «•  SI 

bridge,  no  leM  thm  theretft  of  tli6  kingdom,  was  entirely 
popi^^  and  everf  new  opinion  was  watched  with  jealousy^ 
Ltftimer  soon  perceived  how  obnoxious  be  had  made  bim^ 
self;  and  the  first  remarkable  opposition  he  met  witli  from 
the  popish  party,  was  occasioned  by  a  course  «f  sermons 
be  preached,  during  the  Christmas  holidays,  before  .{be 
university)  in  which  he  spoke  his  sentiments  with  great 
freedom  upon,  many  opinions  and  usages  maintained  and 
practised  in  the  Romish  church,  and  particularly  insisted 
upon  the  great  abuse  of  locking  up  ^he  Scriptures  in  an 
unknown  tongue.  '  Few  of  the  tenets  of  popery  were  then 
questioned  in  England,  but  such  as  tended  td  a  relaxatioa 
6^  moi'ais  $  transubstantiation,  and  other  points  rather  spe-* 
cnlative,    still  held  their  dominion  ;    Latimer   therefore 
chiefiy  dwelt  upon  those  of  immoral  tendency.   He  shewed 
what  tree  religion  was,  that  it  was  seated  in  the  heart ; 
and  that,   in  comparison  with  it,  external  appointmentg 
were  of  no  value.     Having  a  remarkable  address  in  adapt- 
ing him^If  to  the  capacities  of  the  people,  and  being  con- 
sidered as  a  preacher  of  eminence,  the  orthodox .  clergy 
thought  it  high  time  to  oppose  him  openly.    This  task  was 
undertaken  by  Dr.  Buckingham,  prior  of  the  Black-friars^ 
who  appeared  in  the  pulpit  a  few  Sundays  after ;  and,  with 
great  pomp  and  prolixity,  shewed  the  dangerous  tendency 
of  Latimeir's  opinions;  particularly  inveighing  against  hit 
heretical  notions  of  having  the  Scriptdres  in  English,  lay- 
ing open  the  bad  effects  of  such  an  innovation.     **  If  that 
heresy,'*  said  he,  '*  prevail,  we  should  soon  see  an  end  of 
every  thing  useful  among  us.    The  ploughman,  reading 
that  if  he  put  his  hand  to  the  plough,  and  should  happen 
to  look  back,  he  was  unfit  for  the  kingdom  of  heaven, 
would' soon  lay  aside  his  labour ;  the  baker  likewise  read- 
ing, that  a  little  leaven  will  corrupt  his  lump,  would  give 
us  a  very  insipid  bread  }  the  simple  man  also  finding  him-4 
self  commanded  to  pluck  out  his  eyes,  in  a  few  years  we 
should  have  the  nation  full  of  blind  beggars.*'     Latimeis 
could  not  help  listening  with  a  secret  pleasure  to  this  in- 
genioas  reasoning;  perhaps- he  had  acted  as  prudently,  if 
he  had  considered  the  prior's  arguments  as  unanswerable ; 
Uttt,  he  could  not  resist  the  vivacity  of  his  temper,  which 
strongly  inclined  him  to  expose  this  solemn  trifler.  .  The 
whole  university  met  together  on  Sunday,    when  it  waa 
known  Mr.  Latimer  would  preach.    That  vein  of  plea-^ 
tantry  ittd  humour  which  ^raa  through  all. bis  words  and 


ss  LATIMtBR. 

mclions^  would  here,  it  wa$  im^iiiedy  lliite  iU  fbU  flcopf } 
atidy  IQ  say  ihe  tradi,  tbe  proacb^r  wajs  not  a  little  condcioiif 
of  his.  oiTQ  superiority:  to  c^omplete  tbe  scene^  just  hef<Mre 
tbe  sermon  began,  prior  Buckingham  himself  entered  the 
church  with  bis  cowl  about  bis  8houlder8>  und  seated  binl^ 
self,  with  an  air  of  importance^  before  tbe  pu)pit»    Lati* 
mer,»  with  great  gravity,  recapitulated  the  learned  docior*^ 
arguments,  placed  them  in  the  strongest  light,  and  then 
rallied  them  with  such  a  flow  of  wit,  and  at  the  same  time 
with  so  much  good  humour,  that,  without  tbe  fippearance 
of  ill-nature,  he  made  his  adversary  in  the  highest  degree 
Hdiculous.     Jle  then,  with  great  address,  appealed  to  the 
people;  descanted  upon  the  low  esteem  in  which  tbeii 
guides  had  always  held  their  understandings;  expressed 
the  utmost  offence  at  their  being  treated  with  such.eoil^ 
tempt^  and  wished  his  honest  countrymen  might  only  have 
the. use  of  the  Scripture  till  they  shewed  themselves  sUch 
absurd  interpreters.     He  concluded  his  discourse  with  a 
few  observations  upon  scripture  metaphors.    A  figurative 
manner  of  speech,  he  said,  was  common  in  all  langui^es : 
representations  of  this  kind  were  in  daily  use,  and  generally 
understood.     Thus,  for  instance,  continued  he  (address^* 
ing  himself  to  that  part  of  the  audience  where  the  prior 
was  seated) ,^  when  we  see  a  fox  painted  preaching  is^ 
friar^s  hood,  liobpdy  imagines  that  a  fox  is  meant,  bat 
that  craft  and  hypocrisy  are  described,  which  are  sooften 
found  disguised  in  that  garb.    But  it  is  probable  that  h^* 
timer  thought  this  levity  unbecoming ;  for  when  one  Vene^ 
tus,  a  foreigner,  not  long  after,  attacked  him  again  upon 
tbe  same  subject,  and  in  a  manner  tbe  most  scurrilous  and 
provoking,  we  find  htm  using  a  graver  strain.    .Whether 
he  ridiculed,  bowevef(  or  reasoned,  with  so  much  of  the 
spirit  of  true  oratory^  considering  the  times,  were  bis  ha<» 
rangues  animated,  that  they  seldqm  failed  of  their  intended 
effect ;  his  raillefy  shut  up  the  prior  within  his  monastery ; 
and  his  arguments  drove  Venetus  from  tbe  university. 

These  advantages  increased .  tbe  credit  of  the  protestant 
party  in  Obmbridge,  ef  which  Bilney  and  Latimer  were 
the  leaders ;  and  great  was  the  alarm  of  the  popish  clergy, 
of  whfch  some  were  the  heads  of  colleges,  and  senior  part 
9f  the  university.  JTrequent  convocations  were  held,  tutors 
were  admonished  to  have 'a  strict  eye  over  their  pupils,  and 
academical  censures  of  all  kinds  were  inflicted.  But  aca* 
demical  censures  were  found  insufficienit.    Latiaaei  (?oitti« 


LATTIMEK.  S% 

fiUed  to  preacbi  and  heresj  to  spfead.    The  heads  of  the 
popish  party  applied  to  the  bishop  of  Ely^  Dr.  West,  as 
their  diocesan ;  but  that  prelate  was  oot  a  man  for  their 
purpose ;  he  was  a  papist  indeed,  but  moderate.     He,  how« 
erer,  came  to  Cambridge,  examined  the  state  of  religion, 
and,  at  their  intreaty,  preached  against  the  heretics ;  but 
he  would  do  nothing  farther ;  only  indeed  he  silenced  Mr. 
Latimer,  wbith,  as  he  had  preached  himself,  was  an  in- 
stance of  his  prudence.     But  this  gave  no  check  to  the 
reformers ;  for  there  happened  at  this  time  to  be  a  pn>« 
testant  prior  in  Cambridge,  Dr.  Barnes,  of  the  Austin-^ 
friars,  .who,  having  a  monastery  exempt  from  episcopal 
jurisdiction,  and  being  a  great  admirer  of  Latimer,  boldly 
licensed  him  to  preach  there.     Hither  his  party  followed 
him ;  and,  the  late  opposition  having  greatly  excited  the 
curiosity  of  the  people,  the  friars*  chapel  was  soon  inca- 
pajble  of  containing  the  crowds  that  attended.     Among 
others,  it  is  remarkable,  that  the  bishop  of  Ely  was  often  one 
of  his  hearers,  and  bad  the  ingenuousness  to  declare,  that 
Latimer  was  one  of  the  best  preachers  he  had  ever  heard. 
The  credit  to  his  cause  which  Latimer  had  thus  gained  in 
the  pulpit,  he  maintained  by  the  piety  of  his  life.     Bilney 
and  he  did  not  satisfy  themselves  with  acting  unexception- 
ably,  but  were  daily  giving  instances  of  goodness,  which 
malic^  could  not  scandalize,  nor  envy  misrepresent  They 
were  always  together  concerting  their  schemes.  The  place 
where  they  used  to  walk,  was  long  afterwards  known  by 
the  na.me  of  the  Heretics*  Hill.  -  Cambridge  at  that  time 
was  full  of  their  good  actions  ;  their  charities  to  the  poor, 
and  friendly  visits  to  the  sick  and  unhappy,  were  then 
common  topics.     But  these  served  only  to  increase  the 
heat  of   persecution  from  their  adversaries.      Impotent 
themselves,  and   finding  their  diocesan  either  unable  or 
unwilling  to  work  their  purposes,  they  determined  upon 
an  appeal  to  the  higher  powers ;  and  heavy  complaints  werd 
carried  to  court  of  tfjie  increase  of  heresy,  not  without  for- 
mal deposttious  agaih^t  the  principal  abettors  of  it 

Th^  principal  persons  at  this  time  concerned  in  eccle« 
siasttodi  a^airs  were  cardinal  Wolsey,  Warham  archbishop 
of  Gailterbury,  and  Tunstal  bishop  of  London ;  and  as 
Henry  VIH.  was  now  in  the  expectation  of  having  the  bu- 
siness of -his  divorce  ended  in  a  regular  way  at  Rome,  he 
was  careful  to  observe  all  forms  of  civility  with  the  pope. 
Hie  cardinal  therefore  etected  a  court,  consisting  of  biAcips^ 

Vol.  XX.  D 


3*  L  A-T  I  ME  R. 

divines,  and  canonists,  to  put  the  laws  in  exeOution  agdnst- 
heresy :   of  this  court  Tunstal  was  made  president ;  and  - 
Bilney,  Latimer,  and  one  or  two  tx^oxe,  were  called  before 
him.     Bilney  was  considered  as  the  heresiarch,  and  against 
him  chiefly  the  rigour  of  the  court  was  levelled ;  and  they 
succeeded  so  far  that  he  was  prevailed  upon  to  recant : 
accordingly  he  bore   his  faggot,  and  was  dismissed.     As 
for  Latimer,  and  the  rest,  they  bad  easier  terms :  Tunstal 
omitted  no  opportunities  of  shewing  mercy ;  and  the  here- 
tics, upon  their  dismission,  returned  to  Cambridge,  where 
they  were  received  with  open  arms  by  their  friends.  Amidst 
this  mutual  joy,    Bilney  alone  seemed  unaffected ;    he 
.shunned  the  sight  of  his  acquaintance,  and  received  their 
congratulations  with  confusion  and  blushes.     In  short,  he 
was  struck  with  remorse  for  what  he  had  done,  grew  me- 
lancholy,  and,  after  leading  an  ascetic  life  for  three  years, 
resolved  to  expiate  his  abjuration  by  death.     In  this  reso- 
lution he  went  to  Norfolk,  the  place  of  his  nativity  ;  and,, 
preaching  publicly  against  popery,  he  was  apprehended 
by  order  of  the  bishop  of  Norwich,  and,  after  lying  a  while 
^  in  the  county  gaol,  was  executed  in  that  city. 

His  sufferings,    far  from  shocking  the  reformation  at 
Cambridge,  inspired  the  leaders  of  it  with  new  courage. 
Latimer  began  now  to  exert  himself  more  than  he  had  yet 
done  ;  and  succeeded  to  that  credit  with  his  party,  which. 
Bilney  had  so  long  supported.     Among  other  instances  of. 
his  zeal  and  resolution  in  this  cause,  he  gave  one  very  re- 
markable :  he  had  the  courage  to  write  to  the  king  against 
a  proclamation  then  just  published,  forbidding  the  use  of 
the  Bible  in  English,  and  other  bpokson  religious  subjects. 
He  bad   preached    before  his  majesty  once  or  twice  at 
Windsor^  and  had  been  noticed  by  him  in  a  more  affable 
manner  than  that  monarch  usually- indulged  towards  his 
subjects.     But,  whatever  hopes  of  preferment  his  sove- 
reign's favour  tnight  have  raised  in  him,  he  chose  to  put. 
all  to  the  hazard  rather  than  omit  what  he  thought  his  duty. , 
He  was  generally  considered  as  one  of  the  most  eminent, 
who  favoured  protestantism,  and  therefore  thought  it  be* 
^ame  him  to  be   one  of  the  most  forward  in  opposing 
popery.     His  letter  is  the  picture  of  an  honest  and  sincer^. 
heart :  it  was  chiefly  intended  to  point  .out  to  the  king  the 
bad  intention  of  the  bishops  in  procuring  the  proclamation^, 
and  concludes  in  these  terms  :  ^^  Accept,  gracious,  sove-. 
reign,  without  displeasure,  what  I  have  written  ^  I  thoughtj> 


LA  T  I  M  E  IL  35 

it  nay  duty  to  mention  these  things  to  yonr  inajesty*  No 
personal  quarrel^  as  God  shall  judge  me,  have  I  wiih.any 
man ;  I  wanted  only  to  induce  your  majesty  to  consider 
well  what  kind  of  persons  you  have  about  you,  and  the  ends 
for  virbich  they  counsel.  Indeed,  great  prince,  many  of 
them,  or  they  are*  much  slandered,  have  very  private  ends. 
God  grant  your  majesty  may  see  through  all  the  designs 
of  evil  men,  and  be  in  all  things  equal  to  the  high  office 
with  which  you  are  intrusted.  Wherefore,  gracious  king^ 
remember  yourself,  have  pity  upon  your  own  soul,  and 
think  that  the  day  is  at  hand,  when  you  shall  give  account 
of  your  office,  and  of  the  blood  that  hath  been  shed  by 
your  sword  :  in  the  which  day,  that  your  grace  nfay  stand 
stedfasdy,  and  not  be  ashamed,  but  be  clear  and  ready  in 
your  reckoning,  and  have  your  pardon  sealed  with  the 
blood  of  our  Saviour  Christ,  which  alone  serveth  at  that 
day,  is  my  daily  prayer  to  him  who  suffered  death  for  our 
sins.     The  spirit  of  God  preserve  you!" 

Though  the  influence  of  the  popish  party  then  prevailed 
so  far  that  this  letter  producied  no  effect,  yet  the  king,  no 
way  displeased,  received  it,  not  only  with  temper,  but 
with  condescension,  graciously  thanking  him  for  his  well* 
intended  advice.  The  king,  capricious  and  tyrannical  as 
be  was,  shewed,  in  many  instances,  that  he  loved  sincerity 
and  openness ;  and  Latimer's  plain  and  simple  manner  had 
before  made  a  favourable  impression -upon  him,  which  this 
letter  contributed  not  a  little  to  strengthen ;  and  the  part 
be  acted  in  promoting  the  establishment  of  the  king's  su« 
premacy,  in  1535,  riveted  him  in  the  royal  favour,  -Dr. 
Butts,  the  king's  physician,  being  sent  to  Cambridge  on  that 
occasion,  began  immediately  to  pay  his  court  to  the  pro- 
testant  party,  from  whom  the  king  expected  most  unani« 
mity  in  bis  favour.  Amongthe  first,  Jiemade  his  applica* 
tion  to  Latimer,  as  a  person  most  likely  to  serve  him; 
begging  that  he  would  collect  the  opinions  of  his  friends  in 
the  case,  and  do  his  utmost  to  bring  over  those  of  most 
eminence,  who  were  still  inclined  to  the  papacy.  Latimer^- 
being  a  thorough  friend  to  the  cause  he  was  to  solicit,  un- 
dertook it  with  his  usual  zeal,' and  discharged  himself  s6 
much  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  doctor,  that,  when  that 
gentleman  returned  to  court,  he  took  Latimer  alotfg  with 
him,  with  a  design,  no  doubt,  to  procure  him.  some  favouf 
suitfi(ble  to  bis  merit. 

.    D  2 


3«  LATIMER. 

About  this  time  a  person  was  rising  into  power,  who  be^ 
came  his  chief  friend  and  patron :  The  lord  Cromwell,  who, 
bein^  a  friend  to  the  Reformation,  encouraged  of  course 
8u<^h  churchmen  as  inclined  towards  it.    Among  these  was 
Latinier,  for  whom  his  patron  soon  obtained  West  Kington, 
a  benefice  in  Wiltshire,  whither  he  resolved,  as  soon  a& 
possible,  to  repair,  and  keep  a  constant  residence.  His  friend 
Dr.  Butts,  surprized  at  this  resolution,  did  what  he  could  / 
to  dissuade  him  from  ft :  *^  You  are  deserting,*'  said  he^  , 
^^  the  fairest  opportunities  of  making  your  fortune :  the  prime 
minister  intends  this  only  as  an  earnest  of  his  future  fa* 
vours,  and  will  certainly  in  time  do  great  things  for  you : 
but  it  is  the  manner  of  courts  to  consider  them  as  provided 
for,  who  seem  to  be  satisfied ;  and,  take  my  word  for  it,  an 
absent  claimant  stands  but  a  poor  chance  among  rivals  who 
have  the  advantage  of  being  present."      Thus  the  old 
courtier  advised.     But  these  arguo^ents  had  no  weight.  He 
was  heartily  tired  of  the  court,  where  he  saw  much  debau- 
chery and  irreligion,  without  being  able  to  oppose  them ; 
and,  leaving  the  palace  therefore,    entered  immediately 
upon  the  duties  of  his  parish.     Nor  was  he  satisfied  within 
those  limits;    he  extended   his  labours  throughout  the 
county,  where  he  observed  the  pastoral  care  most  ne- 
glected, having  for  that  purpose  obtained  a  general  licence 
from  the  university   of  Cambridge.     As  his  manner  of 
preaching  was  very  popular  in  those  times,  the  pulpits  every 
vrfiere  were  gladly  opened  for  him ;  and  at  Bristol,  where 
he  often  preached,  he  was  countenanced  by  the  magis-. 
trates.     But  this  reputation  was  too  much  for  the  popish 
clergy  to  suffer,  and  their  opposition  first  broke  out  at 
Bristol.    The  mayor  had  appointed  him  to  preach  there  on 
"  Easter^day.    Public  tiotice  had  been  given,  and  all  people 
were  pleased;  when,  suddenly,  came  an  order  from  the 
bishop,  prohibiting  any  one  to  preach  there  without  his 
licence.    The  clergy  of  the  place  waited  upon  .Latimer,  in- 
formed him  of  the  bishop's  order;  and,  knowing  he  had  na 
such  licence,  were  extremely  sorry  that  they  were  thus 
deprived  of  the  pleasure  of  hearing  him.  Latimer  received 
their  compliment  with  a  smile ;  for  he  had  been  apprized 
of  the  affair,  and  knew  that  these  very  persons  had  written 
to  the  bishop  against  him.    Their  opposition  became  after- 
wards more  public  and  avowed ;  the  pulpits  were  used  to 
spread  iuvectives  against  him;   and  such  liberties  were 


LATIMER.  37 

taken  with  his  character,  that  he  thought  it  necessary  to 
justify  himself.  Accordingly,  he  called  upon  his  malignevs 
to  accuse  him  publicly  before  the  mayor  of  Bristol ;  and, 
with  all  mea  of  candour,  he  was  justified ;  for,  when  the 
parties  were  convened,  and  the  accusers  produced,  no- 
thing appeared  against  him;  but  the  whole  accusatiosn 
was  left  to  rest  upon  the  uncertain  evidence  of  hearsay 
information. 

His  enemies,  however,  were  not  thus  silenced.  The  party 
against  him  became  daily  stronger,  and  more  inflamed.  It 
consisted  in  general  of  the  country  priests  in  those  parts, 
headed  by  some  divines  of  more  eminence.  These  persons, 
after  mature  deliberation,  drew  up  articles  against  him,  ex« 
tracted  chiefly  from  his  sermons ;  in  which  he  was  charged 
with  speaking  lightly  of  the  worship  of  saints  ;  with  saying 
there  was  no  material  fire  in  hell ;  and  that  he  would  rather 
be  in  purgatory  than  in  Lollard's  tower.  This  charge  being 
laid  before  Stokesley  bishop  of  London,  that  prelate  cited 
Latimer  to  appear  before  him ;  and,  when  he  appealed  to 
his  own  ordinary,  a  citation  was  obtained  out  of  the  arch- 
bishop's court,  where  Stokesley  and  other  bishops  weife 
commissioned  to  examine  him.  An  archiepiscopal  citation 
brought  him  at  once  to  a  compliance.  His  friends  would 
have  had  him  fly  for  it ;  but  their  persuasions  were  in  vain. 
He  set  out  for  London  in  the  depth  of  winter,  and  under 
a  severe  fit  of  the  stone  and  cholic ;  but  he  was  more  dis* 
tressed  at  the  thoughts  of  leaving  his  parish  exposed  to 
the  popish  clergy,  who  would  not  fail  to  undo  in  his  ab- 
sence what  he  bad  hitherto  done.  On  his  arrival  at  Lon- 
don, be  found  a  court  of  bishops  and  canonists  ready  to 
receive  him  ;  where,  instead  of  being  examined,  as  he  ex- 
pected, about  his  sermons,  a  paper  was  put  into  his  hands, 
which  he  was  ordered  to  subscribe,  declaring  his  belief  in 
the  eflScacy  of  masses  for  the  souls  in  purgatory,  of  prayers 
to  the  dead  saints,  of  pilgrimages  to  their  sepulchres  and 
reliques,  the  pope's  power  to  forgive  sins,  the  doctriue  of 
merit,  the  seven  sacraments,  and  the  worship  of  images ; 
and,  when  he  refused  to  sign  it,  the  archbishop  with  a 
frown  begged  he  would  consider  what  he  did.  ^<  We  intend 
not,"  says  he,  ^^  Mr.  Latimer,  to  be  hard  upon  you ;  we 
dismiss  you  for  the  present ;  take  a  copy  of  the  articles, 
examine  them  carefully ;  and  God  grant  that,  at  our  next 
meeting,  we  may  find  each  other  ifi  a  better  temper  S'* 
At  the  nextaAd  several  succeeding  meetings  the  same  scene 


58  LATIMER. 

was  acted  over  again.  He  continued  inflexible,  and  they 
conjtinued  to  distress  him.  Three  times  every  week  they 
regularly  sent  for  him,  with  a  view  either  to  draw  some- 
thing from  him  by  captious  questions,  ^or  to  teaze  him  at 
length  into  compliance.  Of  one  of  these  examinations  he 
gives  the  following  account:  ^^I  was  brought  out,''  says 
he,  ^*.to  be  examined  in  the  same  chamber  as  before.;  but 
at  this  time  it  was  somewhat  altered  :  for,  whereas  befor^e 
there  was  a  fire  in  the  chimney,  now  the  fire  was  taken 
away,  and  an  arras  hanged  over  the  chimney,  and  the  table 
stood  near  the  chimney's  end.  .  There  was,  among  these 
bishops  that  examined  me,  one  with  whom  I  have  been 
very  familiar,  and  whom  I  took  for  my  great  friend,  an 
aged  man  ;  and  he  sat  next  the  table-end.  Then,  among 
other  questions,  he  put  forth  one,  a  very  subtle  and  crafty 
one;  and  when  I. should  make  answer,  '  I  pray  you,  Mr. 
Latimer,'  said  he,  <  speak  out,  I  am  very  thick  of  hearing, 
and  there  be  many  that  sit  far  off.'  I  marvelled  at  this, 
that  I  was  bidden  to  speak  out,  and  began  to  misdeem, 
and  gave  an  ear  to  the  chimney ;  and  there  I  heard  a  pen 
plainly  scratching  behind  the  clotli.  They  had  appointed 
one  there  to  write  all  my  answers,  that  I  should  not  start 
from  them..  God  was  my  good  Lord,  and  gave  m^  an- 
swers ;  I  could  never  else  have  escaped  them."  At  length 
he  was  tired  out  with  such  usage  ;  and  when  he  was  next 
summoned,  instead  of  going  himself,  he  .  sent  a  letter  tp 
the  archbishop,  in  which,  with  great  freedom,  he  tells  him, 
that  *^  the  treatment  he  had  of  late  met  with,  had  fretted 
him  into  such  a  disorder  as  rendered  him  unfit  to  attend 
that  day ;  that,  in  the  mean  time,  he  could  not  help  taking 
this  opportunity  to  expostulate  with  his  grace  for  detaining 
him  so  long  from  the  discharge  of  his  duty  ;  that  it  seemed 
to  him  most  unaccountable,  that  they,  who  never  preached 
themselves,  should  hinder  others ;  that,  as  for  their  exar 
mination  of  him,  he  really  could  not  imagine  what  they 
aimed  at;  they  pretended  one  thing  in  the  .beginning, 
and  another  in  the  progress;  that,  if  his  sermqns  were 
what  gave  offence,  which  he  persuaded  himself  were  neither 
contrary  to  the  truth,  nor  to  any  canon  of  the  church,  he 
was  ready  to  answer  whatever  might  be  thought  exception- 
able in  them ;  that  be  wished  a  little  more  regard  might 
be  had  to  the  judgment  of  the  people ;  and  that  a  distinc- 
tion might  be  made  between  the  ordinances  of  God  and 

jmu  >  lUat  U  some  abases  m  reUgion  did  prevail^  -s^.  was 


LATIMER.  S9 

then  commoiily  supposed,  be  thought  preaching  was  the 
be&t  means  to  discountenance  them ;  that  be  wished  all 
pastors  might  be  obliged  to  perform  their  duty  :  but  that^ 
however,  liberty  might  be  given  to  those  who  were  willing; 
that,  as  for  the  articles  proposed  to  him,  he  begged  to  be 
excused  from  subscribing  tbem  ;  while  he  lived,  he  never 
would  abet  superstition  :  and  that,  lastly,  he  hoped  the 
^archbishop  would  excuse  what  he  had  written ;  he  knew 
his  duty  to  his  superiors,  and  would  practise  it :  but,  in 
that  case>  he  thought  a  stronger  obligation  laid  upon 
him." 

What  particular  effect  this  letter  produced,  we  are  not 
informed.  The  bishops,  however,  continued  their  prose* 
cution,.till  their  schemes  were  frustrated  by  an  unexpected 
hand ;  for  the  king^  being  informed,  most  probably  by 
lord  Cromwell's  means,  of  Le^timer's  ill-usage,  interposed 
^n  his  behalf,  and  rescued  him  out  of  their  hands.  A  figure 
of  so  much  simplicity,  and  such  an  apostolic  appearance  as 
his  at  court,  did  not  fail  to  strike  Anne  Boleyn,  who  men- 
tioned him  to  her  friends,  as  a  person,  in  her  opinion, 
well  qualified  to  forward  the  Reformation,  the  principled 
^f  which  she  had  imbibed  from  her  youth.  Cromwell 
rai3ed  our  preacher  still  higher  in  her  esteem;  and  they 
both  joined  in  an  earnest  recommendation  of  him  for  a 
bishopric  to  the  king,  who  did  not  want  much  solicitation 
in  bis  favour.  It  happened,  that  the  sees  of  Worcester 
and  Salisbury  weise  at  that  time  vacant,  by  the  deprivation* 
of  Ghinuccii  and  Campegio,  two  Italian  bishops,  who  fell 
under  the  king's  displeasure,  upon  his  rupture  with  Rome« 
The  former  of  these,  was  offered  to  Latimer;  and,  as  this 
promotion  came  unexpectedly  to  him,  he  looked  upon  it 
as  the  work  of  Providence,  and  accepted  it  without  much 
persuasion.  Indeed,  he  bad  met  with  such  usage  already, 
as  a  private  clergyman,  and  saw  before  him  so  hazardous  a 
*|>rospect  in  his  old  station,  that  he  thought  it  necessary, 
both  for  bis  own  safety,  and  fpr  the  sake  of  being  of  more 
service  to  the  world,  to  shroud  himself  under  a  little  more 
temporal  power.  All  historians  mention  him  as  a  person  re* 
markably  zealous  in  the  discharge  of  bis  new  office;  and 
tell  us,  that,  in  overlooking  the  clergy  of  his  diocese, 
he  was  uncommonly  active,  warm,  and  resolute,  and  pre- 
sided in  bis  ecclesiastical  court  in  the  same,  spirit  In; 
visiting  he  was  frequent  and. observant:  in  ordaining  strict 
wd  wary :  la  preaching  indefatigable :  in  reproving  and 


40  LATIMER. 

exhortifig  severe  and  persuasive.    Thus  far  he  could  act 
with  authority ;  but  in  other  things  he  found  himself  under 
difficulties.  The  popish  ceremonies  gave  him  great  offence; 
yet  he  neither  durst,  in  times  so  dangerous  and  unsettled^ 
lay  them  entirely  aside  ;  nor,  on  the  other  hand,  was  he 
willing  entirely  to  retain  them.  In  this  dilemma  his  address 
was  admirable :  he  inquired  into  their  origin ;  and  when  be 
found  any  of  them  derived  from  a  good  meaning,  heincul* 
cat^d  their  original,  though  itself  a  ccnrruption,  in  the  room 
of  a  more  corrupt  practice.    Thus  he  put  the  people  in 
mind,  when  holy  bread  and  water  were  distributed,  that 
these  elements,  which  had  long  been  thought  endowed  with 
•  kind  of  magical  influence,  were  nothing  more'than  appeii-* 
dages  to  the  two  sacraments  of  the  Lord's*supper  and  bap- 
tism :  the'former,  he  said,  reminded  us  of  Cbrist^s  death ; 
and  the  latter  was  only  a  simple  representation  of  being  pu« 
rified  from  sin.     By  thus  reducing  popery  to  its  principl^s^ 
he  improved,  in  some  measure,  a  bad  stock,  by  lopping 
from  it  a  few  fruitless  excrescences. 
.    While  his  endeavours  to  reform  were  thus  confined  te 
his  diocese,  he  wfs  called  upon  to  exert  them  in  a  more 
public  manner,  by  a  summons  to  parliament  and  convocn^ 
tion  in  1536.     This  session  was  thought  a  crisis  by  the 
Protestant   party,  at  the  head  of  which  stood   the  lord 
Cromwell,  whose  favour  with  the  king  was  now  in  its  me- 
ridian.    Next  to  him  in  power  was  Cranmer  archbishop 
of  Canterbury,  after  whom  the  bishop  of  Worcester  was 
the  most  considerable  man  of  the  party ;  to  whom  were 
added  the  bishops  of  Ely,  Rochester,  Hereford,  Salisbury, 
and  St.  David's.     On  the  other  hand,  the  popish  party  was 
headed  by  Lee  archbishop  of  York,  Gardiner,  Stokesle}!^ 
smd  Tunsta),  bishops  of  Winchester,  London,  and  Dur- 
ham.   The  convocation  was  opened  as  usual  by  a  sermon^ 
or  rather  an  oration,  spoken,  at  the  appointment  of  Cran- 
mer, by  the  bishop  of  Worcester,  .whose  eloquence  was  at 
this  time  everywhere  famous.     Many  warm  debates  passed 
in  this  assembly ;  the  result  of  which  was,  that  four  sacra- 
ments out  of  the  seven  were  concluded  to  be  insignificant : 
but,  as  the  bishop  of  Worcester  made  no  figure  in  them, 
for  debating  was  not  his  talent,  it  is  beside  our  purpose  to 
enter  into  a  detail  of  what  was  done  in  it.     Many  altera- 
tions were  made  in  favour  of  the  reformation  ;  and,  a  few 
months  after,  the  Bible  was  translated  into  English,  and 
recommended  to  general  perusal  in  October  1537^ 


JL  A  T  I  M  E  R.  41 

In  tbe  mean  time  the  bishop  of  Worcester,  highly  satis- 
fied with  the  prospect  of  tbe  times,  repaired  to  his  diocese, 
having  made  a  longer  stay  in  London  than  was  absolutely 
necessary.  He  had  no  tpileuts  for  state  affairs,  and  there* 
fore  mtddled  not  with  them.  It  is  upon  that  account  that 
bishop  Burnet  speaks  very  slightingly  of  his  public  charac- 
ter at  this  time,  but  it  is  certain  that  Latimer  never  desired 
to  appear  in  any  public  character  at  all.  His  whole  am- 
bition was  to  discharge  the  pastoral  functions  of  a  bishop, 
neither  aiming  to  display  the  abilities  of  a  statesman,  nor 
those  of  a  courtier.  ^How  very  unqualified  he  was  to  sup- 
port the  latter  of.  the3e  characters,  will  sufficiently  appear 
ifom  tbe  following  story.  It  was  the  custom  in  those  days 
for  the  bishops  to  make  presents  to  the  king  on  New-year^ s- 
day,  and  many  of  them  would  present  very  liberally,  pro- 
portioning their  gifts  to.  their  expectations.  Among  the 
rest,  the  bishop  of  Worcester,  being  at  this  time  in  town, 
waited  upon  the  king  with  his  o£Fering;  but  instead  of  a 
purse  of  gold,  which  was  the  common  oblation,  he  pre- 
sented a  New  Testament,  with  a  leaf  doubled  down,  in  a 
very  conspicuous  manner,  to  this  passage,  ^^  Whoremon- 
gers and  adulterers  God  will  judge." 

Henry  VIII.  made  so  little  use  of  his  judgment,  that  his 
whole  reign  was  one  continued  rotation  of  violent  passions, 
which  rendered  him  a  mere  machine  in  the  hands  of  his 
ministers ;  and  he  among  them  who  could  make  the  most 
artful  address  to  the  passion  of  the  day,  carried  his  point. 
Gardiner,  bishop  of  Winchester,  was  just  returned  from 
Germany,  having  successfully  negotiated  some  commis- 
sions which  the  king  had.  gready  at  heart ;  and,  in  1539, 
a  parliament  was  called,  to  confirm  the  seizure  and  sur- 
jrendry  of  the  monasteries,  when  that  subtle  minister  took 
his  opportunity,  and  succeeded  in  prevailing  upon  his  ma- 
jesty, to  do  something  towards  restoring  the  old  religion, 
^. being  most  advantageous  for  bis  views  in  the  present 
situation  of  Europe.  In  this  state  of  affairs,  Latimer  re- 
ceived his  summons  to  parliament,  and,  soon  after  his  ar- 
rival in  town,  -he  was  accused  of  preaching  a  seditious 
sermon.  The  sermon  was  preached  at  court,  and  the 
preacher,  according  tq,  his  custom,  had  been  unquestion- 
ably severe  enough  against  whatever  he  observed  amiss. 
The  king  had  called  together  several  bishops,  with  a  view 
to  consult,  them  upoa  some  points  of  religion.  When  they 
bad  all  given  their  opinions,  and  ^ere  about  to  be  dis- 


42 


LATIMER. 


missed,  tlie  bishop  of  Winchester  (for  it  was  most  pfobdbly 
be)  kneeled  down  and  accused  the  bishop  of  Worcester  as 
above-mentioned.  The  bishop  being  called  upon  by  the 
king  with  some  sternness,  to  vindicate  himself,  was  so  far 
from  denying  or  even  palliating  what  he  said,  that  be 
boldly  justified  it;  and  turning  to  the  king,  with  that 
noble  unconcern  which  a  goc(d  conscience  inspires,  made 
this  auswer :  "  I  never  thought  myself  worthy,  nor  I  never 
suedto  be  a  preacher  before  your  grace ;  but  I  was  called  to 
it,  and  would  be  willing,  if  you  mislike  it,  to  give  place 
to  my  betters ;  for  I  grant  there  may  he  a. great  many  more 
worthy  of , the  room  than  I  am.  Andt  if  it  be  your  gtace-s 
pleasure  to  allow  them  for  preacher^,  I  could  be  content  to 
bear  their  books  after  them.  But  if  your  grace  allow  me 
for  a  preacher,  I  would  desire  you  to  give  me  leave  to  dis«- 
charge  my  conscience,  and  to  frame  my  doctrine  according 
to  my  audience.  I  had  been  a  very  dok  indeed,  to  have 
preached  so  at  the. borders  of  your  realm,  as  I  preach  be- 
fore your  grace."  This  answer  baffled  his  accuser's  malice^ 
the  severity  of  the  king's  conscience  changed  into  a  gra- 
cious  smile,  and  the  bishop  was  dismissed  with  that  oblig- 
ing freedom  which  this  monarch  never  used  but  to  those 
whom  he  esteemed.  In  this  parliament  passed  the  famous 
act,  as  it  was  called,  of  the  six  articles^,  which  was  no 
sooner  published  than  it  gave  an  universal  alarm  to  all  the 
favourers  of  the  reformation  ;  and,  as  the  bishop  of  Worv 
cester  could  not  give  his  vote  for  the  act,  he  thought  it 
wrong  to  hold  any  office.  He  therefore  resigned  bis  bi- 
shopric f,  and  retired  into  the  country  ;  where  be  resided 
during  the  heat  of  that  persecution  which  followed  upoa 
this  act,  and  thought  of  nothing  for  the  remainder  of  his 
days  but  a  sequestered  life.  .  He  knew  the  storta  which  was 
up  could  not  soon  be  appeased,  and  he  had  no  inclination 
to  trust  himself  in  it.  But, .  in  the  midst  of  his  security, 
an  unhappy  accident  carried  him  again  into  the  tepipestu^ 


*  These  articles  were,  1.  In  the  sa-. 
crament  of  the  altar,  after  the  coDse> 
cration  there  remains  no  substance  of 
bread  and  wine,  but  the  natural  bod^r 
and  blood  of  Christ.  2.  Vows  of  chas- 
tity oogiit  to  be  observed.  S.  The  use 
of  private  masses  ought  to  be  continued* 
4.  Cprnmunion  in  both  kinds  is  not  ne- 
cessary. 5.  Priests  must  not  marry. 
6.  Aurienlar -'confession  is  to  be  re- 
tained in  the  church. 


f  it  is  related  of  him,  that  when  he 
came  from  the  parliament-bouse  to  his 
lodgings,  be  threw  off  his  robes ;  aocf, 
leaping  up,  declared  t6  those  aboul; 
him,  that  he  found  himself  iigtiter  than 
ever  be  found  himself  before.  Thfe 
itory  is  not  unlikely,  a^itismnchia 
charactec:  a  vein  of  pleasantry  and 
good  humour  accompanying  the  most 
serious  actions  of^his  liie.     > 


LATIMER.  « 

ous  weather  that  was  abroad  :  he  received  a  bruise  by  the 
fall  of  a  tree,  and  the  contusion  was  so  dangerous,  that  he 
was  obliged  to  seek  out  for  better  assistance  than  the  coun-^ 
try  afforded.  With  this  view  he  repaired  to  London, 
where  he  had  the  misfortune  to  see  the  fall  of  his  patron, 
the  lord  Cromwell ;  a  loss  of  which  he  was  soon  made  sen- 
sible. Gardiner's  emissaries  quickly  found  him  out ;  and 
something,  -  that  somebody  had  somewhere  heard  him  say 
against  the  six  articles,  being  alleged  against  him,  he  was 
sent  to  the  Tower,  where,  without  any  judicial  examina*' 
tion,  he  suffered,  through  one  pretence  or  another,  a 
cruel  imprisonment  for  the  remaining  six  years  of  king 
Henry's  reign. 

Immediately  upon  the  accession  of  Edward  VI.  he  and 
all  others  who  were  imprisoned  in  the  same  cause,  were 
set  at  liberty ;  and  Latimer,  whose  old  friends  were  now 
in  power,  was  received  by  them  with  every  mark  of  affec^ 
tion.  He* would  have  found  no  difficulty  in  dispossessing 
Heath,  in  every  respect  an  insignificant  man,  who  had 
succeeded  to  his  bishopric  :  but  be  had  other  sentiments, 
and  would  neither  make  suit  himself,  nor  suffer  his  friends 
to  make  any,  for  his  restoration.  However,  this  was  done 
by  the  parliament,  who,  after  settling  the  national  con'- 
cems,  sent  up  an  address  to  the  protector  to  restore  him': 
and  the  protector  was  very  well  inclined,  and  proposed 
the  resumption  to  Latimer  as  a  point  which  he  had  very 
much  at  heart ;  but  Latimer  persevered  in  the  negative, 
alleging  his  great  age,  and  the  claim  he  had  from  thence 
to  a  private  life.  Having  thus  rid  himself  of  all  incum- 
brance,' he  accepted  an  invitation  from  Cranmer,  and  took 
up  his  residence  at  Lambeth,  where  he  led  a  very  retired 
life,  being  chiefly  employed  in  hearing  the  complaints  and 
redressing  the  injuries,  of  the  poor  people.  And,  indeed-, 
his  character  for  services  of  this  kind  was  so  universally 
known,  that  strangers  from  every  part  of  England  would 
resort  to  him,  so  that  he  had  as  crowded  a  levee  as  a  mi- 
nister of  state.  In  these  employments  he  spent  more  thaii 
two  years,  interfering  as  little  as  possible  in  any  public 
transaction  ;  only  he  assisted  the  archbishop  in  composing 
the  homilies,  which  were  set  forth  by  authority  in  the  first 
year  of  king  Edward  ;  be  was  also  appointed  to  preach  the 
Lent  sermons  before  his  majesty,  which  office  he  performed 
during  the  first  three  years  of  his  reign  ^.     As  to  his  ser- 

*  We  are  informed  by  Dr.  Heylin,     that  the  pulpif  was  remoTed  out  of  the 
that  such  crowds  went  to  hear  Latimer,     Royal  chapel  into  the  Privy  .garden. 


44  LATIMER. 

inons,  which  are  still  extant^  they  are,  indeed,  far  enougk 
from  being  exact  pieces  of  composition :  yet,  his  simpli* 
city  and  familiarity,  his  humour  and  gibing  drollery,  were 
well  adapted  to  the  times ;  and  his  oratory,  according  to 
the  mode  of  eloquence  at  that  day,  was  exceedingly  popu- 
lar. His  action  and  manner  of  preaching  too  were  very 
affecting,  for  he  spoke  immediately  from  his  heart  His 
abilities,  however,  as  an  orator,  made  only  the  inferior 
part  of  bis  character  as  a  preacher.  What  particularly  re- 
commends him  is,  that  noble  and  apostolic  zeal  which  b« 
exerts  in  the  cause  of  truth. 

But  in  the  discharge  of  this  duty  a  slander  passed  upom 
him,  which,  being  recorded  by  a  low  historian  of  thojie 
days,  has  found  its  way  into  ours.  It  is  even  recorded  as 
credible,  hy  Milton,  who  sufFerefd  his  zeal  against  episco- 
pacy, in  more  instances  than  this,  to  bias  his  veracity,  or 
at  best  to  impose  upon  his  understanding.  It  is  said  that 
after  the  lord  high  admiral's  attainder  and  execution,  which 
happened  about  this  time,  he  publicly  defended  his  death 
in  a  sermon  before  the  king ;  that  he  aspersed  his  charac- 
ter ;  and  that  he  did  it  merely  to  pay  a  servile  complimeat 
to  the  protector.  The  first  part  of  this  charge  is  true ;  but 
the  second  and  third  are  false.  As  to  his  aspersing  the  ad« 
miraPs  character;  his  character  was  so  bad,  there  was  no 
room  for  aspersion  ;  his  treasonable  practices  too  were  no- 
torious, and  though  the  proceeding  against  him  by  a  bill 
in  parliament,  according  to  the  custom  of  these  times,  may 
be  deemed  inequitable,  yet  he  paid  no  more  than  a  due 
forfeit  to  the  laws  of  his  country.  However,  his  death  oc<* 
casioned  great  clamour,  and  was  made  usi^  of  by  the  lords 
of  the  opposition  (for  he  left  a  very  dissatisfied  party  be- 
hind him),  as  an  handle  to  raise  a  popular  odium  against 
the  protector,  for  whom  Latimer  had  always  a  high  esteem* 
He  was  mortified  therefore  to  see  so  invidious  and  base  an 
opposition  thwarting  the  schemes  of  so  public-spirited  a 
man ;  and  endeavoured  to  lessen  the  odium,  by  shewing 
the  admiraPs  character  in  its  true  light,  from  some  anec- 
dotes not  commonly  known.  This  notice  of  lord  Seymour, 
which  was  in  Latimer's  fourth  sermon  before  king  Edward, 
is  to  be  found  only  in  the  earlier  editions. 

Upon  the  revolution  which  happened  at  court  after  the 
death  of  the  d  uke  of  Somerset,  Latimer  seems  to  have  retired 
into  the  country,  and  made  use  of  the  king's  licence  as  a 
general  preacher  in  those  parts  where  be  thought  his  labours 


LATIMER.  45 

• 

might  be  most  serviceable.     He  ttras  thus  employed  daring 
the  remainder  of  that  reign,  and  continued  in  the  same  course, 
for  a  short  time,  in  the  beginning  of  the  next ;  but,  as  soon  as 
the  introduction  of  popery  was  resolved  on,  the  first  step  to- 
wards it  was  the  prohibition  of  all  preaching  throughout  the 
kingdom,  and  a  licensing  only  of  such  as  were  known  to  be 
popishly  inclined  :  accordingly,  a  strict  inquiry  was  made 
after  the  more  forward  and  popular  preachers ;  and  many 
of  them  were  taken  into  custody.    The  bishop  of  Win- 
chester, who  was  now  prime  minister,  having  proscribed 
Latimer  from  the  first,  sent  a  message  to  cite  him  before 
the  council.     He  had  notice  of  this  design  some  hours  be- 
fore the  messenger^s  arrival,  but  made  no  use  of  the  intel- 
ligence.   The  messenger  found  him  equipped  for  his  jour- 
ney; at  which  expressing  surprize,  Latimer  told  him  that 
he  was  as  ready  to  attend  him  to  London,  thus  called  upon  to 
answer  for  bis  faith,  as  he  ever  was  to  take  any  journey  in 
his  life ;  and  that  he  doubted  not  but  God,  who  had  en- 
abled him  to  stand  before  two  princes,  would  enable  him  to 
stand  before  a  third.    The  messenger,  then  acquainting 
hiqi  that  he  had  no  orders  to  seize  his  person,  delivered  a 
letter,  and  departed.    Latimer,  however,  opening  the  letter, 
and  finding  it  contain  a  citation  from  the  council,  resolved 
to  obey  it     He  set  out  therefore  immediately ;  and,  as  he 
passed  throueh  Smithfield,  where  heretics  were  usually 
burnt,  he  said  cheerfully,  '^  This  place  hath  long  groaned 
for  me."     The  next  morning  he  waited  upon  the  council, 
who,  having  loaded  him  with  many  severe  reproaches,  sent 
him  to  the  Tower.    This  was  his  second  visit  to  thisprison,^ 
but  now  he  met  with  harsher  treatment,  and  had  more  fre« 
quent  occasion  to  exercise  his  resignation,  which  virtue  no 
man  possessed  in  a  larger  measure ;  nor  did  the  usual  cheer- 
fulness of  his  disposition  forsake  him.     A  servant  leaving 
his  apartment  one  day,  Latimer  called  after  him,  and  bid 
him  tell  his  master,  that  unless  he  took  better  care  of  him, 
he  would  certainly  escape  him.     Upon  this  message  the 
lieutenant,  with  some  discomposure  of  countenance,  came 
tb  Latimer^  and  desired  an  explanation.     "  Why,  you  ex- 
pect, I  suppose,  sir,**  replied  Latimer,  "  that  I  should  be 
burnt ;  but  If  you  do  not  allow  me  a  little  fire  this  frosty 
weather,  I  can  tell  you,  I  shall  first  be  starved.**     Cran- 
mer  and  Ridley  were  also  prisoners  in  the  same  cause  with 
Latimer;  and  when  it  was  resolved  to  have  a  public  dis- 
putation at  Oxford,  between  the  knost  eminent  of  the  popish 


4fr  LATIMER. 

and  protestant  divines,  these  three  were  appointed  to  tb^ 
nage  the  dispute  on  the  part  of  the  protestants.  Accord- 
ingly they  were  taken  out  of  the  Tower,  and  sent  toOxford, 
where  they  were  closely  confined  in  the  cominon  prison^ 
and  might  easily  imagine  how  free  the  disputation  was 
likely  to  be,  when  they  found  themselves  denied  the  use 
even  of  books,  aiid  pen  and  ink. 

Fox  has  preserved   a  conference,    afterwards  put  inta 
writing,  which  was  held  at  this  time  between   Ridley  and 
Latimer,  and  which  sets  our  author^s  temper  in  a  strong 
light.     The  two  bishops  are  represented  sitting  in  tbei-r 
prison,    ruminating   upon    the  solemn  preparations    thei> 
making  for  their  trial,  of  which,  probably,  they  were  now  ' 
first  informed.     "  The  time,'*  said  Ridley,  *'  is  now  come ; 
we  are  now  called  upon,  either  to  deny  our  faith,  or  to 
suffer  death  in  its  defence.     You,  Mr.  Latimer,  are  an  old 
soldier  of  Christ,  and  have  frequently  withstood  the  fear  of 
death;    whereas  I  am  raw  in  the  service,   and  unexpe* 
rienced.''     With  this  preface  he  introduces  a  request  that 
Latimer,  whom  he  calls  ^^  his  father,^'   would  hear  him 
propose  such  arguments  as  he  thinks  it  most  likely  his  ad- 
vjersaries  would  urge  against  him,  and  assist  him  in  pro- 
viding proper  answers  to  them.     To  this  Latimer,  id  his 
usual  strain  of  good  humour,  replied  that  ^'  he  fancied  the 
good  bishop  was  treating  him  as  he  remembered  Mr.  BiK 
ney  used  formerly  to  do  ;  who,  when  he  wanted  to  teach 
him,  would  always  do  it  under  colour  of  l^eing  taught  him- 
sielf.     But  in  the  present  case,^'  said  he,  ^^  my  lord,  I  am 
determined  to  give  them  very  little  trouble:  I  shall  just 
offer  them  a  plain  account  of  my  faith,  and  shall  say  very 
little  more;  for  I  know  any  thing  more  will  be  to  no 
purpose :  they  talk  of  a  free  disputation,  but  I  am  well 
assured  their  grand  argument  will  be,  as  it  once  was  their 
forefathers,  *  We  have  a  law,  and  by  our  law  ye  ought  to 
die.'     Bishop  Ridley  having  afterwards  desired  his  prayers,; 
that  he  mi^ht  trust  wholly  upon  God  :  "  Of  my  prayers,'* 
replied  the  old  bishop,  ^^  you  may  be  well,  assured  ;  nor 
do  I  doubt  but  I  shall  have  yours  in  return,  and  indeed 
prayer  and  patience  should  be  our  great  resources.    .  Fo^i 
inyself,  had  I  the  learning  of  St.  Paul,  I  should  think  it: 
ill  laid  out  upon  an  elaborate  defence ;  yet  our  case,  my/ 
lord,  admits  of  comfort.     Our  enemies  can  do  no  more< 
than  Cod  permits;  and  God  is  faithful,  who,  will  not  suf-^ 
i^r  us,  to  be  tempted  aboye  our  8trei>gth.    Be  at  a  points 


L-  A  T  I  M  E  R.        •  « 

wkh  them ;  gtond  totbat,  and  let  them  say  and  do  what 
they  please.  .  To  use  many  words  would  be  vain  ;  yet  it  is 
requisite  to  give  a.  reasonable  account  of  your  faith,  if  they 
will  quietly  hear  you.     For  other  things,  in  a  wicked  judg- 
ment-hall, a  man  may  keep  silence  after  the  example  of 
Christ/'   &c.     Agreeably  to  this  fortitude,  Latimer  con- 
ducted himself  throughout  the  dispute,    answering  their 
questions  as  far  as  civility  required;  and  in  these  answers 
it  is  observable  he  managed  the  argument  much  better  thaa. 
either  Ridley  or  Cranmer ;  who,  when  they  were  pressed 
in  defence  of  trapaubstantiation,  with  some  passages  from 
the  fathers,  instead  of  disavowing  an  insufficient  authority, 
weakly  defended  a  good  cause  by  evasions  and  distinctions, 
after  the  manner  of  schoolmen.     Whereas,  when  the  same ' 
proofs  were  multiplied  upon  Latimer,  he  told  them  plainly 
that  ^'  such  proofs  had  no  weight  with  him ;  that  the  fa- 
thers, no  doubt,  were  often  deceived ;  and  that  he  never 
depended  upon  them  but  when  they  depended  upon  Scrip- 
ture.'*    "  Then  you  are  not  of  St.  Chrysostom's  faith," 
replied  they,  "  nor  of  St.  Austin's  ?"  "  I  have  told  you,'* 
says  Latimer,  .'<  I  am  not,  ex<:ept  they  bring  Scripture 
for  what  they  say."     The  dispute  being  ended,  sentence 
lyas  passed  upon  him ;  and  he  and  Ridley  were  burnt  at 
Oxford,  on  Oct.  16,  1555.     When  they  were  brought  to' 
the  fire,  on  a  spot  of  ground  on  the  north  side  of  Baliol- 
coUege,  and,  after  a  suitable  sermon,  were   told   by  an 
offiper  that  they  might  now  make  ready  for  the  stake,  they 
supported  each  other's  constancy  by  mutual  exhortations. 
Latimer,  when  tied  to  the  stake,  called  to  his  companion, 
M  Be  of  good  cheer,  brother;  we  shall  this  day  kindle  such 
a  torch  in  England,  as  I  trust  in  God  shall  never  be  ex- 
tinguished."— The  executioners  had  been  so  merciful  (for 
that  clemency  may  more  naturally  be  ascribed  to  them  than 
tp  the  religious,  zealots)  as  to  tie  bags  of.  gunpowder  about 
these  prelates,  in.  order  to  put  a  speedy  period  to  their*. 
tortures.     The  explosion  killed  L&timer  imniediately  ;  but 
Ridley  continued  alive  during  some  time,  in  the  midst  of' 
the  flames. — 'Such  was  the  life  of  Hugh  Latimer,  one  ofr 
the*  leaders  of  that  glorious  army  of  martyrs,  .who  intro-/ 
du^ecl  the  reformation  in  England,     He  was. not  esteemed. 
a*^very  learned  man,  for  he  cultivated  only  useful  learning; 
and  that,  he  thought,  lay  in  a  very  narrow  compass'     Hb^ 
n'iBVer  6nga^ed  in  worldly  affairs,  thinking  that  a  clergy-.. 
man  ought  to  employ  himself  in  his  professibivouly  9  and 


4»  L  A  T  I  M  E  R. 

bis  talents,  temper,  and  disposition,  were  adAiirat)!^ 
adapted  to  render  the  most  important  services  to  the  re-' 
formation* 

Latimer^s  "  Sermons"  appear  to  have  been  printed  se-' 
parately  at  first ;  but  a  collection  was  published  in  1549,' 
8vo,  and  a  larger  afterwards  in  4to,  has  often  been  re- 
printed. They  contain  in  a  quaint  and  familiar  style, 
more  ample  materials  for  a  hiistpry  of  the  manners  and 
morals  of  the  time,  than  any  volume  we  are  acquainted 
with  of  that  period ;  and  the  number  of  anecdotes  he 
brought  forward  to  illustrate  his  subjects,  must  have  con- 
tributed greatly  to  his  popularity.* 

LATIMER  (William),  one  of  the  revivers  of  classical^ 
learning  in  England,  was  educated  at  Oxford,  and  became 
fellow  of  All-Souls*  college,  in  1489.  Afterwards  travelling 
into  Italy,  which  was  then  the  resort  of  those  who  wished' 
to  extend  their  studies,  he  remained  for  some  time  at' 
Padua,  where  he  improved  himself  very  much,  especially 
in  the  Greek  language.  On  his  return  to  England,'  he 
was  incorporated  M.  A.  ^t  Oxford,  Nov.  18,  1513.  Soon 
afterwards  he  became  tutor  to  Reginald  Pole,  afterwards 
tbe  celebrated  cardinal,  by  whose  interest,  it  is  thought, 
be  obtained  the  rectories  of  Saintbury  and  Weston-under- 
Edge,  in  Gloucestershire,  and  a  prebend  of  Salisbury* 
He  had  also  the  honour  of  being  one  of  those  who  taught 
Erasmus  Greek  at  Oxford,  and  assisted  him  in  the  second 
edition  of  his  New  Testament.  He  died  very  old,  about 
Sept.  1545  ;  and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of  his  church 
at  Saintbury.  He  was  reckoned  one  of  the  greatest  men 
of  his  age,  and  with  Colet,  Lily,  and  Grocyn,  contributed 
much  to  establish  a  taste  for  the  Greek  language.  Eras- 
mus styles  him  an  excellent  divine,  conspicuous  for  in* 
tegrity  and  modesty ;.  and  Leland  celebrates  his  eloquence, 
judgment,  piety,  and  generosity.  Of  his  writings  there  is 
nothing  extant,  but  a  few  letters  to  Erasmus.' 

LATINI  (Brunetto),  an  eminent  grammarian  of  Flo- 
rence, in  the  thirteenth  century,  was  of  a  noble  family  in 
that  city,    and    during   the  party  contests  between   the 
Guelphs  and  Ghibelins,  took  part  with  the  fofmer.    ^h^v 
tbe  Ghibelins  hsld  obtained  assistance  from  Mainfroy,  king 


t  Life  by  Oilpio,  and  by  Fox,  in  Wordsworth's  EccU  Biography,  to  which 
refer  on  aceount  of  tbe  ▼aluable  notes.— -Baroet's  Hist,  of  the  Reformation.— 
Ct>llier*s  Ob.  Hist. 

*  Ath.  Ox.  T<d.  I.— Jaiiin's  Erasmas.—Kaight's  dittoy 


I 


L  A  *r  I  ^  1.  4^ 

i>f  Sitil?,  th^  Godphs  seht  Brtknetto  to  obtain  similar  aid 
fi-oni  Alphonso  king  of  CaBtiik;  but  oti  his  return,  hearing 
that  the  Ghibelihs  had  defeated  hi^  t)arly  and  eot  posses- 
idnn  of  Florence,  be  fled  to  Fraricfe,  Wb^re  lie  resi()ed 
i^erai  years.  At  length  he  was  enabled  to  retuHi  to  his 
own  cotifitry,  ih  whith  he  ^d  appoihted  to  sottie  honour* 
able  offices.  He  died  in  1294.  The  historian  Villahi  at- 
tHbiltes  td  hicti  the  m^rit  of  h&vin^  fiHt  introduced  it  de- 
^e  of  i^eBneinent  atnong  his  ceuhti-jmen,  ind  of  having 
reforttied  their  language,  and  the  genei-al  cohduct  of  public 
affijiirs.  The  v^otk  which  ha^  contributed  most  to  his  ce- 
lebrity, was  oHe  which  he  ehtltled  "  Tresbr,'*  and  wrote 
HihtKi  in  Prance,  and  irt  the  Ff-eficb  lahguage,  which  be 
iHys  he  chose  because  it  ^as  the  (host  agreeable  language 
and  the  tnon  common  in  £uh)))e.  This  work  is  a  kind  of 
abridgtkiebt  of  the  fiible,  o^  Piiny  thb  naturalist,  So(inu^» 
and  other  writers  who  have  treated  on  different  sciences^ 
and  may  be  called  an  Encyclopsdia  of  the  knowledge  of 
his  time.  It  was  translated  into  Italian  about  the  same 
piVib^,  AtiA  tbiJ}  tran^laiibn  6»ly  Was  pnhtedi  bui  there 
ikie.about  4  dot^n  tfani^ct^ipis  6f  the  original  iii  the  royal 
llbraiT  at  Pdrt^,  and  ihefe  Is  a  tft6  Ms.  of  il  iii  the  Vatir 
tkti,  m>tlnd  ih  (:riA[^siDii  Velvet,  ^\th  ttianuscript  notes,  hjf 
PitM^h.  Af^er  his  retufn  td  Floteilice,  Latini  wrote  his 
*^  TesDtetto,**  o¥  little  treasure,  which,  however,  is  no^ 
ai  stime  have  reported,  an  abridgn&eht  of  the  "  Tresor,*' 
but  a  colle^tton  bf  liioral  precepts  ih  verse,  ke  also 
tfanslated  ifito  the  Italian  language  part  of  Cicero  **  de  In- 
Ventiboe.^'  fiis  gi-eatedt  honour  seems  to  have  been  that 
hef  was.  the  tbtoir  of  Dante,  not  however  in  poetry,  for  bis 
*^Tes6retto**  affords  no  ground  to  consider  hitn  as  a  master 
X>f  that  art.' 

LATlNtJS  (LatiKiUs),  one  of  the  most  learned  critics 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  born  about  15 13,  at  Yiterbo. 
Hid  acquired  an  extensive  knowledge  of  the  belles  lettres 
atid  (Sciences,  and  was  chosen  witb  the  other  learned  meo| 
in  157  J,  to  correct  Gratian*s  "  Decretal,"  in  which  great 
W6tk  he  took  much  pains.  H^  died  January  21,  1593,  ai 
Rotoe.  Latinus  left  Aotes  on  Tertulliah,  and  a  very  learneci 
bonk,  entitled  *^  iBibliotbeca  sacra  el  profand,  sive  Observa* 
fl6n^,e6rrfct;tioneii,conjectur8eetvai'iaBLectiones,"16'f^,/ol/ 

1  Tirabotcbi  -'^Crescerebtoi.^-Oinsu^i  Hist.  Lit  X>*itaiie. 
^  Saxii  OnoioatU— Diet.  Hist. 

YoL.  XX.  £ 


50  L  A  T  O  M  E. 

.  LATOME,  or  LATOMUS  (James),  a  learned  scholastk? 
divine  of  the  sixteenth  century,  a  native  of  Gambron,  in 
Hainault,  doctor  of  Louvain,  and  canon  of  St.  Peter'^s  in  . 
the  same  city,  wrote  against  Luther,  and  was  esteemed  by 
his  party  one  of  the  best  controversialists  of  his  time.  He 
died  1544.  All  his  works  were  collected  and  published, 
1550,  fol.  by  his  nephew,  James  Latomus,  who  died  1596. 
They  are  io  Latin,  and  consist  of  "  Treatises  on  the 
Church,"  the  "  Pope's  Primacy,"  aud  ^  Auricular  Con- 
fession ;"  a  **  Defence  of  the  Articles  of  Louvain  ;"  a  tract 
**  On  the  study  of  Divinity,  and  of  the  three  Languages," 
in  which  he  defends  scholastic  divinity.  ^  Erasmus  having 
refuted  this  work,  Latomus  answered  him  by  an  Apology. 
He  wrote  Latin  with  facility,  but  without  elegance,  and 
neither  understood  Greek  nor  Hebrew.     Luther's  confu- 

%  ... 

tation  of  Latomus's  defence  of  the  articles  of  Louvain  is 
accounted  one  of  the  ablest  productions  of  that  eminent 
reformer.' 

L'ATTAIGNANT.— See  ATTAIGNANT. 

LAtJD  (William),  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  was  son 
of  William  Laud,  a  clothier  of  Reading;,  in  Berkshire,  by 
Lucy  his  wife,  widow  of  John  Robinson,  of  the  same  place, 
and  sister  to  sir  William  Webbe,  afterwards  lord-mayor  of 
London,  in  1591.  His  father  died  in  1594,  leaving  his 
son,  after  his  mother's  decease,  the  house  which  he  inha- 
bited in  Broad-street,  and  two  others  in  Swallowfield ; 
1200/.  in  money,  and  the  stock  in  trade.  The  widow  wfis 
to  have  the  interest  of  half  the  estate  during  her  life.  She 
died  in  1600.  These  circumstances,  although  in  them- 
selves of  little  importance,  it  is  necessary  to  mention  as  a 
contradiction  to  the  assertion  of  Prynne,  that  he  was  of 
poor  and '  obscure  parents,  which  was  repeated  by  lord 
Say,  in  the  house  of  peers.  He  was  born  at  Reading, 
Oct.  7,  1573,  and  educated  at  the  free-school  there,  tUl 
July  1589  ;  when,  removing  to  St.  John's  college,  in  Ox- 
ford, he  became  a  scholar  of  the  house  in  1590,  and  fellow 
in  1593.  He  took  the  degree  of  A.  B.  in  1594,  and  that 
of  master  in  1598.  He  was  this  year  chosen  grammar- 
lecturer;  and  being  ordained  priest  in  1601,  read,  th^ 
following  year,  a  divinity-lecture  in  his  college,  which 
w^s  then  supported  by  Mrs.  Maye.  Tn  some  of  these^ 
chapel  exercises  he  maintained  against  the  puritans,  the 

*  Dupin.— Moreri. 


LAUD.  51 

perpetual  visibility  of  the  church  of  Rome  till  the  refortna* 
tion ;  by  which  he  incurred  the  displeasure  of  Dr.  Abbot, 
then  vice-chancellor  of  the  university,  who  maintained  that 
the  visibility  of  the  church  of  Christ  might  be  deduced 
through  other  channels  to  the  time  of  that  reformation. 
In  1603,  Xaud  was  one  of  the  proctors;  and  the  same 
year  became  chaplain  to  Charles  Blount,  earl  of  Devon- 
shire, whom  he  in<ionsiderateIy  married,  Dec.  26,  1605,  to^ 
.  Penelope,  then  wife  of  Robert  lord  Rich;  an  affair  that 
exposed  him  afterwards  to  much  censure^  and  created  him 
great  uneasiness;  in  reality,  it  made  so  deep  an  impres* 
sion  upon  him,  that  he  ever  after  kept  that  day  as  a  day  of 
fasring  and  humiliation*. 

He  proceeded  B.  D.  July  6,  1604.  In  his  exercise  for 
this  degree,  be  maintained  these  two  points :  the  neces- 
sity of  baptism  ;  and  that  there  could  be  no  true  church 
without  diocesan  bishops.  These  were  levelled  also  against 
the  puritans,  and  he  was  rallied  by  the  dtvinityrprofessor. 
He  ]ikewi£»e  gave  farther  offence  to  the  Calvinists,  by  a 
sermon  preached  before  the  university  in  160j6;  and  -we 
are  loki  it  was  made  heresy  for  any  to  be  seen  in  his  com- 
pany, and  a  misprision  of  heresy  to  give  him  a  civil  salu- 
tation ;  his  learning,  parts,  and  principles,  however,  pro- 
cured him  some  friends.  His  first  preferment  was  the  vi-' 
carage  of  Stanford,  in  Northamptonshire,  in  1607;  and 
in  1608  he  obtained  the  advowson  of  North  Kilwortb,  in 
Leicestershire.  He  was  no  sooner  invested  in  these  livings, 
but  he  put  the  parsonage- houses  in  good  repair,  and  gav^ 
twelve  poor  people  a  constant  allowance  out  of  them, 
which  was  bis  constant  practice  in  all  his  subsequent  pre- 
ferments. This  same  year  be  commenced  D.  D.  and  was 
made  chaplain  to  Neile,  bishop  of  Rochester ;  and  preached' 
his  first  sermon  before  king  James,  at  I'beobalds,  Sept. 
17,  1609.  In  order  to  be  near  his  ]>atron,  be  Exchanged 
North  Kilwortb  for  the  rectory  of  West  Tilbury,  in  Essex, 
into  which  he  was  inducted  in  1609..  The  following  year, 
the  bishop  gave  him  the  living  of  Cuckstone,  in  Kent,  on 
which  he  resigned  his  fellowship,  left  Oxford,  and  settled' 
at  Cuckstone  ;  but  the  unhealthiness  of  that  place  having-^ 
thrown  him  into  an  ague,  he  exchanged  it  800i>  after  for- 
Norton,  a  benefice  of  less  value^  but  in  a  better  air.  >. 

*  She  was  divorced  by  the  eeclesi'  in  the  opinion,  that  in  case  of  a  dr- 
astical  jtidge  for  adultery  ;  and  Laod  vorce,  both  the  innocent  and  guilly 
Viftliied  to  the  instances  of  his  patron     may  lawful) v  ra-marry. 

E    2 


M  L  A  U  D. 

In  Dec.  1610,  Dr.  Backeridge,  president  of  St.  J^obn% 
being  promoted  to  the  see  of  Rochester,  Abbot^  jnewijr 
nade  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  who  had  distiked  Laud^s 
principles  at  Osford,  complained  of  him  to  the  lord-chafi'- 
cdllor  Kliesoiepe,  chancellor  of  the  university;  AHedgtng 
that  be  was  cordially  addicted  to  popery.  The  comptaifii 
was  supposed  io  be  made,  in  order  to  prevent  his  see- 
needing  Bockeridge  in  the  presidentship  of  his  college ; 
and  the  lord-chancellor  carrying  it  to  the  king,  ail  his 
Cftedit,  Interest,  and  advancement,  would  probably  have 
been  destroyed  thereby,  had  not  his  firm  friend  bishop 
Neile  contradicted  the  reports  to  his  discredit.  He  was 
therefore  elected  president  May  10,  1611,  though  then 
sick  in  London,  and  unable  either  to  widke  interest  in  per- 
son or  by  writing  to  bis  friends;  and  the  king  not  only 
confinsed  his  election,  after  a  hearing  of  three  hoors  at 
Tichbourn^  but  as  a  farther  token  of  his  favour,  made  him 
-one  of  bis,  chaplains^  upon  the  recommendation  of  bishop 
Neile.  Laud  having  thus  attained  a  footing  at  court,  flat- 
tered himself  with  hopes  of  great  and  immediate  prefer- 
ment ;  but  abp.  Abbot  always  opposing  applications  in  hit 
behnJf,  after  three  years  fruitless  waiting,  he  was  upon 
the  point  of  leaving  the  oonrt,  and  retiring  wholly  to  bis 
cMeffif  when  his  friend  and  patron  Neile,  newly  trans- 
lilted  .  to  Lincoln,  prevailed  with  him  to  stay  one  year 
longer,  smd  in  the  mean  time  gav«  hwn  the  prebend  of  Bng- 
deOy  in  the  church  of  Lincoln,  in  l€t4 ;  and  the  arcbdea* 
eoory  of  Huntingdon  the  foUowing  year. 

Upon  the  lord*cbancellor  Ellesmere's  decline,  in  1616^ 
Laud's  interest  began  te  rise  at  court,  so  that,  in  Noveiti- 
ber  that  year,  the  king  gave  him  the  deanery  of  Giouces* 
ter ;  and  as  a  farther  instance  of  his  being  in  favoui*,  be 
was  selected  to  attend  the  king  in  his  journey  to  Scotland, 
in  1617.     Some  royal  directions  were  by  his  procurement 
sent  to  Oxford,  for  ibe  better  government  of  the  univer* 
sity,    before  he  set  out  on  that  journey,   tlie  design  of 
which  was  to  bring  the  church  of  Scotland  to  an  uniformity 
with  that  of  England;  a  fovourite  scheme  of  Laud  and 
other  divines :  but  the  Scotch  were  resolute  in  their  ad-- 
.faeience  to  the  presbyterian  form  of  church  government, 
and  the  only  fruit  of  this  expensive  journey  wes,  that  the- 
king  found  bis  commands  nugatory,  and  his  authority  cpQ- 
Hmned. 


LAUD.  15 


Laud,  faow€?«',  sdems  to  hsre  tdvancedl  in  fiuronr  mih 
his  RH^ieaty^  for  on  Ihs  relwrA  fron  Soodftnd^  Asg.  2>  ^6t79 
be  «vas  inducted  to  the  reotorjr  of  Ibstock,  in  Letceiea^- 
Akei  and  Ja»»  22,  1620-i»  installed  inio  a  |ireb€Qd  of 
WosMniaster.  Aboot  the  saaiof  time,  there  was  a  gewend 
•9pectaiio»  at  court,,  that  the  deanery  of  that  ofavrcb  wMld 
have  been  conferrod  upon  him;  but  Dr.  WiWaoM,^  liion 
dean^  vratMiagtoJceei^itin  coaiinendiMa wkh  thebiriiopric 
of  L^coliR^  to  which  he  was  promoted,,  procured  tbafc  Liiud 
^houM  be  pvoovoted  to  the  bishopric  of  St.  Daf  id^s.  The 
day  before  bis  conseeration,  da  resKg^aed  the  presidentship 
of  St^  Johii'a,  in  obedience  to*  the  cotiege- statute ;  baa  was 
pefUMkted^  to  k^tp  hh  pcebeod  of  Weitmiml«r  in  com* 
mendam^  tbKwigb  the  lordi-keeper  Wiilianna'a  interest, 
vrho,  abcMt  a  year  after,  gave  him  a  Iinriug  of  about  1202. 
a  year,  >q«  the  dioee^  of  Sl  David's,  to  help  his  revenue  ; 
and  10  jaeuary  1620^  the  king!  gave  hitti  also  the  rectory 
of  Creeke^  iti  Northamptanahire.  The  preacheni  of  those 
tiiae^  ietrodueing  m  their  sermona  discusitfons  on.  the  doc- 
trines of  predestination:  and  election,  and  even  the  noyal 
prero^aUrVey;  the  king  publisbedv  August  lr622,  directions 
cwcerning  preachers  and  preaching,  in  H^iich  L<iud  was 
said  to  baiie  a  baud,  and  whicfa^  being  aitned  at  the  pu^- 
vitaas  and  lecturers,,  occasioned  great  clamour  .among 
theniy  and'  was  one  of  the  first  causes  of  Laud^s  unpopu^ 
Jarity.  .  Tliis  year  also,  our  prelate  held*  his  famous  coti«- 
iereuoe  with  Fisher  the  Jesuit,  before  the  marquia  of 
Backinghao)  and  bis  mother^  in  order  to  confirm  them 
•both  in  the  protestantr  netigion,.  in>  wiiioh.  they  were  then 
fvavering,  -  Tber  conference  wiaa  printed  in  1624,  and  pro^ 
d^ed  an  intiaiafte  acqiuaititanoe  bemveen'  htm  and  the  mar* 
qfrn^  w^o^d  sfieoial  iavouritat  he  became  at  tlus  time,  and 
to  whom  be  \sf  charged  with  making  himself  too;  subsev- 
vient ;  the  proof  of  which  is  said  to  be,  that  Buckingham 
left-  him  his  agent  at  court,  when  be  went  with  the  prince 
to  Madrid,  and  frequently  cornesponded  witbhim. 
'  About  Oct*  1623,  the  lord-keeper  Wiliiams^s  jealousy 
of  Laud,  as  a  rival  in  the  duke  of  Buckingham's  favour^ 
and  other  misunderstandinga  or  misrepresentationaon  both 
rides,-  occasioned  such  animosity  between  these  two  pre* 
Ifttes^as  yvaa  attended  with  the  worst  consequences'  Arch^ 
bkhop  Abbot  also,  resolving  to  depress  Laud  aslpngas  be 
could^  left  him  out  of  the  high  commission,  of  which: he  co^i- 
plained  to  the  duLo  of  Buckingham,  Nov.  1624,  and  then* 


54 


L  A  U  D. 


was  put  into  the  commission.  Yet  he  was  tiot  so  attached 
.to  Buckingham,  as  not  to  oppose  the  design,  formed  by 
that  nobleman,  of  appropriating  the  endowment  of  the 
Charter-house  to  the  maintenance  of  an  army,  under  pre^ 
tenc^  of  its  being  for  the  king's  advantage  and  the  ease  of 
the  subject.  In  December  this  year,  he  presented  to  the 
duke  a  tract,  drawn  up  at  his  request,  under  ten  heads, 
concerning  doctrinal  puritanism.  He  corresponded  also 
with  him,  during  bis  absence  in  France,  respecting  Charles 
the  First^s  marriage  with  the  princess  Henrietta-Maria ; 
and  that  prince,  soon  after  his  accession  to  the  throne, 
wanting  to  regulate  the  number  of  his  chaplains,  and  to 
know  the  principles  and  qualifications  of  the  most  eminent 
divines  in  his  kingdom,  our  bishop  was  ordered  to  draw  a 
list  of  them,  which  he  distinguished  by  the  letter  O  for 
orthodox,  and  P  for  puritans.  At  Charles's  coronation, 
Feb.  2,  1625-6,  he  officiated  as  dean  of  Westminster,  in 
the  room  of  Williams,  then  in  disgrace;  and  has  been 
charged,  althodgh  unjustly,  with  altering  the  coronation- 
oath^.  In  1626  he  was  translated  from  St.  David's  to  . 
Bath  and  Wells ;  and  in  1 628  to  London.  The  king  having 
appointed  him  dean  of  his  chapel •roj'al,  in  1626,  and 
taken  him  into  the  privy-council  in  1627,  he  was  likewise 
in  the  commission  for  exercising  archiepiscopal  jurisdiction 
iluring  Abbot's  sequestration.  In  the  third  parliament  of 
king  Charles,  which  met  March  17,  1627,  he  was  voted 
a. favourer  of  the  Arminians,  and  one  justly  suspected  to 
be  unsound  in  his,  opinions  that  way  ;  accordingly,  his 
name  was  inserted  as  such  in  the  Commons'  remonstrance ; 
and,  because  he  was  thought  to  be  the  writer  of  the  king's 
speeches,  and  of  the  duke  of  Buckingham's  answer  to  his 
impeachment,  &c.  these  suspicions  so  exposed  him  to  po- 
pular rage,  that  his  life  was  threatened  f.     About  the  same 


*  The  alteration  was  said  to  be 
Ihia :  in  that  part  whera  the  king  swears 
<^  to  maintain  the  laws/'  be  added 
*'  so  far  forth  as  it  i-tands  with  the  pre- 
rogative ;"  or,  as  it  appears  in  Whar- 
ton's preface,  "  saving  tbe  king's  pre- 
rogative KoyaU''  litis  accusation  was 
renewed  by  lord  chief  baron  Atkyns, 
in  his  speech  to  the  lord  mayor^  Oct. 
1693,  with  a  bint  that  archbishop  San- 
crofl  had  struck  out  much  more  from 
tbe  coronation-oath  of  James  II.  Laud 
▼indicated  himself  at  bis  trial,  by  hav- 
ing the  bpokfl  of  tiie  coronation  of  king 


James  I.  and  king  Charles  compared, 
which  were  found  to  agree. 

f  A  paper  was  found  in  the  dean's 
yard  of  St.  PauPs  to  this  effect:  "  Laud, 
look  to  thyself;  be  assured  thy  life  is 
sought.  As  thou  art  the  fountain  of 
all  wickedness,  repent  thee  of  thy  mon- 
strous sins  before  tbou  be  taken  out  of 
the  world,  &c.  And  aftsnre  thyself 
neither  God  nor  tbe  world  c^a  endure 
such  a  vile  counsellor,  or  such  A  whim- 
perer j"  or  to  this  effect.  Laud's 
Diary,  p..4*» 


LAUD.  '  55 

feime>  he  was  put  into  an  ungracious  office  ;  namely,  in  a 
commissipn  for  raising  money  by  impositions,  which  the 
Cooimons  called  excises ;  but  it  seems  never  to  have  been 
executed. 

Amidst  all  these  employments,  bis  care  was  often  exerted 
*  towards  the  place  of  his  education,  the  university  of  Ox- 
ford. In  order  to  rectify  the  factious  and  tumultuary  man- 
uer  of  electing  pr6ctors,  he  fixed  them  to  the  several  col- 
leges by  rotation,  and  caused  to  be  put  into  order  the  jar- 
ring and  imperfect  statutes  of  that  university,  which  had 
lain. confused  some  hundreds  of  years.  In  April  1630  he 
was  elected  their  chancellor ;  and  he  made  it  his  business, 
the;  rest  of  his  life,  to  adorn  the  university  with  buildings, 
and  to  enrich  it  with  books  and  MSS.  In  the  first  design 
he  began  with  his  own  college,  St.  John's,  *  where  he  built 
the  inner  quadrangle  (except  part  of  the  south  side  of  it, 
which  was  the  old  library)  in  a  solid  and  elegant  manner  : 
the  first  stone  of  this  design  was  laid  in  1631.  He  also 
erected  that  elegant  pile  of  building  at  the  west-end  of  the 
divinity-school,  known  by  the  name  of  the  convocation- 
bouse  below,  and  Selden's  library  above  * ;  and  gave 
the  university,  at  several  times,  1300  MSS.  in  Hebrew, 
Syriac,  Chaldee,  Egyptian,  Ethiopian,  Armenian,  Arabic, 
Persian,  Turkish,  Russian,  Chinese,  Japanese,  Greek,  La- 
tin, Italian^  French,  Saxon,  English,  and  Irish  ;  an  inva- 
luable collection,  procured  at  a  prodigious  expence. 

A^ter  the  duke  of  Buckingham's  murder,  Laird  became 
chief /avourite  to  Charles  I.  which  augmented  indeed  his 
ppvver  and  interest,  but  at  the  same  time  increased  that 
envy  and  jealousy,  already  too  strong,  which  at  length 
proved  fatal  to  him.  Upon  the  decline  of  archbishop  Ab- 
bot's health  and  favour  at  cotilrt,  Laud*s  concurrence  in  the 
very  severe  prosecutions  carried  on  in  the  high-commission 
and  star-chamber  courts,  against  preachers  and  writers, 
did  him  great  prejudice  with  most  people.  Among  these, 
however,  it  has  been  remarked  that  bis  prosecution  of  the 
king^s  printers,  for  leaving  out  the  word  **  not,''  in  the 
seventh  commandment,  could  be  liable  to  no  just  ob- 
jection.     On  May  13,  163  3,  he   left  London   to  attend 

*  Ue  ha<]  also  projected  to  clear  the  vocations  an-l  con^rei^ations,  the  law«r 

^rcat$tquarebelwe«D  St.  Mary's  church  for  a  walk  or  place  of  coiirerence,  ^e. 

ami  the  suhools,  where  now  sUnds  the  But,  the  owners  of  ihe  hauses  not  j^eios 

RadclifTe-iibrary.-    His  desifu  was  i<v  witling  to  part  with  iheniy  the  design 

raise  a  fair  and  spacious  room  upon  was  fru:>traievi*     HcyliUj  p.  379, 
pillars,  ibc  upper  part  to  %erre  for  coa- 


'ss,-  I<  A  U  p, 

t^  kiag^  y^o  waj^s  ^ho^sfi  t^  a^t  Qi^t  l^p  Uii  Q0MiHKli<|9  isr 
^:9il^ud2  and  w^a  sworti  ft  privy-comi^^if^r  of  .^b»k  kiag^ 
doxD^  June  15,  s^n4  ou  ttie  26th^  om^.  faAek  to  FuUimii. 
During  his  stay  in  Scotland  he   formed  a  resololion  oh 
b^iqg^og  that  church  tq  a  cpnformly  vi.tb  ibe  cboroh.of 
£%^9d  ;  hijk%  the  king  c^minitt^  the  ftz^mog  of  a  Ufliurgji. 
tQ  s^syel^t  nuii^ber  of  ScQ,ttisb  bii^ops,  wdbo,  infterlaDg.  se^. 
veral  variations  fy^m  tiie  EngUsb  litwrgy,  "w^ra  Qf>posed 
s.tre»uouts\y  biut  unsuccessfully,  by'  L«uii.     Having  endo^ 
voured  to.  su^ppl^^t  Abbplij  ^^  wlp^oqi,^'  ast  £tiiU«B  obsei^vMi 
i%  ^M  ^huifch  history,  S^  b^  cokM  uol  be  catt tented  t^i 
sij^c^/^  upcvii  h.i>»  de^ij^b  \u  Auj^t  Ibis  year,  ine  wa» 
^PPK^^P^^^  ^is  syc^esfliQ^.     'tk^  v^ry^  moxoing,  August  4, 
tbere  canae  oD^e  to  him  at  Qvei^nwic^  wilb  a  serious  offer 
(^nd  ap  avQ^^d  abiUty  to  ps^r^Qirm.  \i)i  ^i  a  eardkial'ii  hat ; 
wh^ich  ol^r  Wi^  rep/^aited  o^  %bf^  1%^;  but  his  answer  bath 
tinges  w^,  ^^  tb«at  ^OQ^e^^rbs^t  dwelt  withiu  him  whieh  would 
i^o.t  suffer  thfLt  ti^l  R9m^  were  q^h^r.  thao  it  is."     On  Sept. 
14  be  w.as  elected  cba^oeUoii^  of  t^b^  uc^YeriMty  of  Dublin.   : 
One  of  bis^  &^st  acts^^  a^ft^r  bis  adyancement  ta  the  apchx* 
bisljiopric,  was  ^n  injunotion,  October  1$,  pujrsuant  to  the 
.kiug^s  letter,  that  no.  pJ^rgymant  dikOii^M  b^  ordaiued  priest 
witbput  a  title.     A^t  ^be  s.aa9.e  ti.9).ecaiii:e!ovit  the  king^&der 
citation  about  lavi^f^l  s^r^Si  Qf)>  SjUiAdays,  wbkh  L^ud  was 
cbagrged .  with  having  reviv^  a[\d  oalairged  ;  andibkat,  with 
the. vexatious  pecsetcutioii^  of  sj^/ch  ciejpgym^a  as  refused' so 
read  it  in  their  churches,  brought  a  great  odjuut)  ispoa  him. 
It  wa3  in.  vaip  that  1^  plew^ed   precedents  in   foreign 
cljiurches;  and  perhaps  19^  a^  of  thift  unhappy  iieign  gave  a 
n^ore  violent  sbock  to  the  iQyab^  of  tha  peof)le,  which 
Laud,  unfortunately,  seldpra^  ooosMHed.     Soon  aitec  he  y e^ 
fa^tbf  r  interfered  with  pppuUv  pcejttdioea.     Dtturing  a  me^ 
t];opoliticaI  visitation,  by  his  ^i<^v«!geoeral,  a^iong  other 
regulations,  th^,  cburcbrviraffdens  io  eviory  parish  were,  en- 
joined to  ijemove  the  compauniourtaJlile  from  thei^iddie  ta 
the  ea^t  end  of  the  chancel,  {Jtar-wise^  the  ground  ben>g 
raised  for  tha.t  purpose,  apd,  to  fence  it  in.  with  diecent  raib, 
to  avoid  profaneness  ;  and  the  ref usu^ra  were  prosecuted  in 
the  high-con^miasion  or  star-chambei;  courts.     In  this  visi* 
tation,  the  Dutch  and  Walloon  congregations  were  sum- 
moned to  appear;  and  such  as  were  bocn  in  England  en- 
joined to  repair  to  the  seveir^l  parisbncburicbea  ^ere«  they 
inhabited,  to  hear  divine  service  and  sermons,  and  perform 
all  duties  and  payments  required  on  that  behalf;  and.  thos>e* 


1.  A  U  D.  5» 

I 

tflbMiy  nakiistarsand  Qlbex%  tibat  vert  ftKeiM  born,  to  lut 
llio  isUi^isb  Uturgy  ^ansh^od  inio  FrcuMeb  or  Dutch ;  but 
mmf  of  tbese^  ratbor  ihai^  eomply^  choae  to  leave  tbe  king- 
4a«»;  V^  cbe  great  detriment  of  oar  maDufeetures. 

In  1 6^4  our  avcbbisbep  did  the  pocw  IrUb  clergy  a  very 
io^fMirtJim  aenriee^  by  obfcaiiiing  for  Ibein,  from  the  king,  a 
{iaojk  of  aU  the  impropriatioiis  then  remaining  ka  tbe  crown. 
Ke  alao  iai^oved  and  settled  tbe  voveimea  ef  tbe  London 
clergy  in  a  better  manner  than  befo«e«  On  Feb.  5, 1634-.5, 
be  was  put  into  tbe  gr^t  ceoinaittee  of  trade,  and  tbe 
kifig'a  refvei>ue,  and  apipointed  one  of  tbe  eommisstonerB  of 
tbe  tdieasury,  March  tbe  4tb,  'upoA  the  deatb  of  Weston 
earii  of  Portland.  Besadea  ihift,  he  was,  two  day»  after, 
called  into  tbe  foreign  coataittee^  and  had  likewise  the 
aide  diapoMd  of  whatsoever  concerned  the  cbui ob  ;  but  be 
Ml  into  warm  disputes  with  the  lord  Cottington,  cbancellev 
ef  tbe  exchequer,  who  took  all  opportunities  of  imposing 
upon  bkn  ^.  Aft^r  having  continued  for  a  year  commis* 
i^oiier  ol*  tbo  ireaaury,  and  acc^inted  himself  with  tbe 
ajTstecies  of  it^  be  procused  the  brd-treasurer^s  staff  for 
fi^.  WiUiam  Jijucotii,  wbe  ba«l  thretugh  bis  interest  been 
sofloesaiveiy  advianced  to  tbe  presidentship  of  St.  John's 
cellegey.  deanery  of  Woreeatec,  elerbship  of  bis  majesty's 
oioset,  and  bissbepsie  o£  L<»ndon,  as  already  noticed  in  our 
life  of  J4ixon.  For  some  years  Laud  had  set  his  heart 
upm  getting  tbe  English  liturgy  introdoced  into  Sco«iaml ; 
and  some  of  the  Scottish  bishops  bad,  uiMier  his  directiOR, 
prepared  both  that  book  and  a  collection  of  canons  for 
public  service;  Um  capons  were  published  in  1635,  but 
tbe  liturgy  came  not  in  use  till  1 637.  On  the  day  it  was* 
fiat  read  «t  St  Giles's  churchy  in  Edinburgh,  it  occasioned 
Inmost  violent  tumult  among  tbe.  people,  eivcouraged  by 
the  nobility,  who  were  losers  by  the  restitution  df  episco- 
pacy, aiul  by  tbe  ministers,  who  lost  tbeir  clerical  goverif^ 
ment.  Laud,  having  been  tbe  greaib  promoter  of  that 
aftiiv,  was  reviled  for  it  iii  tbe  most  abusive  manner,  and 
bodi  h#^anrd  the  book  were  changed,  with  downright  popery. 
Tbe  estremely  severe  prosecution  carried  on  about  the* 
aame^timeio  the  star-cbamben,  chiiefly  through  his  insti- 

<  .  * 

'in  AS)  CqUuigtoiK  v;V>  ^^  i^VOft  Bf tfal  oC  Ridiraoiut.park,   aud    which    tliey/ 

ct»urt>er  ttult   perhaps  any  tinap   hjis  both  agreed  to  dissutidQ  his    Majesty 

]irurfi|OCH}>   fcHud'B'Open  hoaffty  twis  from  ait+MjK-mp,  may  he, seen  in  Cla- 

•P.  ePM| •  pf « y/  ^ .  biio.    Am  iaat^iMe  qC  tfiut^u i^s  ii6»h  .^^  th<)  R^beU>op». 
tbis^  wiib.  i^gaitl  U>  the-ik«treDclosioj(^ 


5$  LAUD. 

gation,  against  Prynne,  Bastwick,  and  Burton,  did  bitrr 
also  infinite  prejudice,  and  exposed  him  to  numberless 
libels  and  reflections;  though  he  endeavoured  to  vindicate 
his  conduct  in  a  speech  delivered  at  their  censure,  June 
14,  1637,  which  was  published  by  the  king's  command. 
Aijother  rigorous  prosecution,  carried  on  with  his  concur- 
rence, in  the  star-chamber,  was  against  bishop  Williams, 
an  account  of  which  may  be  seen  in  bis  article,  as  also  of 
Lambert  Osbaldiston,  master  of  Westminster  school. 

In  order  to  prevent  the  printing  and  publishing  of  what 
he  thought  improper  books,  a  decree  was  passed  in  the 
star-chamber,  July  11,  1637,  to  regulate  the  trade  of  print-* 
^^^^9  '^y  wbich   it   was  enjoined  that  the  masters-printers^ 
should  be  reduced  to  a  certain  number,  and  that  none  of- 
them  should  print  any  books  till  they  were  licensed  either 
by  the  archbishop,  or  the  bishop  of  London,  or  some  of 
their  chaplains,  or  by  the  chancellors  or  vice-chaneellors 
of  the  two  universities.     Accused  as  he  frequently  wa&,  of 
popery,  he  fell  under  the  queen's  displeasure  this  year,: 
by  speaking,  with  his  usual  warmth,  to  the  king  at  the 
council-table  against  the  increase  of  papists,  their  frequent 
resort  to  Somerset  house,  and  their   insufferable  mitde- 
uieanors  in  perverting  his  majesty's  subjects  to  popery,- 
On  Jan.  3i,  1(538-9,  he  wrote  a  circular  letter  to  his  suf- 
fragan bishops,  exhorting  theoi  and  their  clergy  to  contri-* 
bote  liberally  towards  raising  the  army  against  the  Scots; 
For  this  he  was  called  an  incendiary:  but  he  declares,  on.  . 
the  contrary,  that  he   laboured  for  peace  so  long,  till  b^ 
i^ceived  a  great  check ;  and  that,  at  court  his  counsels 
alone  prevailed  for  peace,  and  forbearance.     In  1639  he    - 
employed   one    Mr.   Petley  to   translate  the   liturgy  into* 
Greek;    and,  at  his  recommendation,     Ur.  Joseph  :Hail,^ 
bishop  of  Exeter,  composed  his  learned  treatise  of  <*  Epis- 
copacy by  Divi{)e  Right  asserted."     On  Dec.  9,  the  same 
year,  he  was  one  of  the  three  privy-counseilors  who  ad^- 
vised  the  king  to  call  a  parliament  in  case  of  the  Scot- 
tish rebellion;  at  which  time  a  resolution,  was  adopted 
to  assist  the  king  in  extraordinary  ways,  if  the  parliament  _ 
should  prove  peevish  and  refuse  supplies.     A  new  parlia-^« 
ment  being  summoned,  met  April  13,  1649,  and  the  con« 
vocation  the  day  following;  but  the  Copiinons  beginning    ' 
with  complaints  against  tlie  archbishop,  and  insisting  upon 
a  redress  of  grievances  before  they  granted  any  supply, 
the  parliament  was  unhappily  dissolved^  May  5.     The  con- 


LAUD. 


59 


vcX^aiion,  however,  vcontinued  sitting;  and  certain  canons 
were  made  in  it,  which  gave  great  offence.  On  Laud  many 
laid  the  blame  and  odium  of  the  parliament's  dissolution  ; 
and  that  noted  enthusiast,  John  Lilburne,  caused  a  paper 
to  be  posted,  May  3,  upon  the  Old  Exchange,  animating 
the  apprentices  to  6ack  his  house  at  Lambeth  the  Monday 
fallowing.  On  tha<  day  above  5000  of  them  assembled  in 
a  riotous  and  tumultuous  manrrer ;  but  the  archbishop,  re- 
ceiving previous  notice,  secured  the  palace  as  well  as  he 
cotfid,  and  retired  to  his  chamber  at  Whitehall,  where  he 
remained  some  days;  and  one  "of  the  ringleaders  was 
hanged,  drawn,  and  quartered,  on  the  21st.  In  August 
following,  a  libel  was  found  in  Covent-garden,  exciting 
the  apprentices  and  soldiers  to  fall  upon  him  in  the  king's 
absence,  upon  his  second  expedition  into  Scotland.  The 
parliament  that  met  Nov.  3,  i  640,  not  being  better  disposed 
towards  him,  but,  for  the  most  part,  bent  upon  his  ruin, 
several  angry  speeches  were  made  against  him  in  the  House 
of  commons. 

It  can  be  no  wonder  that  his  rain  should  appear  certain, 
considering  bis  many  and  powerful  eneanies ;  almost  the 
whole  body  of  the  puritans ;  many  of  the  English  nobility' 
and  others;  and  the  bulk  of  the  Scotch  nation.  The  pu-' 
ritans  considered  him  as  the  sole  author  of  the  innovations 
and  of  the  persecutions  against  them  ;  the  nobility  could 
not  brook  his  warm  and  imperious  manner,  and  his  grasp- 
ing at  the  office  of  prime- minister;  and  the  Scots  were 
excited  to  rebellion,  by  the  restoring  of  episcopal  govern- 
ment^ and  the  introduction  of  the  English  service-book 
among  them.  In  this  state  of  general  discontent,  he  was 
not  only  examined,  Dec.  4,  on  the  earl  of  Strafford's  case, 
but)  when  the  Commons  came  to  debate  upon  the  late 
canons  and  convocation,  he  was  represented  as  the  author 
of  them*;  and  a  committee  was  appointed  to  inquire  into. 


^  Upon  the  attack  made  upon  him 
for  these  canons,  he  wrote  the  fol lov- 
ing letter  to  Selden,  an  active  man  in 
the  Commons  agrainst  him :  '*  To  my 
much  honored  friend  Mr.  Selden  these, 
Sal.  in  Chriftto.  Worthy  sir,  I  under-  ' 
stand  ttvit  tlie  byainets  about  the  late 
ranoni  will  be  handled  againe  in  your- 
Hoiue  tonaorrowe.  I  shall  never  aske 
any  unworthie  thinge  of  you ;  but  give 
me  leave  M  aaye  as  fbilowes  :  If  wee 
have  erred  in  an  ye  point  of  legalityc 
uoknoirne  unto  us,  wee  shall  be  bar* 


tilye  sorrye  for  it,  and  hope  that  erroc 
shall  not  be  made  a  cry  me.  We  heare 
that  ship-monye  is  layd  aside,  .as  a 
thinge  that  will  dye  of  itself;  and  I 
am  gfad  it  will  have  «oe  quiett  a  death. 
Maye  not  these  nnfortuf^ate  canons  be 
•uflTered  to  dye  as  quyetlye,  without 
btetiii^hinge  the  church,  wbicb  bath  so 
m^iiye  enemies  hioth  at  home  and 
abroad?  and  if  thiss  may  be,  1  heare 
promise  you,  I  will  presenllye  humblye 
teseeche  his  majesty e  for  a  licence 'tu 
review  the  canons  and  abrogat  them^ 


M 


L  A  tl  D. 


aUbisacUofl%  aloid  prepare  a  charge  agarnst  iiinv  on  the 
letb.  The  samemoriung^  ia  tke  House  of  Lords,  he  was 
Qaoobed  as  an  ineeikdiavy,  m  an  accosatiott  from  the  Scottish 
coriMnissioQer^ ;  and,  two  days  .after,  an  impeachinent  of 
hi^b- treason  was  carried  up  t»  tike  Ipovds  by  Dentil  Hoire9> 
desiring  be  qnight  be  forthwith  secpesteted  from  parlia- 
Qient,  aad  committed,  axd  the  Comrooivi  would,  in  a  con* 
veoient  time,  resoirt  to  them  witb  particular  articles.  ^Sooii 
after,  the  Scotch  eommtssionera  presented  also  to  the  up« 
per  House  the  charge  against  him,  tending  to  prove  htm 
an  incendiary,  and  he  was  immediately  committed  to  the 
custody  of  the  black  rod.  After  ten  weeks,  sir  Henry 
Vane,  junior,  brought  up^  Feb.  2:6,  foarteen  articles  against 
bim,  whiiQb  they  desired  time  to  proite  in  particular,  anJ, 
in  the  n»ean  tioie,  that  he  be  Icept  safe.  Accordingly,  the 
black  rod  conveyed  him  to  the  Tower,  March  1,  1640i-]!, 
amidst  the  insults  and  reproaches  of  the  mob. 

Hia  enemies,  of  which  the  number  was  great,  began 
then  to  give  full  vent  to  their  passions  and  prejudices,  and 
ta  endeavour  to  ruin,  bis  reputation.  In  March  and  April, 
the  House  of  Commons  ordered  him,  jointly  wid)  ail  those' 
that  had  parsed  seatence  in  the  Star-eliamber  against  Bar-' 
tan,  Bastwick,  and  Prynne^  tx>  make  satisfaction  and  repsr- 
cation  for  the  damages  thi»y  had  sustained  by  their  sentence^ 
and  imprifionnpent ;  ancl  be  was  fined  20,000/.  for  bis  act- 
ing in  the  late  con  voeation.  He  was  also  condemned  by* 
the  House  of  Londs.  to  pay  50O&.  to  sir  Robert  Howard  for 
faise  imprisonment.  This  pecson  was  living  ia  open  adul- 
tery with  lady  f  unbeck ;  and  both  were  imprisoned  by  an 
Qrdec  of  the  bigU.  commissioa court,  at  the  king's  particiiiar 
CQjlUQandk  Qn*  June 25,.  L64-1,  be  resigned  his*  ehaiioeMor-' 
ship  of  the  university  of  0<s3fend>;  and,  in-  October,  t<he» 
House  of  Lords  seqnMbered  bis  j^ri^ction,  putting  it  ivivo- 


•isaringe  mreself  that  all  my  brethren 
will  joyne  with  me  to  pr^senre  the  pub- 
irck  peace,  ralHer  ihan  that  act  of  onrs 
should  be  thoivgbt-a  publick  grievance. 
And  upon  niye  crcditt  with  yoU|  I  had 
moved*  for  ih:*s  licence  at  the  verye 
lirst  sftun^v  uf  thiss  parliament,  but 
tHat  both  rny.eHf  if  and  others  diii  feare 
the  Ht>a8e  of'CoiDYnous  would  lake  of- 
f&ncv  at  it  (as  tin  y  did  at  ihe  last)  and 
sa^^le,  wee  did'  ii  on  purpcse  to  pre* 
vent  Utpm.  I  understand  yuu  meane 
taipeak  of'ihi<s.  business  in  the  House 
tomorrow^  and  that  b«tb  wade  me 


Wright  tlie«e  lynes  to  you,  to  lett  yon 
know  our  meaninge  and  desypes.  Afid 
1  shall  take  it  for  a  great  kindness  to 
me,  and  a  great  service  to  the  ciiiuroba 
if  by  your  means  the  Hou^  wiU>  be 
satisfied  with  tiiisy,  which  is  hearo 
offered,  of  abrogatifige  the  canons. 
Ta  God's  blensed  protection  I  jts^fo 
yjoUj.and  rest  , 

Your  loving  poore  frei^d*  . 
iyimbeth,  Nov.  '^V,  1640.       Vf^CSifT* 
"  I  mean   to  move  the   king  tliias 
daye  for  a  KceAse  "at  i»  within  ino»> 
tioned/'  ♦ 


fOt^.^  4yi,  ^i*t'- 


LAUD.  tl 

the  hamAg  of  his  infmor  oftceni ;  and  enjcniied,  dmt  h« 
ehauld  give  no  benefice  widiout  fiist  having  the  House's 
Approbation  of  the  person  nominated  by  him.  On  Jan*  20, 
1644-2,  they  ordered  his  armoury  at  Lambeth-palace,  which 
had  cost  him  above  SOO/.  and  whiefa  tbey  represented  aa 
sufficient  for  2000  men,  to  be  taken  away  by  the  sheriffs 
of  London.  Before  the  end  of  the  year,  all  the  rents  and 
profits  of  the  archbishopric  were  sequestered  by  the  lords 
for  the  nseof  the  oomcnonvrealtli ;  and  bis  hoase  was  plun* 
dered  of  what  money  it  aflbrded  by  two  members  of  the 
Hottse  of  Commons ;  and  sncb  was  their  wanton  sei^eriiyi 
than  when  he  petitioned  the  parliament  afterwards  for  a 
maintenance)  he  could  not  obtain  any,  nor  even  the  leain 
part  of  abore  two  hundred  pounds  worth  of  his  own  wood 
and  coal  at  Lambeth,  for  his  necessary  use  in  the  Tower* 
On  April  25,  t64S,  a  motion  was  made  in  the  House  ef 
Commons,  at  the  instance  of  Hugh  Peters  and  olbers  of 
that  stamp,,  to  send  or  transport  him  to  New  England  ;  but 
that  motion  was  rejected.  On  May  9>  his  goods  and  books 
in  Lambeth-house  were  seized,  and  the  goods  sold  for 
scarce  the  third  part  of  their  value,,  and  all  this  before  be 
had.  been  brought  to  any  trial,  the  issise  of  which  alone 
eould  justify  such  proce^edings.  Seven  days  after,  there 
came  ont  an  ordinance  of  parliament^  enjoining  him  to 
give  no  benefice  without  leave  and  order  of  both  Houses* 
On  May  31,  W.  Prynne,  by  a  warrant  from  the  clost 
eommittee,  came  ami  searched  his  room,  while.be  was  in 
bed,  and  even  rifled  his  pockets ;  tidcing  away  his  diary, 
private  devotions,  and  twenty-one  bundiet  of  piipers,  which 
he  had  prepaned  for  his  own  defence.  Prynne  promised  e 
^hful  restitution  ol'  th«m  within  three  or  four  days ;  hnt 
he  never  returned  quite  three  buiSlles  of  the  papen.  in 
the  mean  time,  the  archbishop  not  complying  exactly  with 
she  ordinance  above-mentioned,  all  the  temporalities  of 
his  archbishopric  were  sequestered  to  the  pariiametit  Jtrne 
10,  and  he  was  suspentled  from  his.  office  and  benefice, 
and  from  all  jurisdiction  whatsoever. 

On  Oct.  24,  an  order  was  brought  to  the  archbishop, 
ivom  the  Lords,  with  ten  additional  articles  of  impeachment 
from  the  Commons,  adding  to  the  charge  of  treason  **  other 
high  crimes  and  misdemeanours/*  He  petitioned  for  his 
papers,  but  the  committee  oil  sequestrations  would  nos 
grant  them,  nor  permit  any  copies  but  at  Iris  own  ex^eoce; 
and  as  to  any  allowance  fof  the  charges  of  his  trials  it  waa 


6a  L  A  0  D. 

iasuUingly  said  by  Mr.Glyn,  "that  h«  might  plead  ia/arfHa 
pauperis?^  At  length  Mr.  Deil,  his  secretary,  was  ap- 
pointed bis  solicitor,  and  Mr.  Heme,  of  Lincoln's-inn,  bis 
counsel;  and  two  .ihore  servants  were  sent  to  bim,  for  bis 
assistance.  After  nearly  three  years*  imprisonmejit,  on 
Nov.  13  the  archbishop  was  brought  to  the  bar  of  the 
House  of  Lords,  and  put  in  his  answer  in  writing,  in  this 
form,  ^'  all  advantages  of  law  against  this  impeachmeDC 
saved  and  reserved  to  this  defendant,  he  pleads,  not  guilty, 
to  all  and  every  part  of  the  impeachment,  in  manner  and 
form  as  it  is  changed  in  the  articles  ;*'  and  to  this  answer 
be  then  .set  bis  band.  He  then  petitioned  that  bis  counsel 
might  be  heard,  and  might  advise  him,  both  with  regard 
to  law  and  fact;  which  was.  allowed  in  things  not  charged 
as  treason.  On  Jan.  8,  there  was  an  order  for  the  arch- 
bishop^s  appearance  ;  but,  at  his  request,  it  was  postponed 
to  the  16th  ;  when  the  committee  began  vi^itb  the  foriper 
general  articles,  to  which  the  archbishop  had  put  in  no 
answer,  nor  even  joined  issue  :  therefore  he  was  peremp- 
torily commanded  to  put  in  his  answer  both  to  the  original 
and  additional  articles,  in  writing ;  which  he  did,  plead- 
ing, in  general,  not  guilty.  .     .  ' 

On  Tuesday,  March  12,  1643-4,  the  trial  was  opened  in 
form^  tbe  original  and  additional  articles  of  impeachment 
were  read,  and,  after  that,  the  arcbbishop^s  answer,  plea; 
and  demurrer  to  tbem.  He  requested  that  the  charge  and 
evidence  to  all  the  articles  might  be  given  together ;  and 
the  articles  of  misdemeanour  separated  from  those  of  trea- 
son ;  to  which  the  celebrated  lawyer,  Maynard,  answereid, 
that,  in  the  earl  of  Strafford*s  trial,  he  was  put  to  answer 
every  day  tbe  particular  evidence  given  that  day ;  thac  they 
were  now  only  to  try  matters  of  fact,  hot  of  law,  and  that 
all  the  articles  collectively,  not  any  one  separately,  made 
up  ;the  charge  of  treason.  Serjeant  Wilde  then  made  a 
long  speech,  upon  the  charge  of  high  treason,  insisting 
chiefly  upon  the  archbishop^s  attachment  to  popery,  and 
his  intention  to  introduce.it  into  England  ;  concluding  with 
these  words,  that  *'  Naaman  was  a  great  man,  but  he  was 
a  leper,"  and  that  the  archbishop^s  leprosy  had  so  infected- 
all,  *^  as  there  remained  no  other  cure  but  the  sword  of 
justice/'  The  archbishop  replied  to  the  several  charges, 
and  mentioned  various  persons  whom  he  had  brought  hack 
from  the  Romish  religion,  particularly  sir  William  Webbe^ 
his . l^insmaii^  and  two  of .  his  daughters;  his  sofi  ht^  took. 


LAUD.  68 

ftQta .  bim ;  aod,  his  father  being  utterly  decayed,  bred 
him  at  bis  own  cbarge,  and  educated  him  in  the  prbtestant 
religion.     The  trial  lasted  above  twenty  days,  and  on  Sept. 
2f  1644,  the  archbishop  made  a  recapitulation  of  the  whole 
cause ;  but,  as  soon  as  he  came  into  the  House,  he  saw 
every  lord  present  with  a  new  thin  book  in  folio,  in  a  blue 
cover;  which  was  his  "  Diary,"  which  Prynne,  as  already 
mentioned,  had  robbed  him  of,  and  printed  with  notes  of 
bis  own,  to.  disgrace  the  archbishop.     On  Sept.  11,  Mr. 
Brown  delivered,  in  the  House  of  Lords,  a  summary  of 
the  whole  charge,  with  a  few  observations  on  the  arch- 
bisbop^s  answer.     The  queries  of  his  counsel  on  the  law  of 
treason  was  referred  to  a  committee ;  which  ordered  his 
counsel  to  be  heard  on  Oct.  J  I,  when  Mr.  Heme  delivered 
bis  argument  with  great  firmness  an^  resolution.     The  lord 
chancellor  Finch  told  archbishop  Sancroft  that  the  argu- 
riieot  was  sir  Matthew  Hale*s,  afterwards  lord  chief  justice ; 
and  that  being  then  a  young  lawyer,  he,  Mr.  Finch,  stood 
behind  Mr.  Heme,  at  the  bar  of  the  house,  and  took  notes 
of  it^  which  he  intended. to  publish  in  his  reports.     With 
this  argument,  the  substance  of  which  may  be  seen  in  our 
authorities,  the  trial  ended  for  that  day ;  but,  after  this,  a 
petition  was  sent  about  LondQn,  '^  for  bringing  delinquents 
to  justice  ;"'  and  many  of  the  preachers  exhorted  the  people 
to  sign  it ;  so  that  with  a  multitude  of  hands,  it  was  deli-< 
vered  to  the  House  of  Commons,  on  Oct.  8.     The  arch* 
bishop  was  summoned  on  Nov.  2,  to  the  House  of  Coni- 
mons,  to  hear  the  whole  charges,  and  to  make  his  defence, 
which  he  did  at  large,  Nov.  U.     On  the  following  Wed- 
nesday Mr.  Brown  replied;  and  after  the  afchbishop  was 
dismissed,  the  House  called  for  the  ordinance,  and  without 
hearing  bis  counsel,   voted  him  guilty  of  high  treason. 
After  vj^rious  delays,  the  Lords  had  a  conference  with  the 
Commons,  on  Dec.  24,  in  which  they  declared,  *^  that  they 
had  diligently  weighed  ail  things  charged' against  the  arch* 
bishop,  but  could  not,  by  any  one  of  them,,  or  all,  find 
bim  guilty  of  treason."  The  judges  had  unanimously  made 
the  same  declaration.     At  the  second  conference,  on  Jan* 
2,  1644*5,  the  reasons  of  the  Commons  for  the  attainder 
of  the.  archbishop  were  coipmunicated  to  the  Lords,  who 
in  a  very  thin  bouse,  passed  the  ordinance  that  he  should 
suffer  death  by  bangingy^  which  was  fixed  for  Friday  the 
loth.     He  pleaded  the  king^s  pardon,  under  the  great  seaH 
which  was  over-ruled,  and  rejected,  without  being  read, 


««  L  A  U  D. 

md  the  onlj  fafonr  granted^  and  lisat  ci^tet  ^Uf  Md  #]|li 
reiucuficei  was,  tbiit  bis  sentence  riunild  be  eblidged  to 
beheading. 

The  arcbbisfaop  coatioaed  4  jouriMil  of  dll  tb^  ttrctmft' 
stances  of  bis  trial  aod  impiisoinneiit  to  Jftitttary  9 ;  but  oh 
bearing  that  tke  bill  of  aitaindttr  bsd  passed  ifaie  Lord^  bd 
broke  off  bis  bistoty,  and  prepared  biodscif  f<^  dtoth.  He 
received  the  notice  with  gn^at  oditiposttfev  and  paAMd  tbe 
tidne  between  bis  sentence  and  esteetMion^  in  prityet  Md 
devout  exercises.  He  slept  soundly  the  night  before  bis 
death,  till  tlie  time  came  whet)  his  servants  were  appbiflted 
to  attend  his  rising ;  then,  he  applied  bimsetf  td  hia  pri^ik,le 
prayers^  and  so  continved  until  sir  John  PenAingtoA, 
lieutenant  of  the  Tower,  came  to  cottdWct  bite  tH  tbe 
scafibid,  which  be  ascended  with  a  cheerfel  eouAt^ftniMy 
and  was  beheaded  Jan.  10^  I644-S|  libout  12  o'eto^k  it^ 
noon.  His  body  was  buried  in  the  cbureb  of  AlUhaltowSy 
Barking;  but  was  removed  to  St.  JobA^s  c^teg^  ii^  lM%^ 
where  it  was  placed  in  a  vank  in  the  cbap^l. 

By  bis  will,  dated  Jan.  13,  1643,  be  bequeiaibed  the 
bulk  of  bis  property  to  chariubie  of  libertal  p^^^^es :  to  fit. 
John's  college,  all  his  chapel  plate  andfufhiriufe^  wb&t  bocfks 
tfaey  bad  fK)t  in  their  library,  and  5002.  lo  pnrcbftse  hindi, 
the  rent  to  be  divided  between  every  scholar  and  fellow  6t) 
Ost  i  7,  every  y^&r.  We  have  already  oientioned  that  be 
blsik  the  inner  qoadrangle  of  8u  John's ;  be  also  bbtaikied 
froA  king  CbBrle^  the  vicarage  ef  8t  Leareinie  fMf  this 
college!,  with  other  valuable  preferiMnts.  He  foDhded 
an  Arable  lecture  which  began  to  be  read  Aug.  10,  16$^, 
by  the  celebrated  Pocoeke,  whose  saccessors  ka>^  b^M 
aU  schoiani  of  eminence^  Drs.  Hyde,  Walli^,  tinht,  and 
the  late  Dr.  Joseph  White.  To  the  bishopric  ef  Oxford, 
Laud  added  Ae  impropriation  of  the  vicarage  of  Cudde^-^. 
deti«  In  his  native  town  of  Reading  be  founded  an  eicef- 
lent  school. 

His  diaracter  has  been  variously  represented,  ahd  ihde6d 
enters  mare  or  tesa  into  every  controversy  reitpecting  the 
ttnbappy  reign  in  which  be  flourished.  He  was  a  man  df 
strict  integrity,  sincere^  and  zealous ;  but,  in  matiy  re- 
spects, was  indiscreet  and  obstinate,  eagerly  pursuing 
matters  that  were  either  inconsiderable  or  mischievous.  The 
rigorous  prosecutions  in  the  Star-chamber  and  High-com*  ^ 
mission  courts  were  generally  imputed  to  him:  and  he 
formed  the  aury  project  of  uniting  the  t&ree  kingdoms  in  an 


I 


t 


•  L  A  U  D.  65 

Udifbrmiiy  of  reHgioa;  and  the  passing  of  some  cerenfionies 
in  this  last  afiair  brought  upon  him*  the  odious  imputation 
of  popery,  and  of  being  popishly  affected,  without  .any 
good  grounds.  He  was  more  given  to  interfere  in  matters 
qf  state  than  bis  predecessors ;  and  this  at  a  time  when  a 
jealousy;  of  the  power  of  the  clergy  was  increasing.  Hav- 
ing naturally  a  great  warmth  of  temper,  ji^'hich  betrayed 
itself  in  harsh  language,  he  was  ill  fitted  to  contend  with 
the  party  now  so  powerful  that  it  may  even  be  doubted 
whether  a  conciliating  temper  would  have  had  much  ef- 
fect in  preventing  their  purposes  against  the  church  and 
state.  Mr.  Gilpin's  comparison  between  him  and  his  great 
predecessor  Cranmer  appears  to  us  worthy  of  consideration. 
"Both,"  says> that  elegant  writer,  "  were  good  nien,  both 
were  equally  zealous  for  religion,  and  both  were  engaged 
in  the  work  of  reformation.  I  mean  not  to  enter  into  the 
affair  of  introducing  episcopacy  in  Scotland  ;  nor  to  throw 
any  favourable  light  on  the  ecclesiastical  views  of  those 
times.  I  am  at  present  only  considering  the  measures 
which  the  two  archbishops  took  in  forwarding  their  respec- 
tive plans.  While  .Cranmer  pursued  his  with  that  caution 
and  temper,  which  we  have  just  been  examining;  Laud^ 
in.the  violence  of  his  integrity  (for  he  was  certainly  a 
well-meaning  man),  making  allowances  neither  for  men  nor 
opinions,  was  determined  to  carry  all  before  him.  The 
consequence  was,  that  he  did  nothing  which  he  attempted; 
while  Cranmer  did  every  thing.  And  it  is  probable  that  if 
Henry  had  chosen  such  an  instrument  as  Laud,  he  wpuld 
have  miscarried  in  his  point:  while  Charles  with  such  a 
primate  as  Cranmer,  would  either  have  been  successful  in 
his  schemes,  or  at  least  have  avoided  the  fatal  consequences 
that  ensued.'^  But,  whatever  Laud's  faults,  it  cannot  be 
denied  that  he  was  condemned  tq  death  by  an  ordinance  of 
parliament,  in  defiance  of  the  statute  of  treasons,  of  the  law 
of  thQ  land,  and  by  a  stretch  of  prerogative  greater  th^n 
any  one  of  the  sovereign  whom  that  parliagoent  opposed^ 

The  few  productions  we  have  of  archbishop  Laud  show 
that  his  time  was  more  occupied  in  act.ive  life,  than  ^  in 
studious  retirement,  and  demonstrate  but  little  of  that 
learning  which  was  very  justly  attributed  to  him.  These 
are,  L  *^  Seven  Sermons  preached  and  printed  on  several 
Occasions,"  reprinted  in  1651,  8vo.  j2../*  Short  Annota- 
tions upon  the  Life  and  Death  of  the'nijcilfe  august  King 
James,'*  drawn  up  at  the  desire  of  George  duke  of  Bucks. 

Vol.  XX.  F 


66  L  A  U  D.^ 

3.  ^^  Aaswer  to  the  Remonstrance  made  by  the  Hous« 
of  Commons  in  1628,"  4.  "  His  Diary  by  Wharton  in 
1694  ;  with  six  other  pieces,  and  several  letters,  especially 
one  to  sir  Kenelm  Digby,  on  his  embracing  Popery." 
$.  '^  The  second  volume  of  the  Remains  of  Archbishop 
Laud,  written  by  himself,"  &c.  1700,  fol.  6.  "  Officium 
Quotidianum  ;  or,  a  Manual  of  private  Devotions,"  1650, 
8vo.  7.  "  A  Summary  of  Devotions,"  1667^  12mp.  There 
are  about  18  letters  of  his  to  Gerard  John  Vossius,  printed 
by  Colomesius  in  his  edition  of  "  Vossii  Epistol."  Lond. 
1690,  fol.  Some  other  letters  of  his  are  published  at  the 
end  of  Usher's  liife  by  Dr.  Parr,  1686,  fol.  And  a  few 
more  by  Dr.  Twells,  in  his  "  Life  of  Dr.  Pocock,"  pre- 
fixed to  that  author's  theological  works,  1645,  in  2  vols, 
folio." 

LAUDER  (William),  a  native  of  Scotland,  the  author 
of  a  remarkable  forgery,  was, educated  at  the  university  of 
Edinburgh,  where  he  finished  his  studies  with  great  repu- 
tation, and  acquired  a  considerable  knowledge  of  the 
Latin  tongue.  He  afterwards  taught  with  success  the 
Latin  tongue  to  some  students  who  were  recommended  to 
him  by  the  professors.  In  1734,  Mr.  professor  Watt  fall- 
ing ill  of  that  sickness  of  which  he  died,  Lauder  taught  for 
him  the  Latin  class,  ip  the  college  of  Edinburgh,  and 
tried,  without  success,  to  be  appointed  professor  in  bis 
room.  He  failed  also  in  his  application  for  the  office  of 
libirarianT^  In  Feb.  1739,  he  stood  candidate,  with  eight 
others,  for  the  place  of  one  of  the  masters  of  the  high . 
school ;  but,  though  the  palm  of  literature  was  assigned  by 
the  judges  to  Lauder,  the  patrons  of  the  school  preferred 
one  of  his  opponents.  In  the  same  year  he  published  at 
Edinburgh  an  edition  of  ^*  Johnston's  Psalms,*'  or  rather  a 
collection  of  Sacred  Latin  poetry,  in  2  vols,  but  his  hopes 
of  profit  from  this  were  disappointed.  In  1742,  although 
he  was  recommended  by  Mr.  Patrick  Cuming  and  Mn 
Colin  Mactaurin,  professors  of  church  history  and  mathe- 
matics, to  the  mastership  of  the  grammar-school  at  Dun- 
dee, then  vacant,  we  find  him,  the  same  year,  in  London, 
contriving  to  ruin  the  reputation  of  Milton ;  an  attempt 
which  ended  in  the  destruction  of  his  own.  His  reason  for 
the  attack  has  been  referred  to  the  virulence  of  violent 

1  Wbarton's  Troubles  and  Trial  of  Land, — Pf  ynoe's  end  Heylin's  Li?es.-^ 
Life  in  Coates's  Hist,  of  Reading. — Biog.  Brit.  Itc.  &c.  . 


LAUDER.  67 

party-spirit,    which  triumphed    over    every  principle  of 
honour  and  honesty.     He  began  first  to  retail  part  of  t|ts 
design  in  "The  Gentleman's  Magazine,"  in  1747;  and, 
finding  that  his  forgeries  were  not  detected,  was  encou- 
raged in  1751  to  collect  them,  with  additions,  into  a  vo-» 
lume,  entitled  "  An  Essay  on  Milton's  Use  and  Imitation 
of  the  Moderns  in  his  Paradise  Lost,*'  8vo.     The  fidelity 
of  his  quotations  had  been  doubted  by  several  people  ;  and 
the  falsehood  of  them  was  soon  after  demonstrated  by  Dr. 
Douglas,  late   bishop  of  Salisbury,  in  a  pamphlet,  entitled 
"Milton  vindicated  from  the  Charge  of  Plagiarism  brought 
agaipst  him  by  Lauder,  and  Lauder  himself  convicted  of 
forgeries  and  gross  impositions  on  the  public.     In  a  letter 
humbly  addressed  to  the  right  honourable  the  earl  of  Bath," 
175 1,  8vo.     The  appearance  of  this  detection  overwhelmed 
Lauder  with  confusion.     He  subscribed  a  confession,  dic- 
tated by  Dr.  Johnson,  on  whom  he  had  imposed,  in  which 
he  ingenuously  acknowledged  his  offence,  which  he  pro- 
fessed to  have  been  occasioned  by  the  injury  he  bad  re- 
ceived iTrom  the  disappointment  of  his  expectations  of  profit 
from  the  publication  of  "  Johnston's  Psalms."     This  mis- 
fortune he  ascribed  to  a  couplet  in  Mr.  Pope's  Dupciad, 
book  iv.  ver.  iii.  and  thence  originated  his  rancour  against 
Milton.     He  afterwards  imputed  his  conduct  to  other  mo- 
tives, abused  the  few  friends  who  continued  to  countenance 
him ;  and,  finding  that  his  own  character  was  not  to  be 
retrieved,  quitted  the  kingdom,  and  went  to  Barbadoes, 
where  he  was  for  some  time  master  of  the  free-school  in 
Bridgetown,  but  was  discharged  for  misconduct,  and  passed 
the  remainder  of  his  life  in  universal   contempt     ^^  He  ^ 
died,"  says  Mr.  Nichols,  "some  time  about  the  year  1771, 
as  my  friend  Mr.  Reed  was  informed  by  the  gentleman 
who  read  the  funeral-service  over  him."     It  may  be  added, 
that  notwithstanding  Lauder's  pretended  regret  for  his  at- 
tack on  Milton,  he  returned  to  the  charge  in  1751',  and 
published  a  pamphlet  entitled  "  The  Grand  Impostor  de- 
tected, or  Milton   convicted  of  forgery  against  Charles  I.'* 
which  was  reviewed  in  the  Gent.  Mag.  of  that  year,  pro- 
bably by  Johnson. ' 

LAUNAY  (Francis  de),  an  abte  Frenqh  lawyer,  waa 
born  August  6,  1612,  at  Angers.     He  was  received  ad vo- 

1  Nichols's  Bowyer. — Cbalnaers's  Life  of  Ruddiman,  p.  146.— > Hawkins  and 
Bosweirs  Lires  of  Johnson.— Qeat  Mng  ;  see  Index. 

F    2 


ea  L  A  U  N  A  Y. 

cajke  at  Paris  1638,  became  eminent  afterwards  at  the  bar, 
and  was  the  first  professor  of  French  law  at  the  college  of 
Gambray,  that  chair  being  newly  founded  1680.  He  died 
July  9,  1693,  aged  81.  His  works  are,  "Commentaries 
on  Anthony  LoisePs  Instituts  Coutumiers,''  1688,  8vo; 
"  Trait6  du  Droit  de  Chasse,'*  1681,  12rao  ;  "  R6marques 
sur  I'Institution  du  Droit  Romain,  et  du  Droit  Frangois,'* 
1686,  4to,  and  other  valuable  works.' 

LAUNAY  (Peter  de),  a  learned  and  judicious  pro- 
testant  writer,  was  born  1573,  at  Blois,  descended  from 
one  of  the  most  respectable  families  in  that  city.  At  the 
age  of  forty,  he  resigned  a  post  in  the  exchequer,  the 
title  of  king's  secretary,  and  all  prospects  of  advancement, 
that  he  might  devote  himself  entirely  to  the  sacred  writings  i 
and  from  that  time  till  he  was  eighty-nine,  rose  constantly 
at  four  in  the  morning,  to  read  and  meditate  on  Scripture. 
The  French  protestants  placed  an  extraordinary  cpnfidenc6 
ki  him.  He  was  deputed  to  all  the  synods  of  his  province, 
and  to  almost  every  national  synod  held  in  his  time,  and 
died  in  1662,  greatly  lamented.  His  works  are,  "  Para- 
phrases^' on  all  St.  PauPs  Epistles,  on  Daniel,  Ecclesiastes, 
the  Proverbs,  and  Revelations ;  and  ^'  Remarks  on  the 
Bible,  or  an  Explanation  of  the  difficult  words,  phrases, 
and  metaphors,  in  the  Holy  Scriptures,"  Geneva,  1667, 
4to.  These  two  works  are  much  valued.  He  wrote  abo 
a  treatise  "  De  la  Sdinte  C^ne,"  and  another,  "  Sur  le 
Millenarisme."^ 

LAUNOI  (John  de),.  or  Launoius,  a  very  learned  man 
and  voluminous  writer,  was  born  about  1601,  and  took  a 
doctor  of  divinity's  degree  in  1636.  He  made  a  journey 
to  Rome,  for  the  sake  of  enlarging  his  ideas  and  know- 
ledge ;  and  there  procured  the  esteem  and  friendship  of 
Leo  AUatius  and  Holsten.  Upon  his  return  to  Paris,  he 
shut  himself  up,  entering  upon  an  extensive  course  of 
reading,  and  making  collections  upon  all.  subjects.  He 
held  at  his  house  every  Monday  a  meeting  where  the 
learned  conversed  on  many  topics,  but  particularly  on  the 
discipline  of  the  church,  and  the*rights  of  the  Grallican 
church ;  and  they  cordially  agreed  in  condemning  such 
legends  as  the  apostolate  of  St.  Dionysius  the  Areopagit« 
into  France,  the  voyage  of  Lazarus  and  Mary  Magdalen 
into  Provence,  and  a  multitude  of  other  traditions.     Lau- 

1  Moreri. — Niceron,  vol.  XV. — Diet.  Hift.     • 
t  Diet.  Hist     • 


L  A  U  N  O  I.  69 

noi  was  such  an  enemy  to  legendary  saints,  that  Voltaire 
xecords  a  curate  of  St.  Eustachius,  as  saying,  **  I  always 
make  the  most  profound  obeisance  to  Mr.  Launoi,  for  fear 
he  should  take  from  me  my  St.  Eustachius.'*  He  died  at 
cardinal  d'Estr^es's  hotel,  March  10,  1678,  aged  75,  and 
was  buried  at  the  convent  of  the  Minimes  de  la  Place 
Roiale,  to  whom  he  left  two  hundred  crowns  ip  gold,  all 
the  ritnals  which  he  had  collected,  and  half  his  books ;  be- 
queathing the  remainder  to  the  seminary  at  Laon.  Few 
men  were  so  industrious  and  so  disinterested,  as  M.  de 
Launoi,  who  persisted  in  refusing  all  the  benefices  which 
were  offered  him,  and  lived  in  a  pla\n,  frugal  manner, 
contented  with  his  books  and  his  private  fortune,  though 
the  latter  was  but  moderate.  He  was  an  enemy  to  vice 
and  ambition,  charitable,  benevolent,  a  kind  friend,  ever 
consistent  in  his  cpnduct,  and  submitted  to  be  excluded 
from  the  faculty  of  theology  at  Paris,  rather  than  sign  the 
censure  of  M.  Arnauld,  though  he  differed  in  opinion  from  , 
that  celebrated  doctor  on  the  subject  of  Grace. 

His  works  were  collected  by  the  abbe  Granet,  and  pub- 
lished in  1731,  10  vols,  folio;  his  '*  Letters'*  had  been 
printed  before  at  Cambridge,  1689,  fol.  The  principal  of 
the  other  works  contained  in  this  edition  are,  the  famous 
treatise  **  De  variSl  Aristotelis  fortune,"  and  ^^  Hist,  du  Col- 
lege de  Navarre/'  containing  some  curious  and  interesting 
particulars  and  inquiries  on  several  points  of  history  and 
ecclesiastical  discipline.  All  M.  de  Launoy^s  works  discover 
great  reading,  and  extensive  knowledge  of  ecclesiastical 
affairs.  He  forcibly  defends  the  liberties  of  the  Gallican 
church,  and  shews  much  penetration  and  skill  in  criti* 
cism.  His  style  is  neither  Howery  nor  polished,  nor  is  hib 
reasoning  always  just :  but  he  fully  compensates  for  these 
defects  by  the  variety  tif  his  subjects,  and  the  depth  of  his 
learning.  ^ 

LAURA.     See  PETRARCH. 

LAURIERE  (EusEBius  Jam£S  de),  a  celebrated^  lawyer^ 
and  learned  advocate  of  the  parliament  of  Paris,  was  born 
July  .31,  1659,  and  was  the  son  of  James  de  Lauriere,  a 
surgeon.  He  attended  but  little  to  the  bar,  his  life  being 
almost  wholly  spent  in  study,  in  the  course  of  which  he  ex* 
plored,  with  indefatigable  pains,  every  part  of  the  French 
hkff,  both  ancient  atld  modern,   formed  friendships  with 

1  KieeroD,  roh  XXXII.-^Gcn.  Diet.— Saxii  Oiiomafiticon. 


70  L  A  U  R  I  E  R  E. 

men  of  learning,  and  was  esteemed  by  all  the  most  able 
magistrates.  He  died  at  Paris,  January  9,  172S,  aged  69, 
•leaving  many  valuable  works,  some  of  whi6h  be  wrote  ifi 
conjunction  with  Claude  Berroyer,  another  eminent  advo* 
cate  of  Paris.  The  principal  are>  1.  "  De  Torigine  d«  Droit 
d'Amortissemeot,"  1692,  12mo;  2.  "  Texte  des  Cos- 
tumes dela  Pr6v6t6  et  Vicomt^  de  Paris,  avec  des  Notes," 
12mo  ;•  3.  "  Bibliotheque  des  Coutumes,"  4to ;  4*.  M. 
LoisePs  ^^  Instituts  Coutumiers,"  with  notes,  Paris,  ]710, 
.2  vols.*  12mo,  a  very  valuable  edition  ;  5.  "  Trait6  deK  In- 
stitutions at  des  Substitutions  contractuelles,'*  2  vols.  12mo. 
6.  The  first  and  second  volumes  of  the  collection  of  ^^  Of- 
dinances''  of  the  French  kings,  which  valuable  and  very 
interesting  work  has  been  continued  by  M.  Secdusse,  a 
member  of  the  academy  of  inscriptions  and  belles- 1 iutres, 
xind  M.  de  Villeraut,  to  1)  vols.  fol. ;  7*^'  Le  Glossaire 
du  Droit  Fran9ois,"  1704,  4to,  &c.* 

LAVATER  (John  Caspar),  the  celebrated  physiogno- 
mist, was  born  at  Zurich,  Nov.  15,  1741.  He  was  fi'om 
his  earliest  years  of  a  gentle,  timid  disposition,  but  rest- 
less in  the  pursuit  of  knowledge.  At  school  he  was  per- 
petually varying  his  studies  by  attempting  mechanical  6pe- 
rations,  and  often  showed  indications  of  genius  and  inveif- 
tion  in  his  amusements.  When  he  reached  the  upper' 
classes  of  school,  his  diligence  in  study  was  encouraged  by 
the  advice  of  Bodmer  and  Breitenger,  and  quickened  by  a 
wish  to  emulate  some  school-fellows  of  superior  talent. 
His  turn  of  thinking  was  original,  liberal,  and  manly.  As 
be  grew  up  he  wrote  some  essays  on  subjects  of  morals  and 
religion,  which  gained  him  the  hearts  of  his  countrymen. 
Having  gone  through  the  usual  course  of  reading  and  in- 
struction for  the  ecclesiastical  profession,  he  was  admitted 
into  orders  in  May  1761,  and  two  years  afterwards  be  tra- 
velled with  the  brothers  Hess,  two  amiable  friends,  of  whom 
death  deprived  him,  and,  with  Henry  Fuseli,  our  cele- 
brated painter.  They  went  over  Prussia,  under  the  tuition 
of  professor  Sulzer,  and  Lavater  made  a  considerable  stay 
with  Spalding,  then  curate  of  Barth  in  Pomeranian  Prus- 
sia, and  afterwards  counsellor  of  the  grand  consistory.  On 
his  return  to  Zurich  he  became  a  very  eloquent  and  much 
admired  preacher,  and  proved  himself  the  father  of  his  flock 
by  the  most  benevolent  attention- to  their  w^uts  bodily  and 

»  Cbaufepie^-^Niccron,  toI.  XXXVII.— Diet,  U\$U 


L  A  V  A  T  E  R.  71 

menUiL    After  having  been  for  some  years  deacon  of  the 
Orphans'  churchy  he  was  in  1774  appointed  first  pastor.  la 
1778  the  parishioners  of  the  church  of  St.  Peter,  the  only 
persons  in  the  canton  of  Zurich  who  have  a  right  to  chuse 
their  own  minister,  made  choice  of  Lavater  as  deacon; 
and,  in  1786,  as  first  pastor.    Here  he  remained,  intent  on 
the  duties  of  his  office,  and  on  his  physiognomical  studies 
t^ntil  Zurich  was  stormed  in  1797.  On  this  occasion  he  was 
wounded  by  a  Swiss  soldier,  on  whom  he  had  conferred 
important  benefits ;  from  the  effects  of  this  he  never  reco- 
yeredy  although  he  lived  in  full  possession  of  hi^  faculties 
till  Jan.  2,  1801,  when  he  expired  in  the  sixtieth  year  of 
'his  age«    Hi$  principal  works  are,  1.  *^  Swiss  Songs,"  which 
be  composed  at  the  desire  of  the  Helvetic  society,  smd 
which  were  sung  in  that  society,  and  in  other  cantons.     2. 
Three  collections  of  ^^  Spiritual  Songs,  or  Hymns,"  an4 
two  volumes  of  *'  Odes,"  in  blank  verse.     3.  '<  Jesus  Mes- 
siah, or  the  Evangelists  and  Acts  of  the  Apostles,''  4  vols,  a 
poetical  history  of  our  Saviour,  ornamented  with  72  en* 
gravings  from  his  designs,  executed  by  Chodoweiki,  Lips, 
.  &c«     4.  ^*  A  Look  into  Eternity,"  which  being  severely 
criticised  by  Gothe,  Lavater,    who  loved  truth  in  every 
shape,  instead  of  being  offended  at  the  liberties  he  took, 
sought  out  the  author,  and  became  his  friend  and  corre- 
spondent.    5.  ^^  The  secret  Journal  of  a  Self-Observer," 
which  was  published  here  in  1795.     In  this  Lavater  un- 
veUs  his  secret  conduct^  and  displays  the  motions  of  his 
heart*.     It  may  justly  be  said  that  every  good  heart  is 
generally  in  unison  with  him,  but  it  is  impossible  not  to 
differ  from  many  of  his  opinions,  and  not  to  perceive  in 
them  an  uncommon  degree  of  extravfigance  and  enthu- 
siasm*    We  learn  from  his  J.ournal,  however,  and  indeed 
from  all,  his  works,  that  a  warm  desire  to  promote  the  ho- 
nour of  God^  and  the  good  of  his  fellow  creatures,  was  the 
principaK feature  in  his  character,,  and  the  leading  motive 
of  all  be  did.     Next  to  these  were  an  indefatigable  placa- 
bility, and  an  inexhaustible  love  for  his  enemies. 

But  his  physiognomical  work  is  that  which  procured  him 
most  reputation  in  Europe.  Accident  is  s^id  to  have  led 
him  to  the  study  of  physiognomy  ;  standing  one  day  at  a 
window  with  Dr.  Zimmerman,  he  was  led  to  make  such 

*  Many  of  hii  opmions  and  singu-     "  Aphorisms,*'  a  translation  of  which 
Unties  are   alio   perceivahte  in  bis     was  published  by  Mr.  Fuseli  in  178S. 


72^  L  A  V  A  T  E  R. 

remarks  on  the  singular  countenance  of  a  soldier  that  wa^ 
passing  by,  as  induced  Zimmerman  to  urge  him  to  pursue 
and  methodize  his  ideas.  He  accordingly  considered  the 
subject  more  seriously,  and  acquired  not  only  a  fondness 
for  it,  but  a  steady  conviction  of  the  reality  of  the  physio* 
gnomical  science,  and  of  the  vast  importance  of  the  disco- 
veries he  had  made  in  it.  In  1776,  he  published  the  first 
fruits  of  his  labours  in  a  quarto  volume,  entitled  ^^  Frag- 
ments,*' in  which  he  took  a  wide  range  of  inquiry,  and 
carried  his  ideas  of  physiognomy  beyond  the  observation 
of  those  parts  of  the  countenance  which'  exhibit  to  a  com- 
mon eye  the  impressions  of  mental  qualities  and  affections^ 
and  maintained,  as  a  leading  position,  '^  that  the  powers 
and  faculties  of  the  mind  have  representative  signs  in  the 
solid  parts  of  the  countenance.'*  Two  more  volumes  ap- 
peared in  succession,  which  presented  a  most  extraordinary 
assemblage  of  curious  observations,  subtle  and  refined  rea- 
soning, delicate  feeling,  and  philanthropical  and  pious 
sentiment,  together  with  a  large  admixture  of  paradox, 
mysticism,  whim,  and  extravagance.  The  whole  is  illus- 
trated with  a  great  number  of  engravings ;  many  of  which 
are  highly  finished  and  singularly  expressive.  The  work 
was  soon  translated  into  the  French  and  English  languages, 
and  for  a  time  became  the  favourite  topic  of  literary  dis- 
cussion, but  has  now  ceased  to  maintain  much  interest. 
Lavater,  we  are  told,  was  not  only  an  enthusiast  in  thii 
art,  but  was'so  far  carried  away  by  his  imagination,  as  to 
believe  in  the  continuation  of  miracles,  and  the  power  of 
casting  out  spirits  to  these  days ;  opinions  which  he  did  not 
scruple  to  make  public,  and  maintain  with  all  boldness.' 

LAVINGTON  (Georgje),  an  English  prelate,  andvery 
eminent  scholar,  was  descended  from  a  family  long  settled 
in  Wiltshire,  and  was  born  at  the  parsonage- bouse  of  Mil- 
denhall,  in  the  above  county,  and  baptised  Jan.  18,  l€&3, 
his  grandfather.  Constable^  being  then  rector  of  that  pa- 
rish. Joseph,  father  to  bishop  Lavington,  is  supposed  to 
have  exchanged  his  original  benetice  of  Broad  Hinton,  in 
'Wiltshire,  for  Newton  Longville,  in  Bucks,  a  living  and 
a  manor  belonging  to  New  college,  in  Oxford.  Trans- 
planted thither,  and  introduced  to  the  acquaintance  of 
several  members  Of  that  society,    he  >¥as  encouraged  to 

Melster's  Portraits  4es  komibes  illustrcs  de  1&  Suisse  .-^Reei'i  Cycloptciii^ 
-ii  Onomasticon:       '     '   '  '  "  ' 


L  A  V  I  N  G  T  O  N.  74 

educate  the  elde^  of  his  numerous  children,  George,  th6 
sabject  of  this  article,    at  Wykeham*s  foundation,  neai* 
Winchester,  from  whence  he  succeeded  to  a*  fellowship  of 
New  college,  early  in  the  reign  of  queen  Anne.     George, 
while  yet  a  schoolboy,  had  produced  a  Greek  translation 
of  Virgil's  eclogues,  in  the  style  and  dialect  of  Theocritus,' 
which  is  still  preserved  at  Winchester  in  manuseript.     At 
the  university  he  was  distinguished  by  his  wit  and  learning, 
and  equally  so  by  a  marked  attachment  to  the  protestant 
succession,  at  a  period  when  a  zeal  of  that  kind  could  pro- 
mise him  neither  preferment  nor  popularity.     But  if  some 
of  bis  contemporaries  thought  his  ardour  in  a  good  cause 
excessive,  still  their  affection  and  esteem  for  him  remained 
undiminished  by  any  difference  of  political  sentiment.     In 
1717,  he  was  presented  by  his  college  to  their  rectory  of 
Hayford  Warren,  in  the  diocese  of  Oxford.     Before  this 
his  talents  and  principles  bad  recommended  him  to  the 
notice  of  many  eminent   persons   in  church   and   state. 
Among  others  Talbot,  then  bishop  of  Oxford,  intended 
him  for  the  benefice  of  Hook  Norton,  to  which   his  suc- 
cessor,  bishop  Potter,  collated  him.     Earl  Goningsby  not 
only  appointed  him  his  own  domestic  chaplain,  but  intro- 
duced him  in  the  same  capacity  to  the  court  of  king  George 
I.     In  this  reign  he  was  preferred  to  a  stall  in  the  cathe- 
dral church  of  Worcester,  which  he  always  esteemed  as 
one  of  the  happiest  events  of  his  life,  since  it  laid  the 
foundation  of  that  close  intimacy  which  ever  after  subsisted 
between  him  and  the  learned  Dr.  Francis  Hare,  the  dean'. 
No  sooner  was  Dr.  Hare  removed  to  St.  Paul's,  than  he 
exerted  all  his  influence  to  draw  his  friend  to  the  capital 
after  him  ;  and  his  endeavours  were  so  successful  that  Dr. 
LaVington  was  appointed  in  1732,  to  be  a  canon  residen- 
tiary of  that  Church,  and  in  consequence  of  this  station*, 
obtained' successively  the  rectories  of  St.  Mary  Aldefmary, 
and   St.  Michael  Bassishaw.     In  both  parishes  he  was  es^ 
teemed  a  minister  attentive  to  his  duty,  and  an  instructive 
and  awakening  preacher.     He  would  probably  never  have 
thought  of  any  other  advancement,  if  the  death  of  Dr.  Stil- 
lingBeet,  dean  of  Worcester,  in  1746,  had  not  recalled  to 
his  memory  the  pleasing  ideas  of  many  years  spent  in  that 
city,    in  the   prime  of  life.     His  friends,    however,  had 
higher  views  for  bim ;  and,   therefore,   on  the   death   of 
bishop  Ciagget,  lord  chancellor  Hardwick,  and  the  duke 
of  Newcastle,  recommefKled  him  to  the  king,  to  fill  the 


74 


JL  A  V  I  N  G  T  O  N* 


vacancy,  Without  his  solicitation  or  knowledge.  From  Um 
time  he  resided  at  Exeter  among  his  clergy,  a  faithful  and 
vigilant  pastor,  and  died  universally  lamented,  Sept.  13, 
1762;  crowning  a  life  that  bad  been  devoted  to  God's 
honour  and  service,  by  a  pious  act  of  resignation  to  his 
will ;  for  the  last  words  pronounced  by  bis  faulteriog  tongue, 
were  Ao&iTd0  0ta) — <<  Glory  to  God."  He  married  Francis 
Maria,  daughter  of  Lave,  of  Corf  MuUion,  Dorset,  who 
bad  taken  refuge  in  this  kingdom  from  the  popish  perse* 
cution  in  France.  She  survived  the  bishop  little  more 
than  one  year,  after  an  union  of  forty  years.  Their  only 
daughter  is  the  wife  of  the  rev.  N.  Nutcombe,  of  Nutcombi», 
in  Devonshire,  and  chancellor  of  the  cathedral  at  Exeter. 

'  Bishop  Lavington  published  only  a  few  occasional  sermons, 
except  his  ^^  Enthusiasm,  of  the  Methodists  and  Papists 
compared,^'  three  parts^;.  which  involved  him  in  a  tern* 
porary  controvery  with  Messrs.  Whitfield  and  Wesley.^ 

LAVOISIER  (AKTHOiiy  Lawrence),  a  distinguished 
chemicai  philosopher,  was  born  at  Paris,  on  the  Iftth  of 
August,  1743.  His  father,  a  inan  of  opulence,  sparing  no 
expence  on  his  education,  he  displayed  very  early  proofs 
of  the  extent  and  success  of  his  studies,  especially  in  the 
circle  of  the  physical  science^.  In  1764,  when  the  French 
government  proposed  a  prize  question,  relative  to  the  best 
method  of  lighting  the  streets  of  a  large  city,  Lavoisier 

'  presented  a  dissertation  on  the  subject,  which  was  highl}' 
approved,  printed  at  the  .expence  of  the  academy  <^ 
sciences,  and  obtained  for  him  the  prei^nt  of  a  gold  medal 
from  the  king,  which  was  delivered  to  him  by  the  presi« 
dent  of  the  academy,  at  a  public  sitting,  in  April  1766. 
Two  years  afterwards,  he  was  admitted  a  member  of  that 
learned  body,  of  which  he.  was  constantly  one  of  the  mosr 
active  and  useful  associates.  About  the  saqae  time,  he 
was  occupied  in  experimental  researches  on  a  variety  of 
subjects ;  such  as  the  analysis  of  the  gypsum  found  in  the 


•  «  The  bishop  of  Exeter's  book 
against  the  Methodists  is,  I  tbiok,  on 
the  whole,  composed  well  enough 
(though  it  be  a  bad  copy  of  Still ing- 
fleet's  famous  book  of  the  **  Fanaticism 
of  the  Church  of  Rome)"  to  do  the  exe- 
cution he  intended.  In  pushing  the 
Methodists,  to  make  them  Uke  every 
thing  that  is  bad,  he  compares  their 
laiiaticisBi  to  the  ancient  mysteries; 


but,  as  the  mysteries,  if  they  had  ever 
been  good,  were  not,  in  the  bishop's 
opinion,  bad  enough  for  this  purpose, 
he  therefore  endeavours  to  show  against 
me,  that  they  were  abominations  even 
from  the  beginning.  As  this  contra** 
diets  all  antiquity  so  evidenUy,  I 
thought  it  would  be  ridiculous  in  me 
to  take  any  notice  of  him.*'— WarbUF- 
ton't  Letters  to  Hurd,  p,  86,  4to  edit. 


^  Foiwhele's  Hist,  of  Deronaliirei  yol.  I,  p.  31^. 


L*  A  r  O  I  S  I  E  R.  75 

neighbourhood  of  Paris;  the  crystallization  of  salt;  the 
properties  of  water ;  and  in  exploring  the  phenomena  of 
thunder,  and  of  the  aurora  borealis  :  and  he  distinguished 
himself  by  several  dissertations  on  these  and  other  topics, 
practical  and  speculative,  which  appeared  in  different  pe* 
nodical  works.  In  the  Memoirs  of  the  Academy  for  1770 
were  published  bis  observations  on  the  nature  of  water, 
and  on  the  experiments  which  had  been  supposed  to  prove 
the  possibility  of  its  conversion  into  earth.  He  proved,  by 
a  careful  repetition  of  these  experiments,  that  the  earthy 
deposit,  left  after  repeated  distillations  of  water,  proceeded 
solely  from  an  abrasion  of  the  vessels  employed.  Lavoisier 
performed  several  journeys  into  various  parts  of  France,  in 
company  with  M.  Guettard ;  in  the  course  of  which  he 
coUected  a  store  of  materials  for  a  lithological  and  minera- 
logical  history  of  that  kingdom,  which  he  ingeniously  ar- 
ranged in  the  form  of  a  chart.  These  materials  were  the 
basis  of  a  great  work  on  the  revolutions  of  the  globe,  and 
ion  the  formation  of  the  strata  of  the  earth  :  two  interesting 
sketches  of  which  were  printed  in  the  Memoirs  of  the  Aca- 
demy for  1772  and  1787. 

-  •  Between  these  two  periods,  Lavoisier,  struck  with  the 
-discoveries  that  had  been  made  by  Dr.  Black,  and  pursued 
by  Dr.  Priestley,  respecting  the  properties  of  certain 
aeriform  substances,  gases,  or  factitious  airb,  entered  into 
the  same  field  of  research,  and  published  the  result  of  his 
experiments  in  1774,  in  his  **  Opuscules  Chymiques,*' 
which  contained  not  only  a  clear  and  elegant  view  of  all 
-that  had  hitherto  been  done,  in  regard  to  gaseous  or  aeri- 
form fluids,  but  also  several  original  experiments,  re- 
markable for  their  ingenuity  and  accuracy. 

The  existence  of  a  gaseous  body,  in  a  fixed  or  solid 
Btate,  in  the  mild  alkalies  and  alkaline  earths,  which,  when 
expelled  from  these  substances,  assumed  an  atrial  form, 
and  left  them  in  a  caustic  state,  as  well  as  its  production 
during  the  combustion  of  fuel,  had  been  demonstrated  by 
Dr.  Black;  and  Bergman  bad  shown  that  this  air  possessed 
acid  properties.  Dr.  Priestley  had  also  submitted  it  to 
various  experiments  in  1767,  but  the  honour  of  ascertain- 
ing the  real  constituent  parts  of  this  acid  gas,  or  fixable 
air,  was  reserved  for  Lavoisier.  He  now  turned  his  ex- 
perimental researches  to  the  subject  of  the  calcination  of 
metak.  It  had  already  been  shewn  by  ftey  and  Homberg^ 
that  metals  acquire  an  augmentation  of  weight  during  piil* 


76  LAVOISIER- 

cination  ;  but  they  differed  io  the  causes  of  this  augmen- 
tation. Lavoisier,  who  published  the  result  of  bis  expe* 
riments  on  the  subject  in  1.774,  demonstrated  that  a  given 
quantity  of  air  was  requisite  for  the  calcination  of  a  giveti 
quantity  of  tin  ;  that  a  part  of  the  air  is  absorbed  during 
this  process,  by  which  not  only  the  bulk,  but  the  weight 
of  the  air  is  diminished ;  that  the  weight  of  the  tin  is 
increased  during  the  same  process ;  and  lastly,  that  the 
weight  acquired  by  the  tin  is  exactly  equal  to  that  which 
is  lost  by  the  air. 

Thus,  by  a  few  simple,  accurate,  and  well- chosen  ex- 
periments, Lavoisier  had  apparently  arrived  at  the  legi- 
timate inference,  that  during  the  process  of  the  formation 
of  acids,  whether  with  carbonaceous  matter,  sulphur,  or 
phosphorus,  and  also  during  that  of  the  calcination  of  me«* 
tals,  an  absorption  and  fixation  of  air  take  place ;  and  thus 
he  gained  a  glimpse  of  principles,  in  the  view  of  which  his 
singular  sagacity  in  devising  experiments,  and  his  accu- 
racy in  executing  them,  would  in  all  probability  have  alone 
conducted    him   to   those  brilliant  results   to   which  Dr. 
Priestley  so  materially  contributed.     The  synthetic  proofs 
only  of  this  union  of  air  with  the  base  had  b^en  as  yet  as* 
certained ;  but  Dr.  Priestley  first  furnished  the  analytic 
proof,  by  dissevering  the  combination  ;  a  discovery  which 
at  once  advanced  the  nascent  theory  of  Lavoisier,  and,  in 
his  hands,  became  the  source  of  more  than  one  important 
conclusion.     In  August  1774,  Dr.  Priestley  discovered  that 
by  heating  certain  metallic  calces,  especially  the  calcined 
mercury  (the  precipitate  per  se,  as  it  was  then  called)  a 
quantity  of  air  was  separated,  while  the  mercury  resumed 
its  metallic  form ;  and  this  air,  which  he  found  was  much 
purer  than  that  of  the  atmosphere,  he  called,  from  the 
theory  of  the  time,  depldogisticated  air.     Having  communis 
cated  this  discovery  to  Lavoisier,  the  latter  published  a 
memoir  in  1775,  in  which  he  shewed,  in  conformity  with 
the  experiments  of  Dr.  Priestley,  that  the  mercurial  pre* 
cipitate  per  se^  by  being  heated  in  a  retort,  gives  out  a 
highly  respirable  air  (called  since  oxygen)^  and  is  itself  re- 
duced to  the  metallic  state  ;  that  combustible  bodies  burn 
in  this  air  with  increased  brilliancy ;  and  that  the  same* 
mercurial  calx,  if  heated  with  charcoal,  gives  out  not  the 
pure  air,  but  fixed  air ;  whence  be  concluded  that  fixed*,  air 
is  composed  of  charcoail  and  the  pure  air.    It  has,  therefore^ 
since  been  called  carbonic  acid. 


L-A  V  O  I  S  I  E  R.  77 

A  9ec0nd  very  important  consequence  of  Dr.  Priestley's 
diflcovery  of  the  pure  or  vital  air,  was  the  analysis  of  tb9 
ftir  of  the  atmosphere,  which  was  accomplished  by  Lavoisier 
in  the  following  manner.  He  included  some  mercury  in  a 
elose  vessel^  together  with  a  known  quantity  of  atmospheric 
air,  and  kept  it  for  some  days  in  a  boiling  state ;  by  de- 
grees a  small  quantity  of  the  red  calx  was  formed  upon  the 
surface  of  the  metal ;  and  when  this  ceased  to  be  produced 
the  contents  of  (he  vessel  were  examined.  The  air  was 
found  to  be  diminished  both  in  bulk  and  weight,  and  to 
have  been  rendered  altogether  incapable  of  supporting 
combustion  or  animal  life ;  part  of  the  mercury  was  found 
converted  into  the  red  calx,  or  precipitate  per  se ;  and» 
which  was  extremely  satisfactory,  the  united  weight  of  the 
mercury  and  the  precipitate  exceeded  the  weight  of  the 
original  mercury,  by  precisely  the  same  amount  as  the  air 
had  lost.  To  complete  the  demonstration,  the  precipitate 
was  then  heated,  according  to  Dr*  Priestley's  first  expe- 
riment, and  decomposed  into  fluid  mercury  and  an  air 
which  bad  all  the  properties  of  vital  air ;  and  this  air,  wbea 
-iriijced  with  the  unrespirable  residue  of  the  original  air  of 
thereceiver,  composed  an  elastic  fluid  ppssessing  the  same 
properties  as  atmospherical  ain  The  vital  air  was  after- 
wards made  the  subject  of  various  experiments  in  respect 
to  the  calcination  of  metals,  to  the  combustion  and  conver- 
sion of  sulphur  and  phosphorus  into  acids,  4^c.  in  which 
processes  it  was  found  to  be  the  chief  agent.  Hence  it 
was  named  by  Lavoisier  c^rj/^^n  (or  generator  of  acids),  and 
the  unrespirable  residue  of  the  atmosphere  was  called  a%ot 
j^u  e.  incapable  of  supporting /i/i;). 

The  new  theory  thus  acquired  farther  support  and  con«* 
sistency  ;  oxygen  appeared  to  be  one  of  the  most  active 
and  important  agents  of  chemistry  and  of  nature ;  combus- 
tion, acidification,  and  calcination  (or,  as  it  was  now  called, 
o^t/daiioriy  the  calces  being  also  termed  oxyds,  i.  e.  some- 
thuig  approaching  to,  or.  resembling  acids),  were  proved 
to  be  processes  strikingly  analogous  to  each  other ;  all  ac- 
cording in  these  points,  that  they  produced  a  decomposi- 
tion of  the  atmospheric  air,  and  a  fixation  of  the  oxygenous 
{portion  in  the  substance  acidified  or  calcined; 

Time  alone  seemed  now  requisite  j:o  establish  these  doc- 
trines, by  exemplifying  them  in  other  departments  of  che- 
mical research^  In  } 777  six  memoirs  were  communicated 
to  the  Academy  of  sciences  by  Lavoisier,  jn  whick  his 


W  LAVOISIER. 

former  experiments  w^re  confirmed,  and  new  advanced 
were  made  to  a  considerable  extent*     Our  countrvymen^ 
Black  and  Crawford,  in  their  researches  respecting  latent 
heat,  and  the  different  capacities  of  bodies  under  different 
circumstances,  had  laid  a  solid  foundation,  on  which  the 
dbctrines  of  combustion,  resulting  from  the  foregoing  ex- 
periments, might  be  perfected,  and  the  cause  of  the  light 
and  heat  connected  with  it  might  be  explained.     The  first 
nyentioned  philosopher.  Dr.  Black,  had  shewn,  that  a  solid, 
when  it  is  made  to  assume  a  liquid  form,  and  a  liquid, 
when  it  assumes  the  form  of  vapour,  absorbs  or  combines 
with,  and  renders  latent,  a  large  portion  of  heat,  which  is 
again  parted  with,  becomes  free  and  cognizable  by  the 
sense  of  feeling,  arid  by  the  thermometer,  when  the  va* 
pour  is  again  condensed  into  a  liquid,  and  the  liquid  be- 
comes solid.     In  like  manner,  it  was  now  said  by  Lavoisier, 
during  the  process  of  combustion,  the  oxygen,  which  was 
previously  in  a  gaseous  state,  is  suddenly  combined  with' 
the  substance  burnt  into  a  liquid  or  solid.     Hence  all  the 
latent  ^eat,  which  was  essential  to  its  gaseous  state,  being 
instantaneously  liberated  in  large  quantity,  produces  fiame, 
which  is  nothing   more  than  very  condensed  free  heat. 
About  the  same  time,  the  analogy  of  the  operation  and 
necessity  of  oxygen  in  the  function  of  respiration,  with  the 
preceding  hypothesis  of  combustion,  was  pointed  out  by 
Lavoisier.     In  the  process  of  respiration,,  it  was  found  thatj 
although  atmospheric  air  is  inhaled,  carbonic  acid  and  azot 
are  expired.    This  animal  operation,  said  Lavoisier,  is  a 
species  of  slow  combustion  :  the  oxygen  of  the  air  unites 
with  the  superfluous  carbon  of  the  venous  blood,  and  pro- > 
duces  carbonic  acid,  while  the  latent  or  combined  caloric 
(the  matter  of  heat)  is  set  free,  and  thus  supplies  the  ani« 
mal  heat     Ingenious  and  beaqtjkful,  however,  as  this  ex* 
tension  of  the  analogy  appeared,  the  subject  of  animal, 
temperature  is  still  under  many  obscurities  and  difficulties. 
The  phenomena  of  chemistry,  however,  were  now  ex- 
plicable upon  principles  more  simple,  consistent,  and  sa- 
tisfactory than  by  the  aid  of  any  former  theory  ;  and  the 
Lavoisierian   doctrines  were  everywhere  gaining  ground. 
But  there  yet  remained  a  formidable  objection  to  them, 
which  was  derived  from  a  circumstance  attending  the  so- 
lution of  metals  in  acids  ;  to  wit,  the  production  of  a  con«< ' 
siderable  quantity  of  inflammable  air.     If  sulphuric  acid 
(formerly  called  vitriolic  acid,  or  oil  of  vitriol)  consists  onlj 


L  A  V  O  I  &I  E  R.  79 

of  nalpbur  and  oxygen^  it  was  said,  how  does  it  happen^ 
that  wheu  these  two  substances,  with  a  little  water,  comef 
in  contadt,  they  should  produce  a  large  quantity  of  inflam- 
mable air  during  their  re-action  ?  This  objection  was  un- 
answerable, and  appeared  to  be  fatal  to  the  whole  theory  : 
but  it  was  most  opportunely  converted  into  an  argument 
in  its  favour,  by  the  grefit  discovery  of  the  decompositioa 
of  water,  made  by  Mr.  Cavendish  ;  who  resolved  that  ele- 
ment, as  it  was  formerly  esteemed,  into  oxygen  and  inflam- 
Inable  air.  The  latter  has  since,  therefore,,  been  called 
hydrogen^  or  generator  of  water.  This  experiment  was 
repeated  with  full  success  by  Lavoisier  and  his  associates  in 
1783  ;  and  the  discovery  was  farther  established  by  a  sue*-  * 
cessful  experiment  of  the  same  chemists,  carried  on  upon 
a.  grand  scale,  in  which,  by  combining  the  oxygen  with 
hydrogen,  they  produced  water,  and  thus  adding  synthesis 
to  analysis,  brought  the  fact  to  demonstration. 

This  new  view  of  chemical  phenomena,  together  with 
the  immense  accession  of  new  compounds  and  substances, 
which  the  labours  of  modern  experimentalists  had  brought 
to  light,  appeared  to  demand  a  correspondent  alteration  in 
the  nomenclature.  Accordingly,  a  committee  of  some  of 
the  ablest  of  the  French  chemists,  of  whom  Lavoisier  was 
the  most  conspicuous,  undertook  the  arduous  task,  and 
produced  a  regular  system  of  nomenclature,  derived  from 
the  Greek  language,  which,  although  far  from  being  fault* 
less^  and  notwithstanding  much  opposition  with  which  it 
was  at  first  treated,  has  become  the  universal  language  of 
chemical  science,  and  has  been  adopted  even  in  pharmacy 
and  medicine.  His  work,  entitled  ^^  Elemens  de  Chymie,'* 
which  was  published  in  1789,  was  a  model  of  scientific 
composition. 

We  have  hitherto  Viewed  M.  Lavoisier  principally  as  a 
chemical  philosopher,  in  which  character  he  has  founded 
his  great  claims  to  the  respect  and  admiration  of  posterity. 
But  the  other  arts  and  sciences  are  indebted  to  him  for 
considerable  services  which  he  rendered  thein,  both  in  a 
public  and  private  capacity.  In  France,  more  than  in  any 
other  country,  men  of  science  have  been  consulted  in  mat- 
ters of  public  concern;  and  the  reputation  of  Lavoisier 
caused  him  to  be  applied  to,  in  1776,  to  superintenjd  tlie 
manufiu:ture  of  gunpowder,  by  the  minister  Turgot.  By 
the  applics^tion  of  his  chemical  knowledge  to  this  manufac- 


so  LAVOISIER, 

tttre,  he  was  enabled  to  increase  the  explosive  forc^  df  the 
powder  by  one- fourth ;  and  ^while  he.  suppressed  the  trou- 
blesome regulations  for  the  collection  of  its  materials  from 
private  houses,  previously. adopted,  he  quintupled  the  pro- 
duce.    The  academy  of  sciences. received  many  services 
ffom  his  hands.     In  addition  to  the  communication  of  forty 
papers,  relative  to  many  of  the  most  important  subjects  of 
philosophical  chemistry,  which  were  printed  in  the  twenty 
volumes  of  Memoirs,  from  1772  to  1793,  he  most  actively 
promoted  all  its'  useful  plans  and  researches,  being  a  mem«« 
ber  of  its  board  of  consultation,  and,  when  appointed  to 
the  office  of  treasurer,  he  introduced  order  into  its  ac- 
counts, and  economy  into  its  expenditure.     When  the  new 
system  of  measures  was  proposed,  he  contributed  some 
new  and  accurate  experiments  on  the  expansion  of  metals. 
The  national  convention  consulted  him  with  advantage  coi^« 
kerning  the  best  method  of  manufacturing  assignats,  find 
of  securing  them  against  forgery.     Agriculture  early  en- 
gaged his  attention,  and  he  allotted  a  considerable  tract  of 
land  on  his  estate  in  the  Vendome,  for  the  purpose  of  ex« 
perimental  farmings     The  committee  of  the  constituent 
assembly  of  1791,  appointed  to  form  an  improved  system 
of  taxation,  claimed  the  assistance  of  his  extensive  know- 
ledge ;  and  he  drew  up,  for  their  information,  an  extract 
of  a  large  work  on  the  different  productions  of  the  country 
and  their. consumption,  for  which  he  had  been  long  col- 
lecting materials.     This  was  printed  by  order  of  the  assem- 
bly,  under  the  title  of  ^^Richesses  Territoriales  de  la 
France,"  and  was  esteemed  the  most  valuable  memoir  on 
the  subject.     In  the  same  year,  he  was  appointed  one  of 
the  commissioners  of  the  national  treasury  ;  and  he  intro- 
duced into  that  department  such  order  and  regularity,  that 
the  proportion  between  the  income  and  the  expenditure, 
in  all  the  branches  of  government,  could  be  seen  at  a  single 
view  every  evening.     This  spirit  of  systematic  and  lucid 
arrangement  was,  indeed,  the  quality   by  which  he  was 
peculiarly  distinguished,  and  its  happy  influence  appeared 
in  every  subject  which  occupied  his  attention. 

The  private  life  of  this  distinguished  person  was  equally 
estimable  with  his  public  and  philosophical  character.  Ha 
was  extremely  liberal  in  his  patronage  of  the  arts,  and  en- 
couraged young  men  of  talents  in  the  pursuit  of  science* 
His  house  became  a  vast  laboratory,  where  philosophical 
experiments  were  incessantly  carrying  on,  and  where  he 


L  A  y  O  I  S  I  E  &  81 

bdld  cOnvevsaBibnes  twice  a  w6ek,  to  which  be  invited  every 
literary  character  that  was  most  celebrated  in  geometrical, 
physicali  and  chemical  studies;  in  these  instructive  dis* 
cussions,  the  opinions  of  the  most  eminent  literati  in  Eu^ 
rope  were  canvassed ;  passages  the  most  striking  and  novels 
out  of  foreign  writers,  were  recited  and  animadverted  on  ; 
and*  theories  were  compared  with  experiments.  Hera 
learned  men  of  all  nations  found  easy  admission ;  Priestley, 
Fontana,  Blagden,  Ingenhousz,  Landriani,  Jacquin,  Watt, 
Bolton,  and  other  illustrious  physiologists  and  chemists  of 
England,  Geprmany,  and  Italy,  found  themselves  mixed 
in  the  same  company  with  Laplace,  Lagrange,  Borda, 
Cousin,  Meunier,  Vandermonde,  Mouge,  Guyton,  and 
Bertbollet  In  his  manners  M.  Lavoisier  was  mild;  afiable, 
and  obliging ;  a  faithful  friead  and  husband,  a  kind  rela« 
tioD,  and  charitable  to  the  poor  upon  his  estates;  in  a 
word  equally  claiming  esteem  for  his  moral  qualities,  as  for 
those  of  his  understanding.     « 

The  time  was  arrived,  however,  when  distinction  event 
by  his  talents  and  worth  was  so  hx  from  securing  publio 
respect,  amid  the  tumults  of  tbe  revolution,  that  it  became 
aiource  of  danger,  and,  when  joined  with  wealth,  was 
almost  certainly  fatal.  All  those  especially  who  had  held 
any  situation  under  the  old  administration,  particularly  in 
the  financial  departments,  were  sacrificed,  during  the  mur- 
derous reigu  of  Robespierre,  to  tbe  popular  odium.  La- 
voisier was  seized  and  thrown  into  prison,  upon  some 
charges  fabricated,  against  himself  and  twenty-seven  other 
farmers-genaral.  During  his  confinement  he  foresaw  that 
be  should  be  stripped  of  all  his  property ;  but  consoled 
himself  with  the  expectation  that  he  would  be  able  to  main- 
tain himself  by  the  practice  of  pharmacy.  But  a  more  se<* 
vere  fate  awaited  him :  be  was  capitally  condemned,  and 
dr^ged  to  th^  guillotine  on  the  8th  of  May,  1794.  ^ 

llie  name  of  Lavoisier  will  always  be  ranked  among  the 
most  illustrious  chemists  of  the  present  age,  when  it  is  con- 
sidered what  an  extensive  and  beneficial  influence  his  1^-* 
hours  have  had  <^^t  the  whole  science.  It  has  been  said, 
iadaefl,  that  if  be  be  estimated  on  the  score  oi  his  actual 
discoveries,  not  only  Scbeele  and  Priestley,  and  Caven- 
^sb,  but  many  moie,  will  stand  before  him.  But  he  pos^ 
sessed  in  a  high  degree  that  rare  talent  of  discernment,  hy 
which  he  detected  analogies,  which  others  overlooked, 
even  in  their  own  discoveries,  and  a  sagacity  in  devising 

Vol.  XX.  G 


S2  LAVOISIER. 

and  an  accuracy  in  completing  his  experiments,  for  th6 
purpose  of  elucidating  every  suggestion  which  he  thus  ac^ 
quired,  such  as  few  philosophers  have  possessed  No  on^ 
who  did  so  much,  probably  ever  made  so  few  unsuccessfol 
or  random  experiments.  It  was  the  singular  perspicuity^ 
'siioplicityy  and  order  ta  which  he  reduced  the  phenomena 
of  chemistry,  that  claimed  for  his  theory  the  general  re- 
ception which  it  met  with,  and  occasioned  the  abandon- 
ment of  those  doctrines  which  prejudice  and  habit  con- 
spired to  support.  Subsequent  discoveries,  however,  and 
more  especially  those  numerous  facts  which  the  genius  of 
sir  Humphrey  Davy  has  lately  brought  to  light,  through 
the  medium  of  that  most. powerful  agent  of  decomposition, 
galvanism,  have  rendered  several  modifications  of  the  La- 
voisierian  theory  necessary,  and  bid  fair  to  produce  a  more 
general  revolution  in  the  language  and  doctrines  of  che- 
mistry. 

M.  Lavoisier  married,  in  177 1,  the  daughter  of  a  farmer- 
general,  a  lady  of  pleasing  manners  and  considerable  ta- 
lents, who  partook  of  her  husband's  ^eal  for  philosophical 
inquiry,  and  cultivated  chemistry  with  much  success.  She 
engraved  with  her  own  band  the  copper*plates  for  his  liet 
work.  Mad.  Lavoisier  aft^erwards  gave  her  hand  to  anolber 
. emment  philosopher,  count  Rumford,  who,  in  ISK,  left 
her  a  widow  a  second  time.'  \ 

LAW  (Edmund),  bishop  of  Carlisle,  was  bom  in  the 
parish  of  Carl mel  in  Lancashire,  in  1703»  His  father,  wha 
was  a  clergyman,  held  a  small  chapel  in  that  neighbour- 
hood, but  the  family  bad  been  situated  at  Askham,  in  the 
county  pi  Westmoreland.  He  w.as  educated  for  some  time 
at  Cartmel  school,  afterwards  at  the  fr^  grammar-school 
at  Kendal;  from  which. he  went,  very  well  instructed  im 
the  learning  of  grammar-schools,  to  St.  John^s  college, 
Cambridge.  He  took  his  bachelgr^s  degree  in  1723,  and 
soon  after  was  elected  fellow  of  ChristVcollege.  in.  that 
uuiversity,  where  he.  took  bis.  mastetr'-s  degree  in  172^. 
During  his  residence  here,  he  became  knowa  to.the  pi>b- 
]}c  by  a. translation  of  archbishop  King's  (see  William. 
Kino)  "  Essay*  upon  the  jOngbx .  of  Evil,!'  >with  >  cpptokia 
notes;. in  which  many  metaphysical  subjects,  curibuff  and 
interesting  in  tbeii*.owQ  natkire,  anre /treated  of  with  tgreait 

',   •      .  •    ;'      ,  '       ■        '     .  *         ;      .    ■    ;  ^ 

»  CJogc  by  Lalapde  1r  the  Mag.  Epcyclopedi^uc— but  cbiefly  in  th^  wgrds  »f . 
Ue  account  given  in  Rees's  Cyclopedia^  .'     '     '  '*  '* 


1 


L  A  Wi  ^  |» 

ingetiuity,  learning,  and  novelty.  To  this  work  was  pre* 
fixed,  under  the  name  of  a  <*  Preliminary  Dissertation^'*  a 
very  valuable  piece  written  by  Mr.  Gay  of  Sidney-college. 
Oor  bishop  always  spoke  of  this  gentleman  in  terors  of  the 
greatest  respect.  ^'  In  the  Bible,  and  in  the  writings  of 
•  Locke,  no  man,''  he  used  to  say,  *'  was  so  well  versed." 

Mr.  Law  also,  whilst  at  Cbrist's^coU^e,  undertook  and 
went  through  a  very  laborious  part,  in  preparing  for  the 
press,  an  edition  of  <^  Stephens's  Thesaurus."  His  ac-* 
<|paiutance,  during  his  first  residence  in  the  university^ 
was  principally  with  Dr.  Waterland,  the  learned  master  pf 
Magdalen-4College ;  Dr.  Jortin,  a  name  known  to  every 
scholar ;  and  Dr.  Taylor,  the  editor  of  Demosthenes. 

In  1737  he  was  presented  by  the  university  to  the  living 
of  Grayatock,  in  the  county  of  Cumberland,  a  rectory  of 
about  300/.  a  year.  The  advowson  of  this  benefice  be- 
^longed  to  the  family  of  Howards  of  Graystock,  but  devolved 
to  the  university  for  this  turn,  by  virtue  of  an  act  of  par- 
liament, which  transfers  to  these  two  bodies  the  nomina- 
tton  to  such  benefices  as  appertain,  at  the  time  of  the  va« 
'cancy,  to  the  patronage  of  a  Roman  catholic.  The  .right^ 
however,  of  the  university  was  contested,  and  it  was  not 
until  after  a  lawsuit  of  two  years  continuance,  that  Mr. 
Law  was  settled  in  his  living.  Soon  after  this  he  married 
Mary,  the  daughter  of  John  Christian,  esq.  of  Unerigg,  in 
the  county  of  Cumbedand ;  a  lady,  whose  character  is  re- 
membered with  tenderness  and  esteem  by  all  who  kneyf 
her.  In  J  74^  he  was  promoted  by  sir  George  Fleming, 
bishop  of  Carlisle,  to  the  archdeaconry  of  that  diocese; 
and  in  1746  went  from  Graystock  to  settle  at  Salkeld,  a 
pleasant  village  upon  the  banks  of  the  river  Eden,  the  rec-' 
tory  of  which  is  annexed  to  the  archdeaconry ;  but  he  was 
not  one  of  those  who  lose  and  forget  themselves  in  the 
country.  During  his  residence  at  Salkeld,  he  published 
*-*  Considerations  on  the  Theory  of  Religion ;"  to  which 
were  subjoined,  ^  Reflections  on  the  Life  and  Character 
of  Christ ;"  and  an  appendix  concerning  the  use  of  the 
words  soul  and  spirit  in  the  Holy  Scripture,  and  the  stato 
of  the  dead  there  described. 

Dr.  Keene  held  at  this  time  with  the  bishopric  of  Ches- 
ter, the  masten^ip  of  Peter-house,  in  Cambridge.  De- 
siring to  leave  the  university,  he  procured  Dr.  iJaw  to  be 
elected  to  succeed  him  in  that  station.  This  took  place 
ia  1756^  in  which  yean  Dr.  Law  resigned  his  archdeaconry 

a  2 


t*  LAW. 

in  favour  of  Mr.  Eyre,  a  brolber^ki4atr  of  Br.  Keene. 
Twro  years  before  this  (the  list  of  graduates  says  1743)  he 
bad  proceeded  to  his  degree  of  D.  D.,  in  his  public  exer-» 
cise  for  which,  he  defended  the  doctrioe  of  what  is  usually 
called  the  **  sleep  of  the  saul/'  a  tenet  to  which  we  shall 
hate  occasion  to  revert  hereafter.  About  1760  he  was 
Appointed  head  librarian  of  the  university;  a  situation 
which,  as  it  procured  an  easy  and  quiek  access  to  books^ 
was  peculiarly  agreeable  to  his  taste  and  habits.  Sem^ 
time  after  this  he  was  appointed  casuistical  professor*  In 
1762  he  suffered  an  irreparable  loss  by  the  death  of  his 
wife;  a  loss  in  itse^lf  every  way  afflicting,  and  rendered 
more  so  by  the  situation  of  his  fiamily,  which  then  con-^ 
sisted  of  eleven  children,  many  of  thera  very  young. 
Some  years  afterwards  be  Yeceived  several  preferments, 
which  were  rather  honourable  expressions  of  regard  from 
kls  friends,  than  of  much  advantage  to  his  fortune.  By 
Efr.  Cprnwallis,  then  bishop  of  Lich&eld,  afterwards  arch-* 
bi^op  of  Canterbury,  who  had  been  his  pupil  at  Christ-*^ 
college,  he  was  appointed  to  the  archdeaconry  of  Staffwd-^ 
shire,  and  to  a  prebend  in  the  church  of  Mchfield.  By- 
bis  old  acquaintance  Dr.  Green,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  he^ 
was  made  a  prebendary  of  that  church.  But  ki  1767,  by 
^e  intervention  of  the  duke  of  Newcastle,  to  whose  in* 
terest,  in  the  memorable  contest  for  the  high  stewardship 
of  the  university,  he  had  adhered  in  opposition  to  some^ 
temptations,  he  obtained  a  stall  in  the  cbui^h  of  Durham. 
The  year  after  this,  the  duke  of  Grafton,  who  had  a  short 
time  before  been  elected  chancellor  of  the  university^  re- 
f^ommended  the  master  of  Peterhouse  to  his  majesty  for 
the  bishopric  of  Carlisle.  This  recommendation  was  made, 
i>ot  only  without  solicitation  on  his  part,  or  that  <^  bis  friends, 
but  without  his  knowledge,  until  tlie  duke's  intention  in 
his  favour  was  signified  to  him  by  the  archbishop. . 
,  In  or  about  1777,  our  bishop  gave'  to  the  puhKc  a  hand* 
some  edition,  in  3.  vols.  4to,  of  the  works  of  Mr.  Lookey 
with  a  life  of  the  author,  and  a  preface.  Mr*  Locke's- 
writings  and  character  he  held  in  the  highest  esteem,  and 
seems  to  have  drawn  from  them  many  of  bis  own  principles  v 
he  was  a  disciple  of  that  school.  About  the  same  time 
he  published  a  tract  which  engaged  some  attention  in  the 
controversy  concerning  subscription ;  and  he  published 
new  editions  of  his  two  principal  works,  widi  considerable 
Editions,   and  some  alterations.   > Besides  the  works  aU 


LAW.  85 

ready  mehtioned,  be  published,  in  1734  of*  173f^  a  very 
ingenious  "  Inquiry  into  the  Ideas  of  Space,  Time,**  &c. 
in  which  he  combtits  ihe  opinions  of  Dr.  Clarke  and  bil 
adberients  on  these  subjects. 

Dr.  Law  held  the  see  of  Catlrsle  almost  mneteen  years; 
during  which  time  he  twice  only  omitted  spending  the 
summer  months  in  bis  diocese  at  the  bishop's  residence  at 
Rosef  Castle ;  ft  situation  with  which  he  was  much  pleased, 
not  only  on- account  of  the  natural  beauty  of  the  place,  but 
because  it  restored  him  to  the  country,  in  which  he  bad 
spent  the  best  part  of  his  life.  In  1787  he  paid  this  visit 
in  a  state  6f  great  weakness  ,and  exhaustion  ;  and  died  at 
Rose  about  a  month  after  his  arrival  there,  on  Aug.  14| 
and  id  the  eighty-fourth  year  of  his  age. 

The  life  of  Dr.  Law  was  a  life  of  incessant  reading  and 
thought,  almost  entirely  directed  to  metaphysical  and  re* 
ligious  inquiries ;  but  the  tenet  by  which  bis  name  and 
writings  are  principally  distingnished,  .is,  <^  that  Jesu9 
Christ,  at  his  setond  coming,  will,  by  an  act  of  his  power^ 
restore  to  life  and  consciousness  the  dead  of  the  human 
species  ;  Who  by  their  own  nature,  and  without  this  inter- 
position, would  r^maii)  in  the  state  of  insensibility  to 
which  the  death  brought  upon  mankind  by  the  sin  of  Adam 
bad  reduced  them."  He  interpreted  literally  that  saying 
of  St.  Paul,  I  Cor.  xv.  21.  "  As  by  man  came  death,  by 
man  eame  also  the  resurrection  of  the  dead."  This  opi- 
nion. Dr.  Paley  says,  had  no  other  effect  upon  his  own 
mind,  than  to  increase  his  reverence  for  Christianity,  and 
for  its  divine  founder.  He  retained  it,  as  he  did  his  other 
speculative  opinions,  without  laying,  as  many  are  wont  tcj 
do,  an  extravagant  stress  upon  their  importance,  and  with- 
out pretending  to  more  certamty  than  the  subject  allowed 
of.  No  man  formed  his  own  conclusions  with  more  free- 
dom, or  treated  those  of  others  -with  greater  candour  and 
equity.  He  never  quarrelled  with  any  person  for  differing 
from  him,  or  considered  that  difference  as  a  sufficient; 
reason  for  questioning  any  man's  sincerity,  or  judging 
flaeanly  of  his  understanding.  He  was  zealously  attached 
to  religiotrs  libert}^  because  he  thought  that  it  leads  to 
truth  ;  yet  from  his  heart  he  loved  peace.  But  he  did 
ncft  perceive  any  repugnancy  in  these  two  things.  Therc^ 
was  nothing  in  his  elevation  to  his  bishopric  which  he 
spoke  of  with  more  pleasure,  than  its  being  a  proof  tliat 
decent  freedom  of  inquiry  was  not  discouraged. 


86  LAW. 

He  was  a  man  of  great  softness  of  aiani>ers»  and  of  th« 
mildest  and  most  tranquil  disposition.  His  voice  was  never 
raised  above  its  ordinary  pitch.  His  countenance  seemed 
never  to  have  been  ruffled ;  it  preserved  the  same  kind 
and  composed  aspect,  truly  indicating  the  calmness  and 
benignity  of  bis  temper.  He  bad  an  utter.disUke  of  large 
and  mixed  companies.  Next  to  bis  books^  his  chief  satis- 
faction was  in  the  serious  conversation  of  a  literary  com* 
panion,  or  in  the  conipauy  of  a  few  friends.  In  this  sort 
of  society  he  would  open  his  mind  with  great  unreserved* 
ness,  and  with  a  peculiar  turn  and  sprigbtliness  of  expres-* 
sion.  His  person  was  low,  but  well  formed ;  his  complexion 
fair  and  delicate.  Except  occasional  interruptions  by  .the 
gouty  he  had  for  the  greatest  part  of  his  life  enjoyed  good 
health  ;  and  when  not  confined  by  that  distemper,  was  full 
of  motion  and  activity.  About  nine  years  before  hi»  deaths 
he  was  greatly  enfeebled  by  a  severe  attack  of  the  gout, 
and  in  a  short  time  after  that/  lost  the  use  of  one  of  his 
legs.  Notwithstanding  his  fondness  for  exercise,  he  re*» 
signed  himself  to  this  change,  not  only  without  complaint, 
but  without  any  sensible  diminution  of  his  cheerfulness 
and  good  humour.  His  fault  was  the  general  fault  of  re« 
tired  and  studious  characters,  too  great  a  degree  of  inac^ 
tion  and  facility  in  his  public  station.  The  modesty,  ox 
rather  basfafulness  of  his  nature,  together  with  an  extreme 
unwillingness  to  give  pain,  rendered  him  sometimes  less 
firm  and  efficient  in  the  administration  of  authority  than 
was  requisite.  But  it  is  the  condition  of  human  nature. 
There  is  an  opposition  between  some'  virtues,  which  sel- 
dom permits  them  to  subsist  together  in  perfection.  Bishop. 
Law  was  interred  in  the  cathedral  of  Carlisle,  in  which  a 
bandsome  monument  is  erected  to  his  memory.  Of  his 
fiamily,  his  second  son,  John,  bishop  of  Elphin,  died  ig^ 
1810  ;  and  his  fourth  son,  Edward,  is  now  lord  EUenbo* 
rougb,  chief-justice  of  the  king*s-bench.V 

LAW  (John),  usually  known  by  the  name  of  the  pro«. 
jector,  was  born  at  Edinburgh,  in  April  1671  ;  and  on  the 
death  of  his  father,  who  was  a  goldsmith  or  banker,  in-* 
berited  a  considerable  estate,  called  Lauristoo.  He  ia 
said  to  have  made  some  progress  in  polite  literature,  but 
bis   more  favourite  study  was  that  of  financial  matters^ 

I  Life  by  Dr.  Paley.  written  for  Hutchinson's  Hist,  of  Durham,  and  which 
we  have  not  altered*  although  we  are  not  of  opinion  that  Dr.  Law's  tenets  were 
ftU  of  the  mere  speculative  and  harmless  kiud.^ 


LAW.  87 

banks,  taxeSi  &c* ;  and  he  was  at  the  same  time  a  man  of 
pleasure,  and  distinguished  by  the  appellation  of  Beau 
Law.  Having  visited  Lo.ndon'^in  1694,  his  wit  and  accom- 
plishm^fits  procured  bim  admission  into  the  first  circles^ 
and  be  beeame  noted  for  his  gallant  attentions  to  the  ladies. 
One  of  his  intrigues  having  involved  him  in  a  quarrel  with 
a  Mr.  Wilson,  a  duel  took  place,  and  Mr.  Law  killed  his 
antagonist.  He  was  then  apprehended,  and  committed  to 
the  kingVbencb  prison,  from  which  he  made  bts  escape, 
and  is  supposed  to  have  retired  to  the  continent^.  In  1700, 
however,  he  returned  to  Edinburgh,  as  be  appears  in  that 
year  to  have  written  bis  **  Proposals  and  reasons  for  con<^ 
stituting  a  Cpuncil  of  Trade,"  which,  although  it  met  with 
DO  encouragement  from  the  supreme  judicature  of  the 
kingdom,  procured  bim  the  patronage  of  -fio^me  noblemen, 
under  which  he  was  induced  in  1705,  to  publish  another 
plan.for  removing  the  difficulties  the  kingdom  was  then 
exposed  to  by  the  great  scarcity  of  money,  and  the  insoU 
vency  of  the  bank.  The  object  of  bis  plan  was  to  issue 
notes,  which  were  to  be  lent  on  landed  property,  upon 
the  principle,  that  being  so  secured,  they  would  be  equal 
in  value  to  gold  and  silver  money  of  the  same  denomina- 
tion^ and  even  preferred  to  those  o^etals,  as.  not  being 
liable  to  fall  in  value  like  tl^em.  .  This  plausible  scheme 
being  also  rejected  as  an  improper  expedient,  Mr.  Law 
now  abandoned  his  native  country,  and  went  to  Holland, 
on  purpose  to  improve  himself  in  that  great  school  of 
banking  and  finance.  '  He  aftewards  resided  at  Brussels, 
where  his  profound  skill  in  calculation  is  said  to  have  con- 
tributed to  his  extraordinary  success  at  play. 

On  bis  arrival  at  Paris,  bis  miud  was  occupied  with 
higher  objects,  and  be  now  presented  to  the  comptroller- 
general  of  the  finances  under  Louis  XIV.  a  plan  which  was 
approved  by  that  minister,  but  is  said  to  have  been  rejec- 
ted by  the  king  because-^^  he  would  have  nothing  to  do  with 
a  heroic.'* ^  After,  however,  a  short  residence  in  Sardinia, 
where  he  in  vain  wanted  to  persuade  Victor  Amadeus  to 
adopt  one  of  bis  plans  for  aggrandizing  his.  territories,  he 
returned  to  Paris  on  the  death  of  Louis  XIV.  and  was 

*  A  reward  of  50/.  was  offered   in  in   his    face,   bi^'  high   nose,    speech 

the    I«oodon  Gazette  of   Jan.  3—7,  brci^d  and   loud."    Nichols's  Leioes- 

1694-5,    in  which  he  is  described  as  tershire,  vol.  III.  in  which  are  sqiq^ 

;|ged  twenty-six,  *^  a  black  lean  tnkn,  curious  particulars  of  Mr.  Law. 
flibottt  six  feet  high,  large  pock-holes 


«*  LA  W. 

more  f avoarably  received.  He  gained  the  ednfidence  of 
the  regent  to  such  a  degree,  that  he  not  only  admitted 
him  to  all  his  convivial  parties,  bat  nominated  him  one  of 
bis  counsellors  of  state.  France  was  at  this  time  btirtbened 
with  an  immense  debt,  which  Law  proposed  to  liqilidate^ 
by  establishing  a  bank  for  issuing  notes  secured  on  landed 
property,  and  on  all  the  royal,  revenues,  unalleiiably  en* 
gaged  for  that  purpose.  This  scheme  was  apjMroved  of, 
,  but  the  conjuncture  being  thought  unfavourable,  be  could 
Only  obtain  letters  patent,  dated  May  30,  17i6,  for  es« 
tal}lishing  a  private  bank  at  Paris,  along  with  his  brother 
and  some  other  associates.  This  scheme  promised  suc- 
cess, and  the  bank  had  acquired  great  credit,  when  it  was 
dissolved  id  December  1718,  by  an  arbitrary  arret  of  the 
regent,  who,  observing  the  great  advantages  arising  from 
it,  and  perceiving  also  that  the  people  were  growing  fond 
of  paper  money,  resolved  to  take  it  into  the  hands  of  go* 
•  vernment. 

Mn  Law,  however,  was  named  director- general  of  this 
royal  bank,  and  branches  of  it  were  established  at  Lyons, 
Rocbelle,  Tours,  Orleans,  and  Amiens.     In  1720,  he  he* 
gan  to  develope  his  grand  project,  so  well  known  to  all 
Europe,  under  the  name  of  the  Missisippi  scheme.     This 
scheme  was  no  less  than  the  vesting  the  whole  privileges^ 
effects,  and  possessions  of  all  the  foreign  trading  compa- 
nies, the  great  farms,  the  profits  of  the  mint,  the  general 
receipt  of  the  king's  revenue,  and  the  management  and 
property  of  the  bank,  in  one  great  company,  who  thus 
naving  in  their  hands  all  the  trade,  taxes,  and  royal  re« 
venues,   might  be  enabled  to  multiply  the  notes  of  the 
bank  to  any  extent  they  pleased,  doubling  or  even  trebling 
at  will  the  circulating  cash  of  the  kingdom  ;  and  by  the 
greatness  of  their  funds,  possessed  of  a  power  to  carry,  tb^ 
foreign  trade,  and  the  culture  of  the  colonies,  to  a  height 
altogether  impracticable  by  any  other  means.    This  mon- 
strous and  impracticable  monopoly  was  approved  of  by  the 
regent,  who  issued  letters  patent  for  erecting  the  *^  Com-^ 
pany  of  the  West,''  to  which  he  granted  at  the  same  time, 
the  whole  province  of  Louisiana,  or  the  country  on  the 
river  Missisippi,  from  which  the  scheme  took  its  name. 
That  part  of  America  having  been  represented  as  a  region 
abounding  in  gold  and  silver^  anjd  po$ses8ing  a  ^rtile  and 
lu^Lurious  soil,  the  actions  or  shares  were  bought  up  with 


\ 


LAW.  aft 

« 

greftt  avidity ;  and  »uch  vvas  the  rage  for  specuhtion,  that 
the  unimproved  parts  of  the  colony  were  actually  sold  for 
10,000  hvres  the  square  league. 

The  "  Company  of  the  West,"  of  which  Law  was  of 
coiorse  dh^ector-general,  in  pursuance  of  his  scheme,  un* 
dertook  the  Isrm  of  tobacco  at  an  advanced  rent  of  upwards 
of  two  miUions  of  livres;  they  soon  after  engrossed  the 
charter  and  effects  of  the  Senegal  company,  and  in  May 
1719,  actually  procured  the  grant  of  an  exclusive  trade  to 
the  East  Indies,  China,  and  the  South*seas,  with  all  the 
possessions  and  e|Feets  of  the  China  and  India  companies, 
which  were  now  dissolved  on  the  condition  of  liquidating 
their  debts.  The  price  oi  actions  soon  rose  from  550  to  1006 
livres  each.  On  July  25th,  the  mint  was  made  over  to 
this  company,  which  now  assumed  the  natne  of  ^'  The 
Gompaoy  of  the  Indies"  for  a  consideration  of  fifty  mil- 
lions of  livres,  and  on  Aug.  27,  following,  they  also  obtained 
a  lease  of  the  farms,  for  which  they  agreed  to  pay  thre6 
mtUiofls  and  a  half  of  livres  advanced  rent.  Having 
thus  concentered  within  themselves,  not  only  the  whole 
foreign  trade  and  possessions  of  France,  but  the  collection 
and  management  of  the  royal  revenues,  they  promised  an 
annuaLdividend  of  200  livres  per  share,  in  consequence 
of  which  the  price  of  actiens  rose  to  5000  livres,  and 
,a  rage  for  the  purchase  of  their  stock  seems  to  have  infa« 
tuat^d  all  ranks  in  the  kingdom.  The  whole  nation, 
clergy,  laity,  peers,  and  plebeians,  statesmen,  and  princ'es, 
nay  even  ladies,  who  had,  or  could  procure  money  for 
that  purpose,  turned  stock-jobbers,  outbidding  each  other 
widi  such  avidity,  that  in  November  1719,  after  some 
.flttctoations,  the  price  of  actions  tost  to  above  10,000 
livres,  more  than  sixty  times  the  sum  they  originally 
sold  fon 

Our  projector  had  now  arrived  at  an  unexampled  pitch 
of  power  and  wealth;  he  possessed  the  ear  of  the  duke  of 
Orleans ;  he  was  almost  adored  by  the  people,  and  was 
constantly  surrounded  by  princes,  dukes,  and  prelates, 
who  courted  his  friendship,  and  even  seemed  ambitious  of 
his  patronage*  Such  was  the  immensity  ot  his  property, 
that  be  bought  no  less  than  fourteen  estates  with  titles  an* 
nexed  to  them,  among  which  was  the  marquisate  of  Rosny« 
that  bad  belonged  to  the  great  duke  6f  Sully,  the  minister 
and  friend  of  Henry  IV.    About  this  period  too,  a  free 


90  LAW. 

I 

pardon^  for  the  murder  of  Mr.  Wilson  was  conveyed  la 
him  from  England,  while  Edinburgh,  proud  of  having 
produced  so  great  a  man,  transmitted  the  freedom  of  the 
city  in  a  gold  box. 

The  only  obstacle  to  his  advancement  to  the  highest 
offices  in  the  state  being  soon  after  removed  by  his  abju* 
ration  of  the  protestant  religion,  he  was  declared  comp* 
troller-general  of  the  finances  on  Jan «  18,  1720*  But 
after  having  raised  himself  to  such  an  envied  situation,  he 
at  length  fell  a  sacrifice  to  the  intrigues  of  the  other  mi- 
nisters, who,  playing  upon  the  fears  of  the  regent,  induced 
him  to  issue  an  arret  on  May  21,  1720,  which,  contrary 
to  sound  policy,  and  even  to  the  most  solemn  stipulations, 
reduced  the  value  of  the  company's  bank  notes  one  half^ 
and  fixed  their  actions  or  shares  at  5000  livres.  By  this 
fatal  step,  which  seems  to  have  been  taken  in  opposition 
to  the  opinion  and  advice  of  the  comptroller*general,  the 
whole  paper  fabrick  was  destroyed,  and  this  immense  spe- 
culation turned  out  to  be  a  mere  bubble.  The  conster* 
nation  of  the  populace  was  soon  converted  into  rage;  troops 
were  obliged  to  be  stationed  in  all  parts  of  the  capital  to 
prevent  ipischief ;  and  such  was  the  depreciation  of  this 
boasted  paper  money,  that  100  livres  were  given  for  a 
single  louis-d'or.  Law  with  some  difficulty  made  his 
escape  to  Brussels,  and  of  all  his  wealth  and  property,  re- 
tained only  the  salary  of  his  office,  through  the  friendship 
of  the  duke  of  Orleans. 

After  waiting  for  some  time,  in  expectation  of  being  re- 
called to  France,  he  travelled  through  part  of  Europe,  and 
at  length,  in  consequence  of  an  invitation  from  the  British 
ministry,  arrived  in  England  in  Oct.  1721,  was  presented 
to  the  king,  George  I.  and  afterwards  hired  a  house  in 
Conduit-street,  Hanover-square,  where  he  was  daily  vi- 
sited by  people  of  the  first  quality  and  distinction.  In 
1722  he  repaired  once  more  to  the  continent,  and  con- 
cluded the  chequered  course  of  his  life  at  Venice,  in  March 
1729,  in  the  fifty-eighth  year  of  his  age.  He  was  at  this 
time  in  a  state  little  removed  from  indigence.  Various 
opinions  have  been  entertained  respecting  the  merit  of  his 

*  It  18  said  in  the  work  quoted  in  what  improbable ;  but  we  ought  p^r- 

the   preceding:    note,    that   he   found  haps,    to  recollect  that. there  was  a 

means  to  pacifjibe  surviving  relations  time,  a  short  one,  indeed,  when  Mrw 

of  Mr.  WiUon,  9}^  the  payment  of  not  Law  Could  comDund  greater  aujiis. 
less  than  I00,000f.  This  appears  some* 


LAW.  91 

project,  but  it  seems  generally  agreed  that  if  it  had  not 
been  violently  interrupted  by  the  rec^ent's  arret,  it  was  too 
insecure  in  its  principles  to  have  been  permanent.  His 
family  estate  of  Lauriston  is  still  in  the  possession  of  his 
descendants,  one  of  whom,  the  eldest  son  of  John  Law  de 
Lauriston,  governor  of  Pondicherry,  was  one  of  the  offi- 
cers wbo  perished  in  the  unfortunate  voyage  of  De  la  Pe- 
Touse,  and  was  succeeded  as  the  head  of  the  family,  by 
general  Lauriston,  known  in  this  country  as  the  bearer  of 
the  ratification  of  the  preliiioinaries  of  the  short-lived  peace 
between  Great  Britain  and  France  in  1802.^ 

LAW  (William),  the  author  of  many  pious  works  of 
great  popularity,  was  bom  at  King^s-cliffe,  in  Northamp- 
tonshire,  in  1686^  and  was  the  second  son  of  Thomas  Law, 
a  grocer.  It  is  supposed  that  he  received  his  early  edu* 
cation  at  Oakham  or  Uppingham,  in  Rutlandshire,  whence 
on  June  7,  1705,  he  entered  of  Emmanuel  college,  Cam- 
bridge. In  1708  he  commenced  B.  A.  ;  in  1711,  was 
elected  fellow  of  bis  college;  and  in  1712  took  his  degree 
of  M.  A.  Soon  after  the  accession  of  his  majesty  George  L 
being  called  upon  to  take  the  oaths  prescribed  by  act  of 
parliament,  and  to  sign  the  declaration,  he  refused,  and 
in  consequence  vacated  his  fellowship  in  1716.  He  was 
after  this  considered  as  a  nonjuror.  It  appears  that  he  had 
for  some  time  officiated  as  a  curate  in  London,  but  had 
no  ecclesiastical  preferment.  Soon  after  his  resignation  of 
bis  fellowship  he  went  to  reside  at  Putney,  as  tutor  to  Ed- 
ward Gibbon,  father  to  the  eminent  historian.  When  at 
home,  notwithstanding  his  refusing  the  oaths,  he  continued 
to  frequent  his  parish-church,  and  join  in  communion  with 
his  fellow  parishioners.  In  1727  he  founded  an  alms-house 
at  ClifFe,  for  the  reception  and  tnaintenance  of  two  old 
women,  either  unmarried  and  helpless,  pr  widows ;  and  a 
school  for  the  instruction  and  clothing  of  fourteen  girls. 
It  is  thought  that  the  money  thus  applied  was  the  gift  of 
an  unknown  benefactor,  and  given  to  him  in  the  following 
manner.  While  he  was  standing  at  the  door  o^  a  shop  in 
London,  a  person  unknown  to  him  asked  whether  his  name 
was  William  Law,  and  whether  he  was  of  King's-cliffe ; 
and  after  having  received  a  satisfactory  answer,  delivered 
SI  sealed  paper,  directed  to  the  Rev.  Wiliiaoi  Law,  which' 

1  Hiit»  of  Ihe  Parish  of  Cramond,  1794,  4to.— Private  Life  of  Loais  XV* 
translated  by  Justaroond. — Voltaire's  Siecle  de  liOuis  XV.— ^Dict*  Hist^«« 
Ktchols's  Leicestertlure,  vol.  IIL 


9»  LA  W. 

contained  a  bank  note  for  1000/.  But  as  there  is  no  proof 
that  this  w^s  given  to  him  in  trust  for  the  purpose,  he  is 
fully  entitled  to  the  merit  of  having  employed  it  in  the  ser-> 
vice  of  the  poor ;  and  such  beneficence  was  perfectly  con- 
sistent with  his  general  character. 

At  what  time  Mr.  Law  quitted  Mr.  Gibbon^s  house  at 
Putney,  his  biographer  has  not  discovered,  but  it  appears 
that  some  time  before  1740,  he  was  instrumental  in  bring-* 
ing  about  ah  intimacy  between  Mrs.  Hester  Gibbon,  his 
pupiPs  sister,  and  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Hutcheson,  widow  of 
Archibald  Hutcheson,  esq.  of  the  Middle  Temple.  Mr« 
Hutcheson,  when  near  his  decease,  recommended  to  his 
wife  a  retired  life,  and  told  her  he  knew  no  person  whose 
society  would  be  so  likely  to  prove  profitable  and  agree-^ 
able  to  her  as  that  of  Mr.  Law,  of  whose  writings  he  highly 
approved.  Mrs.  Hutcheson,  whose  maiden  name  was  Law-» 
rence,  had  been  the  wife  of  <iolonel  Robert  Steward ;  andf 
when  she  went  to  reside  in  Northamptonshire,  was  in  pos-» 
session  of  a/large  income,  from  the  produce  of  an  estate 
which  was  in  her  own  power,  and  of  a  life  interest  in  pro-' 
perty  settled  on  her  in  marriage,  or  devised  to  her  by  Mr« 
Hutcheson.  These  two  ladies,  Mrs.  Hutcheson  and  Mrs. 
H.  Gibbon,  appear  to  have  been  of  congenial  sentiments, 
and  now  formed  a  plan  of  living  together  in  the  conntiy, 
fbr  from  that  circle  of  society  generally  called  the  world ; 
and  of  taking  Mr.  Law  as  their  chaplain,  instructor,  and 
almoner.  With  this  view  they  took  a  house  at  Tbrapston, 
in  Northamptonshire;  but  that  situation  not  proving  agree-' 
able  to  themj  the  two  ladies  enabled  Mr.  Law,  about  I740, 
to  prepare  a  roomy  house  near  the  church  at  King's-clifitey 
and  in  that  part  of  the  town  called  **The  Hail-yardi-* 
This  house  was  then  possessed  by  Mr.  Law,  and  was  the 
only  property  devised  to  him  by  his  father.  Here  the 
whole  income  of  these  two  ladies,  after  deducting  the  fru*' 
gal  expences  of  their  household,  was  expended  in  acts- of 
charity  to  the  poor  and  the  sick,  and  in  donations  of  greater 
amount  to  distressed  persons  of  a  somewhat  higher  class.- 
Afld  after  twenty  years  residence^  Mr.  Law  died  in  this 
bouse  April  9,  1761.  ^ 

By  some  persons  now  or  lately  living  at  Cliffe,  wbor 
knew  Mn  Law,  it  is  reported  that  he  was  by  nature  of  an^ 
active  and  cheerful  disposition,  very  warm-hearted,  unaf* 
fected,  and  affable,  but  not  to  appearance  so  remarkable 
for' meekness  ^^  as.  some  others  of  the  mo3t  revered  mem*. 


LAW.  M 


lien  of  ibe  Christian  church ,  are  reported  to  hare  been,^ 
He  was  in  stature  rather  oyer  than  under  the  middle  size ; 
not  corpulent,  but  stout  made,  with  broad  shoulders ;  his 
visage  was  round,  his  eyes  grey,  his  features  welUpropor«» 
tioned,  and  not  large,  his  complexion  ruddy,  and  his  coun* 
penance  open  and  agreeable.  He  was  naturally  more  in- 
clioed  to  be  merry  than  sad.  In  his  habits  he  was  very  re- 
gular and  temperate;  he  rose  early,  breakfas^d  in  his 
bed-room  on  one  cup  of  ohocolate ;  joined  Us  family  in 
prayer  at  nine  o'clock,  and  again,  soon  i^ter  noon,  at  dinner* 
When  the  daily  provision  for  the  poor  was  not  made  punc« 
tually  at  the  usual  hour,  he  expressed  bis  displeasure 
sharply,  but  seldom  on  any  oAer  occasion.  He  did  not 
join  Mrs,  Gibbon  and  Mrs.  Hutcheson  at  the  tea-table,  but 
sometimes  ate  a  few  raisins  standing  while  they  sat.  At  ai| 
early  supper,  after  an  hour's  walk  in  his  field,  or  elsewhere, 
be  ate  something,  and  drank  one  or  two  glasses  of  wine ; 
then  joined  in  prajNir  with  the  ladies  and  their  servants, 
attended  to  the  reading  of  some  portion  of  scripture,  and 
at  nine  o'clock  retired. 

We  know  not  where  a  n^re  just  character  pf  this  singu- 
lar man  can  be  found  than  in  the  *^  Miscellaneous  Works'^ 
of  Gibbon,  the  historian,  who  has  for  once  praised  a 
qhurchman  and  a  man  of  piety,  not  only  without  irony^ 
.  bnt  with  affection.  '^  In  our  family,"  says  Gibbon,  ^'  he 
left  the  reputation  of  a  worthy  and  pious  man,  who  be- 
lieved all  that  he  professed,  and  practised  all  that  he  en- 
joined. The  character  of  a  nonjuror,  which  he  maintained 
to  the  last,  is  a  sufficient  evidence  of  his  principles  in 
church  and  state ;  and  the  sacicifice  of  interest*  to  conscience 
will  be  always  respectable.  His  theological  writings,  which 
our  domestic  connection  has  tempted  me  to  peruse,  pre- 
serve an  imperfect  sort  of  life,  and  I  can  pronounce  with 
more  confidence  and  knowledge  on  the  merits  of  the  att« 
thor.  His  last  compositions  are  darkly  tinctured  by  the 
incomprehensible  visions  of  Jacob  Behmen ;  and  his  dis- 
course on  the  absolute  unlawfulness  of  stage-entertain-p^ 
ments  is  sometimes  quoted  for  a  ridiculous  intemperance 
of  sentiment  and  language. — But  these  sallie;  of  religious 
phrensy  roust  not  extinguish  the  praise  which  is  due  to 
Mr.  William  Law  as  a  wit  and  a  scholar.  His  argument 
on  topics  of  less  absurdity  is  specious  and  acute,  his 
ipanoer  is  lively^  his  style  forcible  and  clear;  and,  had 
not  his  vigorous  mind  been  clouded  by  enthusiasm,  he 


M 


LAW. 


ttighc  be  ranked  with  the  most^  agreeable  and  ingenloiM 
writers  of  the  times.  While  the  Bsingorian  controrersj 
was  a  fashionable  tbemey  he  entered  the  lists  on  the  stA*^ 
jeck  of  Christ's  kingdom^  and  the  9»otfaority  of  the  priest- 
hood ;  against  the  '  Pkin  account  of  the  sacrament  of  th^ 
Lord's  Supper'  he  resomed  the  combat  witb  bishop  Hoadly^ 
the  object  of  Whig  idolatry  and  Tory  abhorrence ;  and  at 
every  weapon  of  attack  and  defence,  the  nonjuror,  on  the 
ground  which  is  common  to  both,  approves  himself  at  least 
^ual  to  the  prelate.  On  the  appeaurance  of  the  <  Fable  of 
the  Bees/  he  drew  his  pen  against  the  licentious  doctrine 
that  private  vices  are  public  benefits^  and  morsdity  as-well 
as  religion  must  joih  in  his  applause.  Mr.  Law's  master- 
work,  the  '  Serious  Call,'  is  still  read  as  a  popular  and. 
powerful  book  of  devotion.  His  precepts  are  rigid,  but 
they  are  founded  on  the  gospel ;  his  satire  is  shaq),  but  it 
is  'drawn  from  the  knowledge  of  human  life ;  and  many  of 
his  portraits  are  not  unworthy  of  tbefWB  of  La  Bruyere *» 
If  he  finds  a  spark  of  piety  in  bis  reader's  mind,  he  wiil 
soon  kindle  it  to  a  flame ;  and  a  philosopher  must  allow- 
that  he  exposes,  with  equal  severity  and  truth,  the  strange 
contradiction  between  the  faith  and  practice  of  the  Chris- 
tian world." 

As  a  theologian,  Law  held  certain  tenets  peculiar  to 
himself  which,  either  from  being  misunderstood,  or  mis* 
represented,  subjected  him  at  different  times,  to  two  veiy 
opposite  imputations,  that  of  being  a  Socinian  and  that  of 
being  a  Methodist.  What,  however,  was  really  erroneous 
in  his  opinions  has  been  ably  pointed  out  by  bisbop  Horne 
in  a  small  tract,  printed  with  his  life,  entitled  "  Cautions 
to  the  readers  of  Mr.  Law.''  It  was  in  his  latter  days  that 
Mr.  Law  became  most  confused  in  his  ideas,  from  having 
bewildered  his  imagination  .  with  the  reveries  of  Jacob 
Bebmeu,  for  whose  sake  be  learned  German  that  he  might 
fead  his  works,  and  whom  he  pronounces  *^  the  strongest, 
the  plainest,  the  most  open,  intelligiHef  awakening,  con- 
vincing writer,  that  ever  was."  Although  it  is  as  a  devon 
tional  writer  that  he  is  now  best  known^  and  there,  can  be.no 


*  The  late  writer  of  Mr.  Law's  Life 
is  of  opinion  that  Mr.  Gibbon  was 
wrong  in  sopposing  that  *'  Miranda," 
ID  the  '*  S«inons  C^allt"  ivas  intended 
for  his  aunt,  she  being  very  young  at 
lier  father's  hoosa  when  the  work  was 
wrttteo^   Of  his  power  of  drawing  cha- 


racters, Dr.  WartoD  speaks  as  highly 
as  Mr.  Gibbon.  **  There  are  some  fe- 
male characters  sketched,  with  ex«|iii« 
site  delicacy  and  deep  knowledge. o£ 
nature,  in  a  book  where  one  would  not 
expect  to  And  them,  in  L&lr's  **  Chris- 
tian  Perfection." 


LAW,  95 

doubt  that  his  *<  Serioijs  eall^''  and  <<  Christian  pa-fec- 
tioQ*^  have  been  singularly  useful,  it  is  as  a  controversial 
writer,  that  he  ought  to  be  more  highly  praised.  His  let- 
ters  to  bishop  Hoadly  are  among  the  finest  specimens  of 
controversial  writing  in  our  language,  with  respect  to  styles 
wit,  and  argument. 

Mr.  Law's  works  amount  to  nine  vols.  Svo,  and  consist  oF, 
1.  "  A  Serioi;<i  Call  to  a  devout  aud  holy  life.'*  2.  "  A 
practical  Tr^tise  on  Christian  Perfection."  3.  **  Three 
Letters  to  the  Bishop  of  Bangor.'*  4.  ^^  Remarks  upon  a 
late  Book,  entitled,  The  Fable  of  the  liees ;  or  private 
vices  public  benefits."  5.  '^  The  absolute  Unlawfulness 
of  Stage  Entertainments  fully  demonstrated."  6.  *^  The 
Case  of  Reason,  or  Natural  Religion,,  fairly  and  fully 
stated."  7*  ^^  An  earnest  and  serious  answer  to  Dr« 
Trapp's  Discourse  of  the  folly,  sin,  and  danger,  of  being 
righteous  over  much."  8.  **  The  -Grounds  and  Reasons  of 
Christian  Regen«)ei|»op."  9.  <^A  Demonstration  of  the 
gross  and  fundamental  errors  of  a  late  book,  cs^Ued,  A  plain 
, account  of  the  nature  and  end  of  the  Sacrament  of  the  Lord's 
Supper."  10.  <<  An  Appeal  to  all  that  doubt  or  disbelieve 
the  Truths  of  the  Gospel."  11.  «  The  Spirit  of  Prayer; 
or,  the  Soul  rising  out  of  the  vanity  of  Time  into  riches  of 
Eternity*  In  two  Parts."  12.  "  The  Spirit  of  Love,  ia 
two  Parts."  13.  "  The  Way  to  Divine  Knowledge;  being 
several  Dialogues  between  Humanus,  Academious,  Rusti- 
cus,  and  Tbeophilus."  14.  '^  A  shor,t  but  sufficient  Con- 
futation of  the  rev.  Dn  Warburton's  projected  Defence  (as 
he  calls  it)  of  Christianity,  in  his  Divine  Legation  of  Moji^s. 
In  a  Letter  to  the  right  rev.  the  Lord  Bishop  of  London.'*. 
15.  *^  Of  Justification  by  Faith  and  Works;  a  Dialogue 
between  a  Methodist  and  a  Churchman,"  .8vo.  16.  <^  A 
Collection  of  Letters  on  the  most  interesting  and  impor- 
tant subjects,  ai^d  on,  several  occasions."  17.  '<  An  burna- 
ble, earneat,  and  affectionate  Address  to  the  Clefgy."^ 

LA  WES  (H£NRY),  an  English  musician,  was  the  son  of 
Thomas  Lawes,  a  vicar- choral  of  the  church  of  Salisbury, 

♦  **  When  at  Oxford,"    says   Dr.  I  fouDd  Law  quite  an  over-match  for 

Jofansoo,  '*  I  took  up  '  Law's  Serious  me ;  and  this  was  the  first  occasion  of 

Call  to  a  Hoiy  Life,'  expecting  to  find  my  thinking   in    earnest  of  religion; 

it  a  dull  book  (as  such  books  generally  after  I  became  capable  qf  rational  in* 

mn),  and  perhaps  to  laugh  at  it.    But  quiry." 

*  ^  Short  Account  of  the  Life  and  Writings  of  Mr.  Law,  by  Richard  Tighe, 
1813,  Sto. — ^QiblK>n*8  Miscellaneous  Works,  vol.  L  pp.  14,  142. — Jones's  IM 
aif  Bishop  Home,  pp.  73,  a98««-.0€|it.  Mag.  vol.  LX^.*-NichoU's  Bowvec 


§S  L  A  W  E  S. 

and  born  there  about  1 60D,  He  was  a  dfsciple  of  Cope- 
lario.  In  t625,  he  became  a  gentleman  of  the  chapel 
royal;  and  was  afterwards  appointed  one  of  the  private 
music  to  Charles  [.  In  1653,  were  published  his  ^^  Ayreff' 
and  Dialogues,"  &c.  fplio,  with  a  preface  by  himself,  and 
commendatory  verses  by  the  poet  Waller^  Edward  and 
John  Phillips,  nephews  of  Milton,  and  others.  In  the  pre- 
fitce,  speaking  of  the  Italmns,  he  acknowledges  them  iti 
general  to  be  the  greatest  mastars  of  music ;  yet  contends^ 
that  this  nation  has  produced  as  able  musicians  as  any  ia 
Europe,  He  censures  the  fondness  of  his  age  for  songs  ia 
a  language  whi^  the  hearers  do  not  understand  ;  and,  to 
ridicule  it,  mentions  a  song  of  his  own  composition,  printed 
at  the  end  of  the  book,  which  is  nothing  but  an  iade¥,  gcms- 
taining  the  itiitial  words  of  some  old  Itidian  songs  or  ma- 
drigals :  and  this  index,  which  read  together  made  a  strange 
inedley  of  nonsense,  he  says,  he  set' to  a  varied  air,  and 
gave  out  that  it  came  from  Italy,  by  whioh  it  passed  for  au 
Italian  song.  In  the  title*page  of  this  book  is  a  very  fine 
engraving  of  the  author's  head  by  Faithorne. 

Twenty  years  before,  in  1633,  Lawes  had  been  chosen 
to  assist  in  composing  the  airs,  lessons,  and  songs  of  a 
saasque,  presented  at  Whitehall  on  Candlemas-night,  be- 
fore the  king  and  queen,  by  the  gentlemen  of  the  four  inns 
of  court,  under  the  direction  of  Noy  the  attorney* general, 
Hyde  afterwards  earl  of  Clarendon,  Seldert^  Whitelock, 
and  others.  Whitelock  has  given  an  account  of  it  in  bis 
<^  Memorials,**  &c.  Lawes  also  composed  tunes  to  Mr. 
George  Sandys's  ^'  Paraphrase  op  the  Psalms,"  published 
in  163S  ;  and  Milton^s  ''  Comus"  was  originally  set  by  him, 
and  published  in  1637,  with  a  dedication  to  lord  Brady, 
son  and  heir  of  the  earl  of  Bridgewater.  It  was  repre- 
sented in^  1634,  at  Ludlow*castle,  Lawes  himself  perform- 
ing in  it  the  character  of  the  attendant  spirit.  The  music  to. 
'*  Comus**  was  never  printed ;  and  there  is  nothing  in  any 
of  the  printed  copies  of  the  poem,  or  in  the  many  accounts 
of  Milton,  to  ascertain  the  form  in  which  it  was  composed. 

I^wes  taught  music  to  the  family  of  the  earl  of  Bridge- 
water  :  be  was  intimate  v^itb  Milton,  as  may  be  conjectured 
from  that  sonnet  of  the  latter,  ^^  Harry,  whose  tuneful  and 
welUmeasured  song." — Peck  ^ays,  that  Milton  wrote  bis 
masque  of  '^  Comus"  at  the  request  of  Lawes,  who  engaged 
to  set  it  to  music.  Most  of  the  songs  of  Waller  are  $et  by 
Lawes;  and  Waller  has  acknovfrtedged  his  obligation  to 


L  A  W  E  S.-  97 

fcim  for  one  in  particular,  which  he  had  set  in  1635,  in  ^ 
poem/  wherein  be  celebrates  bis  skill  as  a  musician.  Fen- 
ton,  in  a  note  on  this  poem,  says,  that  the  best  poets  of 
that  age  were  ambitious  of  having  their  verses  set  by  this 
Incomparable  artist ;  who  introduced  a  softer  mixture  of 
Italian  airs  than  before  had  been  practised  in  our  nation. 
Dr.  ^urney  entertains  another  kind  of  suspicion.  "  Whe- 
ther,''  says  this  historian,  ^'  Milton  chose  Lawes,  or  Lawes 
Milton  for  a  colleague  in  Comus,  it  equally  manifests  the 
high  rank  in  which  he  stood  with  the  greatest  poets  of  his 
time.  It  would  be  illiberal  to  cherish  such  an  idea ;  but 
it  (f(?^5  sometimes  seem  as  if  the  twin-sisters.  Poetry  and 
Music,  were  mutually  jealous  of  each  other's  glory  :  'the 
less  interesting  my  sister's  offspring  may  be,'  says  Poetry, 
'  the  more  admiration  will  my  own  obtain.'  Upon  asking 
some  years  ago,  why  a  certain  great  prince  continued  to 
bonour  with  such  peculiar  marks  of  favour,  an  old  per- 
former on  the  ilute,  when  he  had  so  many  musicians  of 
superior  abilities  about  him  ?  We  were  answered,  *  be- 
cause he  plays  worse  than  himself.'  And  whp  knows  whe- 
ther Milton  and  Waller  were  not  secretly  influenced  by 
tome  iuch  consideration  ?  and  were  not  more  pleased  with 
Lawes  for  not.  pretending  to  embellish  or  enforce  the  sen- 
timents of  their  songs,  but  setting  them  to  sounds  lesji 
captivating  than  the  sense." 

He  continued  in  the  service  of  Charles  I.  no  longer  tha»a 
till  the  breaking  out  of  the  civil  wars ;  yet  retained  his 
place  in  the  royal  chapel,  and  composed  the  anthem  for 
the  coronation  of  Charles  II.  He  died  Oct.  21,  1662,  and 
was  buried  in  Westminster-abbey.  **  If,"  says  Hawkins, 
^we  were  to  judge  of  the  merit  of  Lawes  as  a  musician 
from  the  numerous  testimonies  of  authors  in  bis  favour,  we 
should  rank  him  among  the  first  that  this  country  has  pro?- 
duced  ;  but,  setting  these  aside,  his  title  to  fame  will  ap- 
pear to  be  but  ill-grouhded.  Notwithstanding  he  was  a 
servant  of  the  church,  he  contributed  nothing  to  the  in- 
creasJe  of  its  stores:  his  talent  lay  chiefly  in  the  composi- 
tion of  songs  for  a  single  voice,  and  in  these  the  great  and 
almost  only  excellence  is  the  exact  correspondence  be- 
tweetl  the  accent  of  the  music  and  the  quantities  of  the 
verse ;  and,  if  the  poems  of  Milton  and  Waller  in  his  eom^ 
mendation  be  attended  to,  it  will  be  found  that  bis  care  in 
this  particular  is  his  chief  praise.'*  * 

^  Ha«kms*f  and  Barney's  Hist,  of  Masic.--Wartoo's  MUIoIb,  p.  345  ct  if  (jq. 

Vol.  XX.  H 


9S  L  A  W  E  S. 

r  • 

LA  WES  (William),  brother  to  the  preceding,  waf 
placed  early  in  life  under  Coperario,  for  bis  ndusical  edu« 
cation,  at  the  expence  of  the  earl  of  Hertford.  His  first 
preTeraient  was  in  the  choir  of  Chichester,  but  be  was 
soon  called  to  London,  where,  in  1 602,  he  was  sworn  a 
gentleman  of  the  chapel  royal ;  whicb  place,  however,  be 
resigned  in  1611,  and  became  one  of  the  private,  or  cfaani- 
ber- musicians,  to  Charles,  then  prince  and  afterwards  king. 
Fuller  says,  '^  he  was  respected  and  beloved  of  all  such 
persons  as  cast  any  looks  towards  virtue  and  honour  :'^  and 
he  seems  well  entitled  to  this  praise.  He  manifested  bis 
gratitude  and  loyalty  to  his  royal  master  by  taking  up  arms 
in  bis  cause  against  the  parliament.  And  though^  ta 
exempt  him  from  danger,  lord  Gerrard,  the  king's  gene* 
ral,  made  him  a  commissary  in  the  royal  army,  yet  the 
activity  of  his  spirit  disdaining  this  intended  security,  at 
the  Kiege  of  Chester,  1 64 jf,  he  lost  bis  life  by  an  accidental 
shot.  The  king  is  said,  by  Fuller,  to' have  been  so  affecti^d 
at  his  loss,  that  though  he  was  alrescly  in  mourning  for  bis 
kinsman  lord  Bernard  Stuart,  killed  at  tbe  same  siege^  his 
majesty  put  ^*  on  particular  lAourning  for  his  deari^rvant 
William  Lawes,  whom  be  commonly  called  the  fatbet*  6S 
music.**  '  '    ' 

His  chief  compositions  were  fantastas  for  vioh^  and  songS: 
and  symphonies  for  masques ;  but  his  /brother  Henry,  m 
the  prefoce  to  the  **  Choice  Psalmes**  for  three  voieei, 
which  they  published  jointly,  boasts  that  **  he  composM 
mpre  than  thirty  several  sorts  of  music  for  voices  and  iii- 
struoients,  and  that  there  was  not  any  instrument  in  use' in 
his  titne  but  he  composed  for  it  as  aptly  as  if  be  had  ottfy 
studied  that."  In  Dr.  Aldrich^s  collection,  Christ  churchy 
Oxon,  there  is  a  work  of  his  called  Mr.  William  lilwes^ 
Great  Consort,  ^<  wherein  are  six  setts  of  musicke,  sik 
books,"  His  "  Royal  Cbiisort"  for  two  treble  viols>  twi^ 
viol  da  gambas,  and  a  thorough-bas^,  wbicb  was  al^ay^ 
mentioned  with  reverence  by  his  admirers  in  the  s^ven;* 
teenth  century,  is,  says  Dr.  Bumey,  one  of  the  mostidjrj^ 
aukward,  and  unmeaning  compositions  we  ever  remenibe^ 
to  have  had  the  trouble  of  scoring.  It  must,  boweve%  ba^ 
been  produced  early  in  his  life,  as  there  are  no  bjit^j-an^ 
the  passages  are  chiefly  such  as  were  used  in  queen  EHs^a^ 
beth's  time.  In  the  music>school  at  Oxford  are  tylahfg^ 
manuscpipt  volumes  of  his  works  in  scoi^e,  for.o\arioii»^ifl^ 
struments;  one  of  which  includes  his  original  compositions 


/     ' 


L  A  W  E  S.  99 

ibr  masques,  performed  before  the  king,  and  at  the  inns 
of  court. 

Hb  anthem  for  four  voices,  in  Dr.  Boyce's  second  vo« 
lume,  is  the  best  and  most  solid  composition  of  this  author ; 
though  it  is  thin  and  confused  in  many  places,  with  little 
melody.  He  must  have  been  considerably  older  than  his 
brother  Henry,  though  they  frequently  composed  in  con- 
junction ;  but  we  are  unable  to  clear  up  this  point  of  pri* 
mogeniture.  Several  of  the  songs  of  William  Lawes  occur 
in  the  collections  of  the  time,  particularly  in  John  Play- 
£prd's  Musical  Companion^  part  the  second,  eonsisting  of 
dialogues,  glees,  baJlads,  and  airs,  the  words  of  which  are 
in  general  coarse  and  licentious.  The  dialogue  part,  which 
be  furnished  ta  this  book,  is  a  species  of  recitative,  wholly 
'irithput  accompaniment:  and  the  duet  at  last,  which  is 
palled  a  chorus,  is  insipid  in  melody,  and  ordinary  in  coun- 
feerpoiptt  His  boasted  cdnons,  published  by  his  brother 
Henry  at  the  end.  of  their  psalms,  as  proofs  of  his  great 
abilities  in  harmony,  when  scored,  appear  so  far  from 
finished  composition^,  that  there  is  not. one  of  them  totally 
£ree  firom  pbjjsctioos,  or  that  bears  the  stamp  of  a  great 
master.' 

;LAWJI^NGE.(THMIAI^,  an  eminent  .physician,  the  son 
,pf  captaiu  Thomas  Lawrence  of  the  royal  navy,'  and  grand* 
son  of  Dr.  Thomas  Lawrence^  first  physicism  'to  queen 
lAmie^was  bom  May  25,  1711,  in  the  parish  of  St/ Mar- 
garet, Westminster.  His  mc^er  was  Elizabeth,  daughter 
of  Jlr^,  Gabriel  Soulden,  merchant  of  Kinsale  in  Ireland, 
and  widow  ai  colonel  Piers.  His  father's  residence  being 
jwfc. Southampton,  he  was  placed  under  the  care  of  the  rev. 
iMe.  Ktngsman,  master  of  the  free^school  at  that  place,  but  / 
bad  previously  received  some  education  at  Dublin,  where 
Jbis  fytber  was  in  1715. .  In  1727  he  was  entered  as  a  com* 
jnoner  of  Trinity  college,  Oxford,  under  the  tuition  of  the 
rev^  George  Huddesibrd,  afterwards  president  of  that  col- 
lege ;  and^here  he  pursued  his  studies  until  some  time  in 
1734^  He  then  removed  to  London,  and  took  a  lodging 
inutile  oity  for  the  convenience  of  attendhig  St.  Thomas's 
liiospital,  ami  became  a  pupil  of  Dn  Mcholls,  who  was  a^ 
that  time  reading  anatomical  lectures,  with  uncommon 
iQdebrily*  Mr.  Lawrence  made  a  suitable  progress  under 
so  aUe  aa  imftru^tor,  and  at  those  lectures  formed  many  of 


4- 

• 


1  . 


^Bumey  in  R««s*f  CycIopaedia.^Hawkint. 

B  2 


100  LAWRENCE. 

the  friendships  which  he  most  valued  during  the  remainder 
of  his  life;  among  others  he  became  here  first  acquainted 
with  Dr.  Bathur9t9  who  introduced  him  to  the  friendship  of 
DfT.  Johnson. 

.  I0  1 740  he  took  his  degree  of  M.  D.  at  Oxford,  and  was^ 
uppn  the  resignation  of  Dr.  Nicholls,  chosen  anatomical 
Cfader  in  that  univei'sityy  where  he  read  lectures  forsom6 
y^rs^  as  he  did  also  in  London/ having  quitted  his  lodg- 
i#?gs  in  the  city  for  a  house  in  Lincoln's-inn-fields,  which 
had  heen  before  occupied  by  Dr.  NichoUs^  and  was  vacated 
hy  him  upon,  his  naarriage  with  the  daughter  of  Dr.  Mead*. 
On  May  25,  1744^  Dr.  Lawrence  was  married  toFrano^ft, 
daughter  of  Dr.  Chauncy,  a.physi<nan  at  Derby,  and  todk 
9i  bouse  in  Es$ex-«treet,  in  the  Strand,  where  he  oontimied 
to  read  hi^  anatomical  lectures  till  1750,  after  which  h^ 
laid  tiiem  aside.  He  jiow.  devoted  biniselftxai  his >practic€^ 
which  became  very  coosrderaMe^^  adrd  -which  he  obtain^ 
•olejy  by  the  reputation  of  his  skill  and  integrity,  fDir  hk 
Uboured  under  the.  disadvantage  of  .frequent  fits  of  dea^ 
neas,  and  knew  no  art  of  success  but  that  of  deserving  i€» 
In  the  same  year  ((744),^.  he  was.  chos^a  fellow  of  the  royil 
college  of  physicians  in  London,  where  he  read  bim^ 
cessively  all  the  lectures  instituted  in  that  society  ^tk- 
great  repiutation,  both  for  his  professional  knowledge,  and 
for  the  purity  and  elegance  of  his  Latin.;  nor  did  he  con«» 
fine  himself  to  the  oral  instnuction  of  his  contemporartei^ 
for  in  i  7 5Q  be  published  a.  medioal  disputation  ^'De^Hyw 
^rope,'*  and  ki  1759,  "  De  iNatura  Mus^uldrum  preieC'-* 
tion^  tres  ;*'  fmd  when  tbel  College .publtihed 'the  works  aoif 
Br.  Harvey  in  1766,  Dr<r  Lawrence  wrote  the  life  which  is 
prefixed  to  that  edition,  for  which  he  had  a  oompUmeot  oC 
LOO  guineas.  In  1759  he  wats.cfadssn  elect,  and- itrl96^ 
pdresident  of  the  college,  to  which  of&tt  he  was  re-^IecteJL 
for  the  seven  succeeding  y^ars.  j  »  . 

.  About  1773,  Dr.  Lawrence^s  health  began  to  dedrne, 
and  be  first  perceived  symptoms  of  that  disorder  on  tlM. 
breast  which  is  called: angina  pectoris^  and  which  oonumied. 
to  afflict  him  i;o  the^end  of  Us  life*-.  Yet  be  remitted  litde 
of  his  attention,  either  to  study  ior  biisin«»$ ;  he  s^llidl  con^ 
linued  bis  custom  of  rising  eariy^«  that  he  migbt  secDnto 
leisure  for  study ;  and  hss  old  friend  and  instructor,  Dt. 
Kicfaolb,.  dy'ingr  in  the  beginning  of  .1 778, ^h8|Df»d  a  tfi» 
bute  of  friendship  and  gratitude  to  hisinempry  by  writing 
an  account  of  his  life,  in  Latin,  Whicbwas  pirinted  for  pri« 


I 


I 


LAWRENCE,  idl 

Vate  disfribution-  in  1780^  4to.  Tlie^  death  of  his  friwd 
was  soeii  followed  by  a  nearer  loss,  in  Jan.  17^0,  that  of 
his  wife,  with  whom  he  had  lived  with  great  happiness  for 
above  thirty*five  years ;  and  from  this  time  his  health  and 
spirits  declining  more  rapidly,  his  family  prevailed. on  hiti 
to  retire  from  business  and  London  >  he  aocordingly  re-^ 
moved  with  his  femily  to- Canterbury,  in  1782,  and  died 
there  June  6,   1783.  • 

By  bis  wife  he  had  six  sons  and  three  daughters,  llie 
death  of  one  of  his  «ons  in  India,  in  1783^  gave  occasion 
to  a  very  elegant  Latin  ode  by  Dr.  Johnson.  Another  of 
his  sons  was  the  late  sir  Soulden  Lawrence,  one  of  the 
judges  of  the  king's  bench ;  sind  Elizabeth,  widow  of  George 
Gipps^  esq.  M.P.  for  Canterbury^  is  now,  we  believe,  the 
only  survivor  of  Dr.  Lawrence's  family.  * 

LAZIUS  (Wolfgang),  physician  and  historian  to  the 
emperor  Ferdinand  I.  was  born  *at  Vienna  in  1 504,  -and 
there  taught  the  belles  lettres  and  physic  for  some  years 
with  great  reputation.-  He  died  in  1555.  His  numerous 
works  shew  him  to  have  been  indefatigable  in  l>is  re-* 
searches,  but  not  so  judicious  in  digesting  his  materials* 
The  principal  arei»  1.  **  Commentariorum  ReipubUc«  Ro- 
manes in  exteris  Prbvinciis  hello  acqoisitis  constitiitae," 
Libri  XII.  1598,  fol.  2..^f  De  Gentium  migrationibus,*' 
1572,  fol.  in  whi^h  he  examines  particularly  the  migrations; 
of  the  northern  people,  which  weakened  and  divided  the 
Roman  empire;-  3.  "  Geographia  PannonJse,"  in  Ortelius,'* 
4v  *<  De  rebus  Viennensibu?,"  1546.  5.  "  In  Genealogiam 
Austriacam  Commentarii,-'  1504,  fol.  &c.  The  greatest 
part  of  this  author-s  works  were  eollected  and  printed  at 
Francfort,   1698,  2  vols,  fol.* 

LEAKE  (Richard),  master-gunner  of  England,  was  born 
at  Harwich,  in  1629,  and  beiiHg  bred  to  the  siea- service, 
distinguished  himself  by  his  skill  and  bravery  in  many 
actions.  At  the  restoration  he  was  made  master-gunner 
of  the  Pxii^icess,  a  frigate  of  fifty  guns;  and  in  the  first 
Dutch  war  exhibited  his  skill  and  bravery  jn  two  very 
extraordinai'y  actions,  in  one  against  fifteen  sail  of  Duich 
men  of  war,  and  another  in  1667,  against  two  Danish  ships 
in  the  Baltic,  in  which,  the  principal  officers  being  killed, 

*  Gent.  Mag.  Tol.  LVII. — Cenaura  Literaria,  toI.  I.—Hawkins  and  Boswell's 
Lives  of  JohosoB. 

«  Niceron,  vol.  X^XL — Moreri.— Bullart's  Academic  des  Sctanccs.—Saxii 
OBomast.  *   ' 


lot  LEAKE. 

« 

the  coinmand  devolved  od  bim,  though  only  master-gun- . 
Sier.  In  16159  be  was  promoted  to  be  gunner  of  the  Royal 
Prince,  a  first-rate  man  of  war.  In  1673  be  was  engaged 
with  his  two  sous  Henry  and  John,  against  Van  Trump, 
His  ship  was  the  Royal  Prince,  a  first-rate  man  of  war,  all 
the  masts  of  which  were  shot  away,  four  hundred  of  her 
tnen  killed  or  disabled,  and  most  of  her  upper  tier  of  gunf( 
dismounted.  Whilst  she  was  thus  a  wreck,  a  large  Dutch 
ship  of  war  came  down  upon  her,  with  two  fire-ships,  mean^i- 
ing  to  burn  or  carry  her  off.  Captain,  afterwards  sir  George 
Rooke,  thinking  -her  condition  hopeless,  ordered  the  mea 
to  save  tbeir  lives,  and  strike  the  colours.  Mr.  Leake, 
hearing  this,  ordered  tb^  lieutenant  off  the  quarter«decky 
and  took  the  command  upon  himself,  saying,  '^  the  Royal 
Prince  shall  never  be  given  up  while  I  am  alive  to  defeod 
her.*'  The  chief-gunner's  gallantry  communicated  it;seli^ 
to  all  around ;  the  crew  returned  with  spirit  to  tbeir  guns^. 
and,  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Leake  and  his  two  sons,, 
compelled  the  Dutchman  to  sheer  off,  and  sunk  both  the 
fireships.  Leake  afterwards  brought  the  Royal  Prince  safe, 
to  Chatham  ;  but  the  joy  of  his  victory  was  damped  by  the, 
loss  of  his  son  Henry,  who  was  killed  by  bis  side.  He  wi^ 
afterwards  made  master-gunner  of  England,  and  store* 
keeper  of  the  ordnance  at  Woolwich.  He  bad  a  particular 
genius  for  every  thing  which  related  to  the,  management  of 
artillery,  and  was  the  first  whp  contrived  to  fire  on  f,  mortar 
by  the  blast  of  a  piece,  which  has  been  used  ^vet  sincev 
He  was  also  very  skilful  in  the  Tsomposition  of  fire-works, 
which  he  often  and  successfully  exhibited  for  the  amuse* 
men't  of  the  king,  and  his  brother,  the  duke  of  York.  He 
died  in  1686,  leaving  a  son,  who  is  the  s.ubject  of  our  next 
article. ' 

LEAKE  (Sir  John),  a  brave  and  successful  Engliisb  adt- 
miral,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  in  1656,  at  Rotber- 
hithe,  in  Surrey,  His  father  instructed  him  both  in  ma- 
thematics and  gunnery,  with  a  view  to  the  navy,  and  en- 
tered hina  early  into  that  service  as  a  midshipman ;  in  which 
station  he  distinguished  himself,  under  his  father,  at  the 
above-mentioned  engagement  between  sir  Edward  Spragg;e 
and  Van  Trump,  in  1673,  being  then  no  more  thao  seved- 
teen  years  old.  Upon  the  conclusion  of  that  war  soon 
after,  he  engaged  in  the  merchants'  service,  and  had  the 

^  Bioff.  Brit. 


LEAKE.  IDS 

*  command  of  a  ship  two  or  three  voyages  ap  the  Mediter- 
ranean ;  but  his  inclination  lying  to  the  navy,  he  did  not 
long  remain  unemployed  iu  it.  He  had  indeed  refused  a 
lieutenant's  commission ;  but  this  was  done  with  a  view  to 
the  place  of  master-gunner,  which  was  then  of  much 
greater  esteem  than  it  is  at  present.  When  his  father  was 
advanced,  not  long  after,  to  thotcommand  of  a  yacht,  he 
gladly  accepted  the  offer  of  succeeding  him  in  the  post  of 
gunner  to  the  Neptune,  a  second-rate  man  of  war.  This 
Hiippened  about  1675;  and,  the  times  being  peaceable*, 
he  remained  in  this  post  without  any  promotion  till  1688. 
James  II.  having  then  resolved  to  fit  out  a  strong  fleet,  to 
prevent  the  invasion  from  Holland,  Leake  had  the  com- 
mand of  the  Firedra^e  fireship,  and  distinguished  himself 
by  several  important  services ;  particularly,  by  the  relief 
of  Londonderry  in  Ireland,  which  was  chiefly  effected  by 
his  means.  He  was  in  the  Firedrake  in  the  fleet  under 
lord  Dartmouth,  when  the  prince  of  Orange  landed  ;  after 
which  he  joined  the  rest  of  the  protestant  officers  in  an 
address  to  the  prince.  The  importance  of  rescuing  Lon* 
donderry  from  the  hands  of  king  James  raised  him  in  the 
navy ;  and,  after  some  removes,  he  had  the  command 
given  him  of 'the  Eagle,  a  third-rate  of  70  guns.  In  1692, 
ihe  distinguished  figure  he  made  in  the  famous  battle  off 
X^a  Hogue  procured  him  the  particular  friendship  of  Mr. 
(afterwards  admiral)  Churchill,  brother  to  the  duke  of 
Marlborough ;  and  he  continued  to  behave  on  all  occasions 
with  great  reputation  till  the  end  of  the  war  ;  when,  upon 
concluding  the  peace  of  Ryswick,  his  ship  was  paid  off, 
Dec.  5,  1697.  In  1696,  on  the  death  of  his  father,  his 
friends  had  procured  for  him  his  father's  places  of  master- 
gunner  in  England,  and  store-keeper  of  Woolwich,  but 
these  he  declined,  being  ambitious  of  a  commissioner's 
place  in  the  navy  ;  and  perhaps  be  might  have  obtained  it, 
I  had  not  admiral  Churchill  prevailed  with  him  not  to  think 

of  quitting  the  sea,  and  procured  him  a  commission  f6r  a 
third-rate  of  70  guns  in  May  1699.  Afterwards,  upon  the 
prospect  of  a  new  war,  he  was  removed  to  the  Britannia, 
the  finest  first-rate  in  the  navy,  of  which  he  was  appointed, 
Jan.  1401,  first  captain  of  three  under  the  eairl  of  Pem-^ 
broke,  newly  made  lord  high  admiral  of  England.  This 
was  the  highest  station  he  could  have  as  ^a  captain,  and 
higher  than  any  private  captain  ever  obtained  either  before 
or  since.     Bu^  upon  the  earl's  removal,  to  make  way  for 


104  LEAKE. 

prince  George  of  Denmark,  Boon  after  queen  Anne's  aor 
cession  to  the  throne,  Leakeys  commission  under  him  bc^ 
coming  void,  May  27,  1702,  he  accepted  of  the  Associa- 
tion, a  second-rate,  till  an  opportunity  ofiered  for  his  far-^ 
ther  promotion.  Accordingly,  upon  the  declaration  ofwa^ 
against  France^  be  received  a  commission,  June  the  24thr 
that  year,  from  prince  George,  appointing  him  commandeK*^ 
in  chief  of  the  ships  designed  against  Newfoundland.  He 
arrived  there  with  his  squadron  in  August,  and,  destroying> 
the  French  trade  and  settlements,  restored  the  English  to. 
the  possession  of  the  whole  island.  This  gave  him  an  op- 
portunity of  enriching  himself  by  the  sale  of  the  capturesy . 
at  the  same  time  that  it  gained  hioi  the  favour  of  the  nation, 
by  doing  it  a  signal  service,  without  any  great  danger  of 
not  succeeding ;  for,  in  ,truth,  all  the  real  fame  he  ac- 
quired on  this  occasion  arose  from  his  extraordinary  dis- 
patch and  diligence  in  the  execution. 

Upon  his  return  home,  he  was  appointed  rear-admiral  pf 
the  filue,  and  vice-admiral  of  the  same  squadron  ;  bu^  de- 
clined the  honour  of  knighthood,  which,  however,  be  ac- 
cepted the  following  year,  when  he  was  engaged  with  a4^ 
miral  Rooke  in  taking  Gibraltar.     Soon  after  this,  be  p^rr 
ticulariy  distinguished  himself  in  the  general  eiigagenie^t 
off  Malaga ;  and,  being  l^ft  with  a  winter-guard  at  Lisboa. 
for  those  parts,  he  relieved  Gibraltar  in  1705,  which  the 
French  had  besieged  by  sea,  and  the  Spaniards  by  land,. 
and  reduced  to  the  last  extren^ity.  '  He  arrived  Oct*  29, 
and  so  opportunely  for  the  besieged,  that  two  days  would^ 
in  all  probability,  have,  decided  their  fate;  but  this  Wft9 
pXevented  by  sir  John's  ^seasonable  arrival.     In  F^b.  1705^ 
he  received  a  commission,  appointing  .hinoi  vice-^admiral.of 
the  white,  and,  in  March,  relieved  Gibraltar  a  secpnct  time<^ 
On  March  6  be  set  sail  for  that  place ;  and,  pn  the  lOtbtj 
attacked  five  ships  of  the  French  fleet  coming  <]tiat,  of  tbei 
^^y»  of  whom  two  were  taken,  two  more  r.un  ashore,!  amii 
were  destroyed;  and  baron  Pointi  died  soon  after  of  the 
wounds  he  received  in  the  battle.     The  rest  of  the  French, 
fleet,  having  intelligence  of  sir  John's  coming,  had  left 
the  Bay  the  day  before  his  arrival  there.  He  had  no  sooner 
anchored,  but  he  received  the  letter  inserted  below  from, 
the  prince  of  Hesse  * :  his  highness,  also  presented   bii^ 

^  "  Sir,  I  expected  with  great  im-  and  good  success  at  this  your  second 
patience  this  good  opportunity  to  ex-  appearing  off  this  place,  wbtch  I  hopw 
prefs  my  hearty  joy  for  your  great     hath  been  the  first  stroke  towards  o«r 


LEAKE.  las: 

with  a  gold  cup  on  the  oeca«ioiD«  This  blow  styucfc  apaiiici- 
along  the  whole  coast,  Of  which,  sir  John  received  thd 
following  a^counti  in  a  letter  Irom  Mr.  Hill,  envoy  to  the 
court  of.Savpy:  •*!  can  tell  you/*  nays,  be^  '^yoar  lata 
fiuccess  against  Mn  Pointi  put  ^1  the  French  coast  into  a. 
great  cans^teroation^  as  if  yon  we^e  come,  to  ^cour.  the. whole. 
Mediterrc^nean.  AU  the  riiips  of  war.  that  were  in  the  road 
of  Toulon  were  hauled  into  the  harbour ;  and  notbingdorit' 
look  ottt  for  some  day».V  In  short,  the.  effect  at  Gibraltar 
was,  that  the  enemy,  in  a  few  days,  entirely  raised  the  si^ge|. 
and  marched  off,  leaving  only  a  detachment  at  ^ome)distani:e[> 
to  observe  the  garrison  ^  so  that  this  iosportant  place  was 
se<?ured  from  any  farther  attempts  of  the  enemy.  Tbera 
are  but  few  instances  in  which  the  sea<  and  land.officerai 
agreed  so  well  together  in  an  expedition^  and  sacrificed  all 
private  .views  and  passions  to  a  disinterested  regard  for  the 
public  good.  .    .        , 

The  same  year,  1705,  sir  John  was  engaged  in  the  joh. 
duction  of  Barcelona ; .  after  which,  being  iieCt  at  the  head 
of  a  squadron  in  the  Mediterranean,  be.  conaert^d  an.  ex* 
pedition  to  surprize  the  Spanish  galleons.io  i the  bay- oC^ 
Cadiz;  but  this  proved  unsuccessfnl,  hyxbe  management; 
of  the  confederates.    In  1 706,  he  relieved  Barcelona,  re-*/ 
dueed  to  the  last  extremity,  and  thereby,  occasioned  the* 
siege  to  be  raised  by  king  Philip.     This  was  so  great  a^ 
deliverance  of  bis  competitor,    king  Charles,   afterwards 
emperor  of  Germany,  that  he  annually  commemorated  it^i 
by  a  public  thanksgiving  on  the  26th  of  May^  as  long  aa 
he  lived.     The.raising  of  the  siege  was  attended  with  a  total 
eclipse  of  the  sun,  which  did  not  a  little. increase  the  enei* 
my?s  consternation,  as  if  the  heavens  ooncorred  to  defeat 
the  designs  of  the  French,  whose  monarch  had  assumed* 
the  son  for  his  device ;  in  allusion  to  which, .  the  reverse  of 
the  medal. struck  by  queen. Anne  on  this  occasion,  repre- 
sented the  sun  in  eclipse  over  the  cit^  and  harbour  of  Bar-^ 
c^oiia.    .Presently  after  this  success  at  Barcelona,  sir  John 
rediaced  the  city  of  Carthagena,  whence,  proceeding  to 
those  of  Alicant  and  Joyce,  they  both  submitted  to  him ; 

relief; .  the  cneiny,    since  fire  dayf,  consequences  of  it:  and  I  in  particular 

baring  began  to  withdraw  their  heavy  cannot  express  my  hearty  thanks  aad 

caomMi,  b^ng  the  effects-  on(y  to  be  obligations  I  lie  under.     I  ami  ^itb 

ascribed,  to  your  eondnet    and   care*  great -aincerity  and  respect,  Ue* 
'TfSonly  to  you  the  public  owes,  and  Ocorge,  Prince  of  Hesse»'' 

will  owe,  so  tMMf  irttLt  and  happy 


106  LEAK  E. 

ftnd  he  concluded  the  campaign  of  that  year  with  the  re<^ 
duction  of  the  city  and  island  of  Majorca.  Upon  his  re* 
tarn  home,  prince  George  of  Denmark  presented  him  witH 
ik  dtamond-ring  of  four  hundred  pounds  value ;  and  be  had 
the  honour  of  receiving  a  gratuity  of  a  thousand  pounds 
from  the  queen^  as  a  reward  for  his  services.  Upon  the 
unfortunate  death  of  sir  Cloudesly  Shovel,  1707,  he  was 
advanced  to  be  admiral  of  the  whiCCi  and  commander  in 
chief  of  her  majesty^s  fleet.  In  this  command  he  returned 
to  the  Mediterranean,  an^,  surprizing  a  convoy  of  the 
enemy^s  corn,  sent  it  to  Barcelona,  and  saved  that  city 
atid  the  confederate  army  from  the  danger  of  famine,  in 
1708.  Soon  after  this,  convoying  the  new  queen  of  Spaiii' 
to  her  consort,  king  Charles,  he  was  presented  by  her 
majesty  wiUi  a  diamond«ring  of  three  hundred  pounds  va^ 
lue.  From  this  service  he  proceeded  to  the  island  of  Sar-  • 
dinia,  which  being  presently  reduced  by  him  to  the  obe^- 
dience  of  king  Charles,  that  of  Minorca  was  soon  after  sur^ 
rendered  to  the  fleet  and  land-forces. 

Having  brought  the  campaign  to  so  happy  a  conclusion^ 
be  returned  home ;  where,  during  his  absence,  he  had  been 
appointed  one  of  the  council  to  the  lord-high-admiral,  and  < 
was  likewise  elected  member  of  parliament  both'  for  Har- 
wich and  Rochester,  for  the  latter  of  which  he  made  his 
choice.  In  December  the  same  year,  he  was  made  a  ser 
cond  time  admiral  of  the  fleet.  In  May  1709,  he  was  con- 
stituted rear-admiral  of  Great-Britain,  and  appointed  onei 
of  the  lords  of  the  admiralty  in  December.  Upon  thct 
change  of  the  ministry  in  1710*,  lord  Orfbrd  resigning  the 
place  of  first  commissioner  of  the  admiralty,  sir  John 
Leake  was  appointed  to  succeed  him ;  but  be  declined  that 
post,  as  too  hazardous,  on  account  of  the  divisions  at  that 
juncture.  In  1710,  he  was  chosen  a  second  time  member 
of  parliament  for  Rochester,  and  made  admiral  of  the  fleet 
the  third  timeinM711,  and  again  in  17.12,  when  he  con- 
ducted the  English  forces  to  take  possession  of  Dunkirk; 
Before  the  expiration  of  the  year,  the  commission  of  ad* 
miral  of  the  fleet  was  given  to  him  a  fifth  time.  He  was 
also  chosen  for  Rochester  a  third  time.  Upon  her  majesty^s 
decease,  Aug.  1,  1714,  his  post  of  rear-admiral  was  de- 
termined ;  and  he  was  superseded  as  admiral  of  the  fleet 
by  Matthew  Aylmer,  esq.  Nov.  5.  In  the  universal  change 
that  was  made  in  every  public  department,  upon  the  acces- 
sion of  George  I.  admiral  Leake  could  not  expect  to  be 


L  E  A  X  E.  107 

excited.  Al^  ^8  lie  lived  privately ;  mnd,  bailding  a 
little  box  at  Gteenwich,  spent  part  of  his  time  there,  re« 
Ueating  aometimes  to  a  coantry-boqie  he  had  at  Bedding* 
6m  in  Surrey.  When  a  yoaog  man,  be  bad  married  a 
daughter  of  captain  Richard  Hill  of  Yarmouth ;  by  whom 
he  had  oue  son,  an  only  child,  whose  miscdnduct  had  giren 
him  a  great  deal  of  uneasiness.  In  Aug.  1719,  he  was 
seized  with  an  apoplectic  disorder  ;  but  it  went  off  witbout 
any  visible  ill  consequence.  Upen  the  death  of  his  son,  which 
happened  in  March  following,  after  a  lingering  incurable 
^isoi'cler,  he  discovered  more  than  ordinary  alffliction  ;  nor 
was  he  himself  ever  well  after ;  for  he  died  in  his  house  at 
Greenwich,  Aug.  1,  1720,  in  his  sixty-fifth  year.  By  bis 
win,  he  devised  his  estate  to  trustees  for  the  use  of  his  son 
during  life :  and  upon  his  death  without  issue,  to  captain 
Martin,  .who  married  his  wife's  sister,  and  his  heirs.' 

LEAKE  (Stephen  Martin},  a  herald  and  antiquary, 
son  of  captain  Stephen  Martin,  mentioned  in  the  preceding 
article,'  was  born  April  5,  1702.  He  was  educated  at  the 
school  of  Mr.  Michael  Maittaire,  and  was  admitted  of  the 
Middle- temple.  In  1724  he  was  appointed  a  deputy-* 
fieuteuant  of  the  Tower-hamlets ;  in  which  station  be  after* 
wands  distinguished  himself  by  his  exertions  during  the 
rebellion  in  1745.  On  the  revival  of  the  order  of  the  Bath 
in  1725,  he  was  one  of  the  esquires  of  the  earl  of  Sussex, 
deputy  earl-marshal.  He  was  elected  F.  A.  S.  March  2, 
1726- ?•  In  the  same  year  he  was  created  Lancaster  be- 
laid, in  the  room  of  Mr.  Hesketh ;  in  1729  constituted 
Norroy;  in.  1741  Clarenceux ;  and  by  patent  dated  De« 
cember  19,  1754,  appointed  garter.  In  all  his  situations 
ip,  the  college  Mr.  Leake  was  a  constant  advocate  for  the 
];ights  and  privileges  of  the  oflSce.  He  obtained,  after 
iiniuch  solicitation,  a  letter  in  173 1,  from  the  duke  of  Nor- 
folk to  the  earl  of  Sussex,  bis  deputy  earl-marsbal,  re- 
questing  him  to  sign  a  warrant  for  Mr.  Leakeys  obtaining 
a  commission  of  visitation,  which  letter,  however,  was  not 
attended  with  success.  In  the  same  year  he  promoted  a 
prosecution  against  one  Shiets,  a  painter,  who  pretended 
ig)  keep  an  office  of  arms  in  Dean's-court.  The  court  of 
chivalry  was  opened  with  great  solemnity  in  the  painted- 
qbamber,  on  March  3,  1731-2,  in  relation  to  which  be  bad 
taken  a  principal  part.  In  1733,  he  appointed  Francis  Bas- 

.       *  Biog.  Brir. 


log  LEA  K.E. 

siai:H>9  of  Chester,  hnitputy^  as  Norroj;  iior. Chester  ttoni 
North  Wales;  and  abont  tbe^^me  time  asserted  biarightyo 
as  Norroy,  to  grant  arois  ia  Noirtb  Wales,  which  right  watf 
clainaed  by  Mr.  .LongTille^t  who  had  been  >  constituted 
Gioucester  King  nt  Arms  partium  Wallia^  annexed  to  tba^ 
of  Bath  King  at  Arms^  at  the  revival  of  that  order.  He 
dreyif  up  a  petition  in  January  1737-8,  .which  was  presented 
tp  the  king  in  council,  for  a  new  charter,  virith  the  sold 
power,  of  painting  arms,  &€.  which  petition  was  referred 
to  the  attorney  and  solicitor  genenal;  but  .they  makings 
their  report  favourable  to  the  painters,  it  did  not  succeeds 
He  printed,  in  1744,  '^  Reasons  for  granting  Commissionff 
to  the  Provincial  Kings  at  Arms  for  visiting  their  Pro^ 
vinces."  Dr.  Cromwell  Mortimer,  having,  in  1747,  pro^ 
posed  to  establish  a  registry  for .  dissenters  io  the  college 
of  arms,  be  had  many  meetings  with  the  heads  of.  the  seve- 
ral denominations,  and  alsp  of  the  Jews,  and  drew  up  ar« 
tides  of  agreement,:  which,  were  approved  by  all  parties  it 
proposals  were  printed  and  dispersed,  a  jseal  made  to  affiis 
to  certificates,  and  the  registry  was  opened  on  Febroary 
SO,  1747-^;  hut  it  did  not  succeed,  .oiwing  to  a  misun«< 
derstanding  between  the  ministers  and  the  deputies  of  the 
congregations.  A  bill. having  been  brought  in  by  Mr/ 
Potter,  in  the  session  of  parliament. in  the  year  176S,  foi^ 
taking  the  number  of  the  people,,  with  their  marriages  and 
births,  he  solicited  a  claim  in  favour  of  the  college:  but 
the  hill  did  not  pass.  In  1165^6,  he  made  an  abstract  of 
the  register-books  belonging  to.  th£  order  of  the  gaster^^ 
Mrhich  being  translated  iotx>  Latin,  was  deposited  in  the  re^  - 
gister^s  oCBce  of  the  order. 

In  1726,  he  published  his  '^NummiBritan.  Historia,  or 
Historical  Account  of  English  .Money.''  A  new  editiooyf 
with  large  additions,  was  printed  in  1.745,  dedicatedto the 
duke  of  Suffolk.  It  is  much  to  Mr.  Leake's  honour,  that 
he  ws^s  j^he  first  writer  upon  the  English  coinage.  Froa|^ 
a^ectionate  gratitude  to  admiral  sir  John  Leake,  and  at  the 
particular  desire  .o£  hip  father,-  he  h&d  written  a  history  of 
the  life  of  that  ^dmisal,  prepared  from  a  great  collection*  ^ 
of  b^oks  aqd  papers  relating  to  the  subject  which  were  ia 
his  possession*  Thiikhe  published  in  1750,  in  large  octavo^ 
Fifty  copies  only  were  printed,  to  be  given  tothisrfriends^: 
this  book  is  therefore  very  scarce  and  difficult  to  be  ob«^ 
tained.  Bowyer,  in  1766,  printed  for  him  fifty  copies  of 
the  Statutes  of  the  Order  of  St.  George,  to  enable  him  to 


X  S  A  K  E.  109 

capply"  each  kiyight  at  liis  tnstallatiofi  with  one,  as  he  was 
required  td  do  offietally.!  Eir^r  attentive  to  proniote  scifence^ 
lie'wasxofistantiy  adding  to  the  ki^owledge  of  armS|  de- 
tileatis,  iiotiorS)  preo^deiK:^,:  the  history  of  the  college,  and 
oftfae  several  pierAOtis  who  bad  been  officers  of  arms,  and 
itvtrj  cfther  subject  in  any  manner  connected  with  his  of- 
Ace.  He  also  wrote* several  original  essays  on  some  of 
tho^'flubj^fotf.  "  These  mtilti&hous  collections  are  con- 
tained in  a  pward' of -il  Ay  volmnesj  all  ih  his  own  hand* 
Hrritffig;  #hich*MS.,  mth  many  others,  he  bequeathed  to 
Ilia  son,  John*Mf(rtiii  Leake,  esq.  He  married  Ann, 
^ungest  daughter,  and'  at  lei^gth  sole-heiress  of  Fletcher 
liPervali,  esq.  of  Downton,  in  the  parish  and  county  of 
fttfdnor,  by  Ann- bis  wife,  daughter  of  Samuel  Hoole  of 
iix>ndon,  %y  vi^om  he  had  nine  children,  six  sons  and  thre6 
daughters;  all  of' whom  surviyed  him.  He  died  at  his 
aeat'.  at  Mile^nd  at  Middlesex,  March  24,  1773,  in  the 
Mi^eiftieth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  bnried  in  the  chancel 
of'  Thorpe  S€»ken  church  in  Essex,  of  which  parish  he  was 
Ibng  impropriator,  and  owner  of  the  seat  of  Thorpe -hall, 
and  the  aitate  belonging  to  it,  inheriting  them  from  his 
father.* 

LEAKE  (John),  an  English  physician  and  writer,  waa 
lihe  'sdn  of  a  dergyman  who  was  curate  of  Ainstable  in 
(Cttmberland.  He  was  educated  partly  at  Croglin,  and 
}f^Vf  M  Ae  grammar*school  at  Bishop  Auckland.  He 
th6Vi  went  to  London,  intending  to  engage  in  the  military 
)irofefsnon  :  but  6nding  some  promises,  with  which  he  had 
been  flattered,  were  not  likely  soon  to  be  realized,  h6 
turned  his  attention  to  medicine.  After  attending  the  hos* 
flitals,  amd  being  admitted  a  member  of  the  corporation  of 
tforgeons,  an  opportunity  presented  itself  of  improving 
Utnsetf  in  foreign  schools ;  he  embarked  for  Lisbon,  and 
€fterwaHs  Tisited  Italy.  On  his  return,  he  established 
him^lf  as  a  surgeon  and  accoucheur  in  the  neighbourhood 
rf Piceadilly ;  and  about  that  time  published  "  A  Disserta- 
tion oil  the  Properties  and  Effica^  of  the  Lisbon  Diet- 
driifk,^*  whidh  he  professed  to  adnii'nister  with  success  in 
^any  des|>erate  cases  of  scrophuia,  scurvy,  &c.  Where 
4e~«bta(ii1ied  bis  doctor^s  diplonia  is  not  known  ;  but  he  be- 
«ittitie  ere  long  a  licentiate  of  the  College  of  Physicians, 
and  removed  to  Craven- street,  where  he  began  fo  lecture 

1  Nobie'f  Hist  of  the  Colkge  of  Amw. 


no  L  E  A  K  i. 

on  the  obstetric  art,  and  invited  tbe  fitculty  to  attend.  In 
1765  he  purchased  a  piece  of  ground  on  a  building  lease, 
and  afterwards  published  the  plan  for  the  institution  of  tbe 
Westminster  Lying-in- Hospital :  and  as  soon  as  the  build* 
ing  was  raised,  be  voluntarily,  and  without  any  considera* 
tion,  assigned  over  to  the  governors  all  his  fight  in  the 
premises,  in  favour  of  the  hospital.  He  enjoyed  a  con* 
siderable  share  of  reputation  and  practice  aji  an  accoucheur, 
and  as  a  lecturer;  and  was  esteemed  a  polite  and  accoQi* 
plished  man.  He  added  nothing,  however,  in  the  way  of 
improvement,  to  his  profession,  and  his  writings  are>  not 
characterized  by  any  e^itraordinary  acuteness,  or  depthjii 
research ;  but  are  plain,  correct,  and  practical.  He  vvas . 
attacked,  in  the  summer  of  1792,  with  a  disorder  of .  the 
chest,  with  which  he  had  been  previously  affected,  and  was 
found  dead  in  his  bed  on  the  8th  of  August  of  that  yeu". 
He  published,  in  1773,  a  volume  of  ^^  Practical  Observa* 
tioDs  on  Child-bed  Fever;'*  and,  in  1774,  "A  Lectnro 
introductory  to  the  Theory  and  Practice  of  Midwifery,  in- 
cluding tfie  history,  nature,  and  tendency  of  that  scienccv  * 
&c.  This  was  afterwards  considerably  altered  and  ehn 
larged,  and  published  in  two  volumes,  under  the  title  of 
'^  Medical  Instructions  towards  the  prevention  and  cuie  df 
various '  Diseases  incident  to  Women,**  &c.  The  woi:k 
passed  through  seven  or  eight  editions,  and  was  translated 
into  the  French  and  German  lauiguages.  In  th^  beginning 
of  1792,  a  short  time  before  his  death,  he  published  ^^^  A 
practical  Essay  on  the  Diseases  of  the  Viscera,  patticu^arlgr 
those  of  the  Stomach  and  Bowels."^ 

LEAPOR  (Mary),  a  young  lady  of  considerable  poeti* 
cal  talent,  was  born  Feb.  26,  1722.  Her  father  at  thW 
time  was  gardener  to  judge  Blencowe,  at  Mars^n  St 
Lawrence,  in  Northamptonshire.  She  was  brought,  up 
under  the  care  of  a  pious  and  sensible  mother,  who  died  |k 
few  years  before  her.  The  little  education  which  she  re* 
ceived,  consisted  wholly  in  being  taught  to  read  and  wntCf 
and  it  is  said  that  she  was  for  some  time  cook-ipaid  in  a 
gentleman's  family :  with  all  these  disadvantages,  how^vef, 
she  began  at  a  very  early  age  to  compose  verses,  at  6rsl 
with  tbe  approbation  of  her  parents,  who  afterwards,  wa?^ 
gining  an  attention  to  poetry  would  be  prejudicial  to  hei^ 

^  Hutchinson's  Bio|;.  Medlctt.-^Hutdunson's  History  of  CumberIaikl.-<-<^fn!t» 
Jllag.  LXII. 


L  E  A  P  O  R.  HI 

ttndeavoure4  by  .efery  possible  means  to  discouotenaooe 

such  pursuits.    These,  however,  were  ioeffectual^  aodshe 

was  at  last  left  to  follow  her  inclination.     She  died  the 

\12th   of  November,    1746,  at  Brackley ;    and  after  her 

death  two  volumes  of  her  Poems,  were  printed  in  Svo,  in 

^'1748  and  1751,  by  subscription,  the  proposals  for  which 

^  were  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Garrick.     Mr.  Hawkins  Browne  was 

editor  of  the  second  volume.    Our  late  amiable  poet  and 

crFtic,  Cowper,  had.  a    high   opinion    of  Mrs*.  Leapor'« 

r  poetry. ' 

:     LEAVER.     See  LEVER. 

'  /  LEBEUF  (John),  a  French  historian  and  antiquary,  was 
^  born  «t  Auxerre  in  1687,  and  became  a  member  of  the 
'  academy  of  belles  lettres  and  inscriptions  of  Paris  in  1750. 
;He  died  in   1760,  aged  73.    Among  his  productions  are, 
[I.  ''  R^cueil  de  divers  Merits  servant  sL  P^claircissement  de 
rhistoire  de  France,"  1738,  2  vols.  l2mo.     2.  ^<  Disser- 
bitions  sur  rhistoire  ecc](£siastiqiie  et  civile  de  Paris;"  to 
^  which  are  added  several  matters  that  elucidate. the  history 
^of  France;  3  vols.  rimo.     3.  *^  Trait^  historique  et  pra* 
tiqiie  sur  le  chant  eccl^siastique,"  '1741,  8vo.     This,  was 
.dedicated  to  Vintimille,  archbishop  of  Paris,  who  had  em- 
.^ployed  him  in  composing  a  chant  for  his  new  breviary  and 
missal.     4.  *^  M6moires  sur  PHistoire  d' Auxerre,'*  1743, 
2  vols.  4to.     5.  **  Histoire  de  la  yille  et  ,de  tout  le  diocese 
de  Paris,"  15  vols.    12100.     6.  Several  dissertations  dis- 
persed in  the  journals,  and  in  the  memoirs  of  the  academy 
^pf  which  he  was  member*    The  learned  are  indebted  to 
ibim  likewise  for  the  discovery  of  a  number  of  original 

EieceS|  which  he  found  in  various  libraries,  where  they 
ad  long  remained  unknown.  He  was  a  man  of  extensive 
'learning  and  laborious  research ;  and  undertook  several 
Journeys  through  the  different  provinces  of  France  for  the 
purpose  of  investigating  the  remains  of  antiquity.  In  such 
matters  he  was  an  enthusiast,  and  so  engaged  iu  them,  as  jlp 
know  very  little  of  the  world,  being  co^itent  with  the  very 
small  competency  on  which  he  lived.' 

LE  BLANC  (John  BeknaAd  le),  historiographer  of 

;t>uiIdings;of  the  academy  della  Crusca^  and  of  that  of  the 

'Arcacies  at  Rome,  was  boru  at  Dijan,  in  1707,  of  poor 

parents,  but  he  went  early  to  Paris,  where  his  talents  prp«- 

I  Bior.  Di^iA.^-'Hayley'ft.Xife  of  Cowper,  Vol.  IIU  p.  SSS.—Gent  Mas*  ^o\, 
IjV,  «  Moreri.— JKct.  Hist. 


Hi  L  E    B  L  A  N  C. 

cured  him  friends  and  patrons.  .  He  then  cade  to  London^ 
and  met  with  the  same  aidvanta^e.  In  1746  Maupertutt 
offered  hitn,  on  the  part  of  the  king  of  Prussia,  a'  place 
>suua4>Ie  to  a  mdn  of  letters,  at  the  c6urt  of  Berlin ;  but 
he  preferred  mediocrity  at  home  to  flattering  hopes  held 
out  to  him  from  abroad.  He  died  in  1781.  His  tragedy 
of  ^*  Abensaide,"  the  subject  of  which  is  very  interesting, 
was  well  received  at  first,  notwithstanding  the  harshness  of 
the  versification  ;  but  it  did  not  support  this  success  when 
revived  on  the  stage  in  1743.  What  most  brought  the 
ahh6  Le  Blanc  into  repute  was  the  collection  of  his  letters 
oil  the  English,  1758,  3  vols.  12ino,  in  which  are  many 
jtidicious  refleciions ;  but  he  is  heavy,  formal,  frniti\il  in 
vulgar  notions^  and  trivial  in  his  erudition,  and  the  praises 
he  bestows  on  the  great  men,  or  the  literati^  to  whom  he 
addresseil  his  letters,  are  deficient  in  ease  and  delicacy. 
'The  letters  of  abb6  Le  Blanc  cannot  bear  a  comparison  with 
the  "  London"  of  Grosley,  who  iis  a  far  more^  ilgreeaUe 
•writer,  if  not  a  more  accui'ate  observer.  * 

LE  BLOND.     S^eRLOND. 

LE  BRIXA.     SeeANTONIUS  NEBRISSENSIS. 

LE  CAT.     See  CAT. 

LECCHI  (John  Anthony),  a  learned  Italian  mathe* 
matician,  was  born  at  Milan,  Nov.  17,  1702;  He  wks 
'^ducM^ed  atmong  the  Jesuitii,  and  entered  into  their  order  ih 
-1718.  He  afterwards  taught  the  belles-lettres  at  VercisIU 
fiitid  Pavia,  and  was  appointed  rhetoric-professor  in  the  unU 
vieMty  of  Brera,  in  Milan.  In  1733  the  senate  of  Milan 
appointed  him  professor  of  mathematics  at  Pavia,  and  af- 
terwards rembved  him  to  the  same  office  at  Milan,  the  du- 
ties of  which  he  executed  with  reputation  for  twenty  years. 
In  1759  his  fanie  procured  him  an  invitation  to  Vienna 
from  the  empress  Maria  Teresa,  who  honoured  him  with 
ber  esteem,  and  appointed  him  mathematician  to  the  court, 
with  a  pension  of  500  florins.  What  rendered  him  mb^t 
celebrated,  was  the  skill  he  displayed'  as  superintendant 
and  chief  director  of  the  processes  for  measuring  the  bed 
of  the  Retio  and  other  less  considerable  rivers  belonging 
to  Bologna,  Ferrara,  and  Ravenna.  On  this  he  was  em- 
ployed for  six  years,  under  Clement  XIII. ;  and  Clement 
XIV.  ordered  that  these  experiments  should  be  continued 
upon  Leccbi's. plans.     He  died  August  .24^^    1776,  |kge,d 

»  Diet  HUt. 


■  « 

t  £  C  C  H  I.  113 

B^^nty* three,  years;  Fabroni,  who  has  given  an  excellent 
pfrsonal  character  of  Lecchi,  and  celebrates  his  skill  ia 
hydraulics^  has,  contrary  to  bis  usual  practice^  mentioned 
his  works  only  in  a  general  way ;  and  for  the  following  list 
we  have  therefore  been  obliged  to  have  recourse  to  a  less 
accurate  authority:  1.  ''  Theoria  lucis,"  Milan,  1739. 
2,  '^.  Arithmetica  universalis  Isaac!  Newton,  sive  de  com* 
positsone,  et  resolutione  arithmetica  perpetuis  commentariis 
ilhistrata  et  aucta,"  Milan,  1752,  S  vols.  8vo.  .  3.  '<  Ele^ 
n^nta  geometric  theoricee  et  practicae,"  ibid.  1753,  2  vols. 
8vo.  4..  '^  Elementa  Trigonometric,''  &c.  ibid.  1756.  5. 
^M>e  sectionibus  conicis,"  ibid.  1758.  6.  <^  Idrostatica 
esaminata,''  &c.'ibid.  1765-,  4to.  7.  ''  Relazione  della 
visita  alle  terre  dannegiate  dalle  acque  di  Bologna,  Fer« 
ram,  e  Ravenna,"  &c.  Rome^  1767,  4to.  8.  *^  Memorie 
idroatatico*st6ricbe  delle  operazioni  esequite  nella  inal- 
veazione  del  Reno  di  fiologna,  e  degli  altri  minori  torrent! 
per  la  linea  di  primaro  almare  dalF  anno  1765  al  1772,'* 
JVfodena,  1775,  2  vols.  4to.  9.  <<  Trattato  de'  canali  na« 
vigabili,"  Milan,  1776,  4to.* 

LE  CENE  (Charles),  a  learned  protestant  divine,  was 
bora  about  the  end  of  4646,  at  Caen,  in  Normandy,  where 
be  waa  first  educated.  He  afterwards  went  through  a 
course  of  theological  studies  at  Sedan.  Returning  thence 
ID  1^69,  he  was  very  honourably  received  by  the  learned 
of  his  native  country,  which  he  again  left,  in  order  to  at-* 
tend  the  lectures  of  the  divinity-professors  at  Geneva. 
Bere  he  remained  until  Nov.  1670,  and  after  a  re^idence 
of  some  time  at  Saumur,  came  back  in  March.  1672  to 
Caen,  with  the  warmest  recommendation^  from  the  various 
professors  under  whom  he  had  studied.  He  then  became 
pastor  at  Honfleur,  where  he  married  a  lady  of  fortune, 
^hich  joined  to  his  own,  enabled  him  to  prosecute  his 
studies  without  anxiety.  It  appears  to  be  about  this  time 
that  be  conceived  the  design  of  translating  the  Bible  into. 
French,  on  which  he  was  more  or  less  engaged  for  a  great 
mjany  years.  He  continued  his  functions,  however,  as  a 
minister,  until  the  revpcation  of  the  edict  of  Nantes,  iiv 
1685,  which  annihilated  the  protestant  churches  in  Franpe, 

Oh  this^vent  be  came  over,  accompanied  by  many  of 
bis  brethren,  to  England,  and  was  so  fortunate  as  to  brings 
with  him  the  greater  part  qf  his  valuable  library,  «Qd  pro* 

»  FabroDi  Vit«  lUloru»,  ^l-  XVIIJ.— Pi«t,  Hist, 

Vol.  XX.  I 


114  t  E    C  EN  E. 

perty  enough  to  enable  him  to  rdteTe  many  of  bis  suffering 
companions.  He  might  probably  have  received  some 
church-preferment  in  this  country,  had  he  not  objected  to 
re-ordination.  He  died  at  London,  in  1703.  He  wrote 
some  controversial  pieces,  but  the  chief  object  of  his  la« 
bours  was  to  make  a  good  translation  of  the  Bible,  which 
was  published  by  his  son 'at  Amsterdam,  in  2  vols.  fol.  It 
eontains  some  valuable  preliminary  dissertations.  He  had 
in  1696  announced  his  intention  in  a  volume  entitled 
^>  Projet  d'une  nouvelle  version  Frangois  de  la  Biblet'^  from 
which  a  high  opinion  was  formed  of  his  undertaking.  This 
projet  was  published  in  English,  under  the  title  of  ^  An 
Essay  for  a  new  translation  of  the  Bible,*'  and  so  well  re* 
eeived,  that  a  second  edition  appeared  in  1717.  Th« 
translation  itself,  however,  although  ably  executed,  did 
not  answer  the  expectation  of  the  public,  which  was  prin« 
cipally  owing  to  the  author's  introducing  certain  whims 
and  fancies  of  his  own^  and  taking  unnecessary  liberties 
with  the  text.^ 

LEDERLIN  (John  Henry),  an  eminent  Hebrew  and 
Greek  scholar  and  critic,  was  the  son  of  a  poor  mechanic  at 
Strasburgh,  where  he  was  born  July  18,  1672.  His  parents 
w^re  so  unable  to  give  him  education,  that  he  must  have 
been  obliged  to  work  at  his  father's  trade,  had  he  not 
found  an  early  patron  in  Froereisen,  a  learned  townsman, 
who  placed  him  at  ten  years  old  in  the  public  school,  at 
his  own  expence*  Lederlin's  extraordinary  proficiency 
rewarded  this  generous  friend,  whom,  however,  he  had 
the  misfortune  to  lose  by  death  in  1690.  This  would  have 
been  irreparable,  if  his  talents  had  not  already  recom- 
mended him  to  other  patrons,  and  his  school  educatioQ 
being  finished,  he  was  enabled  to  pursue  his  studies  at  the 
university  with  great  reputation.  He  received  his  master's 
degree  in  1692,  and  at  the  persuasion  of  Boeder  the  me^* 
dical  professor,  Obrecht,  and  others,  he  opened  a  school 
for  the  Hebrew  atid  Greek,  of  which  languages,  he  was  in 
1703,  corfstituted  professor,  and  was  for  many  years  one 
of  the  greatest  ornaments  of  the  university  of  Strasburgh. 
He  died  Sept  3,  1737,  leaving  various  monuments  of 
learning  and  critical  skill.  Among  those,  we-  may  enu- 
merate, 1.  his  edition  of  Julius  Pollux's  *<  Onomasticon,'^ 
170$,  2  vols.  fol.    2.  His  «'  Homer's  Iliad,"  Amst.  1707, 

1  Diet.  Hist.  iaCtiMi—Wwks  of  tba  Leaned  for  l^^-ll. 


L  £  D  E  R  L  I  N.  115 

i  Vols.  12mo,  Gr.  8c  Lat.  Lederlin  edited  only  a  part  of 
dira  edition,  which  on  his  death,  Mr.  Dibdin  says,  was 
completed  by  Bergler.  But  in  this  case  there  must  have 
been  an  edition  posterior  to  1737,  when  Lederlin  died. 
3.  ^<  Vigerus  de  praecipuis  Graecss  dictionis  idiotismb/* 
Strasburgh,  1709,  8vo.  4.  '*  Brissonii  de  regio  Persa- 
mm  principatn,'*  ibid.  I  WO.  5.  "  iBliani  vans  historicB,'* 
ibid.  1713,  8vo,  which  Harles  says  is  superior  to  Schefier*8 
edition,  but  must  yield  to  that  of  Perizonius.  He  pub- 
lished also  some  critical  dissertations  on  parts  of  the  Greek 
Testament,  on  which  he  was  accustomed  to  lecture.^ 

LE  DRAN  (Henry  Francis),  an  eminent  French  sur- 
geon, was  born  at  Paris  in  1685,  and  received  his  educa« 
tion  under  his  father,  Henry  Le  Dran,  who  had  acquired 
considerable  reputation  as  an  operator,  particularly  in  can- 
cers of  the  breast.  Under  his  auspices  our  young  surgeon 
ttimed  bis  thoughts  principally  to  the  operation  of  litho- 
tomy, which  he  performed  in  the  lateral  method,  as  prac- 
tised by  Cheselden,  and  was  enabled  to  make  some  valuable 
improvements  in  the  art.  These  he  communicated  to  the 
public  in  his  '^  Paralele  des  differentes  manieres  de  tirer  la 
Pierre  hors  de  la  Vessie,**  printed  in  1730,  8vo,  to  which 
he  added  a  supplement  in  1756,  containing  the  result  of 
his  later  practice.  The  work  was  well  received,  has  been 
frequently  reprinted,  and  translated  into  most  of  the  mo- 
dern languages.  He  published  also,  2.  ^^  Observations  de 
CSfairurgte,  auxquelles  on  a  joint  plusieurs  reflections  en  fa- 
vettr  des  Etudiens,''  Paris,  1731,  2  vols.  12mo.  3.  "  Traitfi 
on  reflections  tiroes  de  la  pratique  sur  les  playes  d^  Armes  a 
feu,'*  Paris,  1737,  12mo.  4.  "  Trait6  des  Operations  de 
Chirurgie,"  Paris,  1743,  12mo.  To  the  translation  of  this 
work  into  English,  by  Gataker,  Cheselden  made  some  va-» 
hiiable  additions.  5.  **  Consultations  sur  la  plupart  des 
Maladies  qui  sont  du  report  dela  Chirurgie,"  1765,  8vo; 
a  work  well  calculated  for  the  instruction  of  students  in 
surgery.  The  author  also  sent  several  ■  observations  of 
considerable  merit  to  the  academy  of  surgeons,  which  are 
published  in  their  memoirs.  He  died,  at  a  very  advanced 
age,  in' 1770.* 

LE0YARD  (John),  a  native  of  America,  of  a  very 
enterprizing  turn,    was  born  at  Groton  in  Connecticut. 

>  Harltfi  de  Vitis  Pbilologoram. — Saxii  Onoiiiast.*»Dibdia'i  ClaHic9, 
*  Diet.  HisW— Bailor  Bibl.  Aoat^Rees'i  Cyclopwdia. 

12 


lia  L  E  D  Y  A  R  D. 

Having  lost  his  father  in  his  infancy,  he  was  taken  n'nief 
the  care  of  a  relatioti,  who  sent  him  to  a  grammar-school,, 
and  he  studied  for   some  tkiie  at  Dartmouth  college,  in 
New  Hampshire.     Here   it  appears  to  have  been  his  in- 
tention to  apply  to  theological  studies,  but  the  friend  who 
sent  him  to  college  being  dead,  he  was  obliged  to  quit  ir^ 
and  by  means  of  a  canoe  of  his  own  construction,  he  found 
bis  way  to  Hartford,  and  thence  to  New  York,  where  he 
went  on  board  ship  as  a  common  sailor,  and  in  this  capacity 
drrived^at  London  in  1771.     When  at  college,  there  were 
several  young  Indians  there  for  their  education,  with  whomL 
be  used  to  associate,  and  learned  their  manners ;  and  hear* 
ing  of  capt.  Cook's  intentions  to  sail  on  his  third  voyage^ 
Ledyard  engaged  himself  with  him  in  the  situation  of  a 
corporal  of  marines ;  and  on  his  return  from  that  memora' 
ble  voyage,  during  which  his  curiosity  was  rather  excited 
than  gratified,   feeling  an  anxious  desire  of  penetrating 
from  the  north-western  coast  of  America,  which  Cook  had 
partly  explored,  to  the  eastern  coast,  with  which  he  him- 
self was  perfectly  familiar,  he  determined  to  traverse  the 
vast  continent  from  the  Pacific  to  the  Atlantic  ocean.     His 
first  plan  for  the  purpose  was  that  of  embarking  in  a  vessel, 
which  was  then  preparing  to  sail,  on  a  voyage  of  commer- 
cial adventure,  to  Nootka  sound,  on  the  western  coast  of 
America ;  and  with  this  vi^w  he  expended  in  'sea-store» 
the  greatest  part  of  the  money  with  which  he  had  been 
supplied  by  the  liberality  of  sir  Joseph  Banks,  who  has 
eminently  distinguished  himself  in  this  way  on  other  occa- 
sions for  the  promotion  of  every  kind  of  useful  science. 
But  this  scheme  was  frustrated  by  the  rapacity  of  a  custom- 
house officer ;  and  therefore  Mr.  Ledyard  determined  to 
travel  over  land  to  Kamtschatka,  from  whence  the  passage 
is  extremely  short  to  the  opposite  coast  of  America.     Ac- 
cordingly, with,  no  more  than  ten  guineas  in  his  purse, 
which  was  all  that  he  had  left,  he  crossed  the  British  chan- 
nel to  Ostend,  towards  the  close  of  1786,  and  by  the  way 
of  Denmark  and  the  Sound,  proceeded  to  the  capital  of 
Sweden.     As  it  was  winter,  he  attempted  to  traverse  the 
gulf  of  Bothnia  on  the  ice,  in  order  to  reach  Kamtschatka 
by  the  shortest  course ;  but  finding,  when  he  came  to  the 
middle  of  the  sea,  that  the  water  was  not  frozen,  he  re- 
turned '  to   Stockholm,  and  taking  his  course  northward, 
walked  to  the  Arctic  circle,  and  passing  round  the  head  of 
the  gulf}    descended  on  its  eastern  side  to  Petersburg^ 


L  E  D  Y  A  R  D.  117 

where  he  arrived  in  the  beginning  of  March  1787.     Here 
he  was  noticed  a^  a'  person  of  an  extraordinary  character ; 
aiid  though  he  had  neither  stockings  nor  shoes,  nor  means 
to  provide  himself  with  any,  he  received  and  accepted  an 
invitation  to  dine  with  the  Portuguese  ambassador.     From 
him  he  obtained  twenty  guineas  for  a  bill,  which  he  took 
the  liberty,  without  being  previously  authorized,  to  draw 
on  sir  Joseph  Banks,  concluding,  from  his  well-known  dis- 
position, that  he  would  not  be  unwilling  to  pay  it.    By  the 
interest  of  the  ambassador,  as  we  may  conceive  to  have 
been  probably  the  ca^e,  be  obtained  permission  to  acconri- 
pany  a  detachment  of  stores,  which  the  empress  had  or- 
dered to  be  sent  to  Yakutz,  for  the  use  of  Mr.  Billings,  an 
Englishman,  at  that  time  in  her  service.     Thus  accommo- 
dated, he  left  Petersburg  on  the  2 1st  of  May,  and  tra- 
velling eastward  through  Siberia,  reached  Irkutsk  in  Au- 
gust; and  from  thence  he  proceeded  to  Yakutz,  where  he 
was  kindly  received  by  Mr.  Billings,  whom  he  recollected 
on  board  captain  Cook's  ship,  in  the  situation  of  the  astro- 
nomer's servant,  but  who  was  now  entrusted  by  the  empress 
in  accomplishing  her  schemes  of  discovery.     He  returned- 
to  Irkutsk,  uiiere  he  spent  part  of  the  winter ;  and  in  the 
spring  proceeded  to  Oczakow,  on  the  coast  of  the  Kamt- 
schatkan  sea,  intending,  in  the  spring,  to  have  passed  over 
to  that  peninsula,  and  to  have  embarked  on  the  eastern 
side  in  one  of  the  Russian  vessels  that  trade  to  the  western 
shores  of  America ;  but,  finding  that  the  navigation  was 
completely  obstructed,  he  returned  to  Yakutz,  in  order 
to  wait  for  the  teripination  of  the  winter.     But  lyhilst  he 
WAS  amusing  himself  with  these  prospects,  an  express  ar« 
rived)  in  January  1788,    from  the  empress,  and  he  was 
seized,  for  reasons  that  have  not  been  explained,  by  twa 
Russian  soldiers,  who  conveyed  him  in  a  sledge  through 
the  deserts  of  Northern  Tartary  to  Moscow,  without  his 
clothes,  money,  and  papers.     From  Moscow  he  was  re- 
moved to  the  city  of  Moialoff,  in  White  Russia,  and  from 
thence  to  the  town  of  Tolochin,  on  the  frontiers  of  the 
Polish  dominions.  As  his  conductors  parted  with  him,  they 
informed  him,  th^t  if  he  returned  to  Russia  he  would  be 
banged,  but  that  if  he  chose  to  go  back  to  England,  they 
wished  him  a  pleasant  journey.     Distressed  by  poverty, 
covered  with  rags,   infested  with  the  usual   accompani- 
ments of  such  clothing,  harassed  with  continual  hardships^ 
^^Jiftast^d   by  ^ease,    without  friendsA  without  creditj 


IIS 


L  E  D  Y  A  R  D. 


UnknowDi  and  reduced  to  the  most  wretched  state,  he  found 
bis  way  to  Konigsberg.  In  this  hour  of  deep  distress,  be 
resolved  once  more  to  have  recourse  to  his  former  bene« 
fector,  and  fortunately  found  a  person  who  was  willing  to 
take  his  draft  for  five  guineas  on  the. president  of  the  royal 
society.  With  this  assistance  he  arrived  in  England,  and 
immediately  waited  on  sir  Joseph  Banks.  Sir  Joseph* 
knowing  his  disposition,  and  conceiving,  as  we  may  well 
iipagine,  that  he  would  be  gratified  by  the  information^ 
told  him,  that  he  could  recommend. him,  as  he  believed,  to 
atn  adventure  almost  as  perilous  as  that  from  which  be  bad 
just  returned ;  and  then  communicated  to  him  the  wishes 
q{  the  Association  for  discovering  the  Inland  Countries  of 
Africa,  Mr.  Ledyard  replied,  that  be  had  always  deter* 
mined  to  traverse  the  continent  of  Africa,  as  soon  as  hQ 
bad  explored  the  interior  of  North  America,  and  with  a 
letter  of  introduction  by  sir  Joseph  Banks,  be  waited  on 
Henry  Beaufoy,  esq.  an  active  member  of  the  fore-menr 
tioned  association.  Mr.  Beaufoy  spread  before  him  a  map 
of  Africa^  and  tracing  a  line  from  Cairo  to  Sennar,  and 
from  thence  westward  in  the  latitude  and  supposed  direct 
tion  of  the  Niger,  informed  him  that  this  was  the  route  by 
which  be  was  anxious  that  Africa  might,  if  possible,  be 
explored.  Mr.  Ledyard  expressed  great  pleasure  in  the 
hope  of  being  employed  in  this  adventure;  Being  askecil 
when  he  would  set  out  ?  ^^  To-morrow  morning^*  was  his 
answer.  The  committee  of  the  iM>ciety  assigned  to  him, 
ait  his  own  desire,  as  an  enterprise  of  obvious  peril  and  of 
difficult  success,  the  task  of  traversing  from  east  to  west, 
in  the  latitude  attributed  to  the  Niger,  the  widest  part  of 
the  continent  of  Africa.  On  the  30th  of  June  .17.88,  Mr« 
Ledyard  left  London ;  and  after  a  journey  of  tbirty*six 
days,  seven  of  which  were  consumecf  at  Paris,  and  two  at 
]yiarseilles,  he  arrived  in  the  city  of  Alexandria.  On  the 
14th  of  August,  at  midnight,  he  left  Alexandria,  .and  sail- 
ing up  the  Nile,  arrived  at  Cairo  on  the  19th.  From  Cairo 
be  communicated  to  the  committee  of  the  society  all  the 
information  which  he  was  able  to  collect  during  his  stay 
there ;  and  they  were  thus  sufficiently  apprised  of  tbo 
ardent  spirit  of  inquiry,  the  unwearied  attiention,  the  per** 
severing  research,  and  the  laborious,  indefatigable*  apxiomi 
:ceal,  with  which  be  pursued  the  object  of  his  mission.  Tb9 
next  dispatch  which  they  were  led  to  expect,  was  to  b9 
date4  (^t  Senqar ;  the  teroifl  of  bis  passage  bad  b§e9  vst^ 


L  E  D  Y  A  R  D.  ii» 


ded^  and  the  day  of  his  departure  was  appointed, 
committee^  however,  after  haying  expected  with  impa* 
tieuce  the  description  of  his  jonrney^  received  with  great 
concern  and  grievous  disappointment,  by  letters  froor 
Egypt,  the  melanx^holy  tidings  of  his  death.  By  a  bilious 
complaint,  occasioned  probably  by  vexatious  delay  at 
Cairo,  and  by  too  free  an  use  of  the  acid  of  vitriol  and 
tartar  emetic,  the  termination  of  his  life  was  hastened.  He 
was  decently  interred  in  the  neighbourhood  of  such  of  the 
English  as  had  ended  their  days  in  the  capital  of  Egypt. 

Mr.  Ledyard,  as  to  his  person,  scarcely  exceeded  the 
ttiiddle  size,  but  he  manifested  very  remarkable  activity 
and  strength :  and  as  to  his  manners,  though  they  were 
unpolished,  they  were  neither  uncivil  nor  unpleasing, 
**  Little  attentive  to  difference  of  rank,^'  says  his  bio» 
grapher,  **  he  seemed  to  consider  all  men  as  his  equals^ 
and  as  such  he  respected  them.  His  genius,  though  uri^ 
cultivated  and  irregular,  was  original  and  comprehensive^ 
Ardent  in  his  wishes,  yet  calm  in  his  deliberations ;  daring, 
in  his  purposes,  but  guarded  in  his  measures;  impatient  of 
controul,  yet  capable  of  strong  endurance;  adventurous 
beyond  the  conception  of  ordinary  men,  yet  wary  and  cou'* 
siderate,  and  attentive  to  all  precautions,  he  appeared  to 
be  formed  by  mature  for  achievements  of  hardihood  and 
peril.'' » 

LEE  (Edward),  archbishop  of  York,  was  born  in  1482^ 
and  was  the  son  of  Richard  Lee,  of  Lee  Magna  in  Ken^ 
esq.  and  grandson  of  sir  Richard  Lee,  knt.  twice  lord* 
mayor  of  London.  He  was  partly  educated  in  both  uni- 
versities, being  admitted  of  Magdalen  college,  Oxford^ 
about  1499^  where  he  took  his  degrees  in  arts,  and  then 
rettioved  to  Cambridge,  and  completed  his  studies.  He 
was  accounted  a  man  of  great  learning  and  talents,  which 
recommended  him  to  the  court  of  Henry  VIH.  in  which, 
among  others,  he  acquired  the  esteem  of  sir  Thomas  More* 
The  king  likewise  conceived  so  high  an  opinion  of  his  po«» 
litical  abilities,  that  he  sent  him  on  several  embassies  to  the 
continent.  In  1^29  he  was  made  chancellor  of  Sarum,  and 
in  1531  was  incorporated  in  the  degree  of  D.  D.  at  Oxford, 
which  he  bad  previously  taken  at  some  foreign  uuiversi^r* 
The  same  year  he  was  consecrated  archbishop  of  Yoik,  but 

i    ^  Prooee&gt  of  Oie  Atiomitiov  for  prpmotmr  «h«  diioorwy  sf  Um  mikkt 
parUofikfrica,  1790. 


120  LEE. 

enj6yed  this  high  station  a  very  short  time,  djing  at  York^ 
Sept.  13,  1544.  He  was  buried  in  the  cathedral.  He  lived 
to  witness  the  dawn  of  the  reformation,  but  adhered  to  the 
popish  system  in  all  its  plenitude,  except,  says  his  popish 
biographer,  that  he  ^^  was  carried  away  with  the  stream  as 
to  the  article  of  the  king^s  supremacy.''  He  was  a  zealous 
opponent  of  Luther,  and  had  a  controversy  with  Erasmus, 
respecting  his  annotations  on  the  New  Testament.  This 
somewhat  displeased  sir  Thomas  More,  who  was  greatly 
attached  to  Erasmus,  but  it  did  not  lessen  his  friendship 
for  Lee.  Wood  says,  "  he  was  a  very  great  divine,  and 
very  well  seen  in  all  kinds  of  learning,  famous  as  well  for 
his  wisdom  as  virtue,  and  holiness  of  life;  a  continual 
preacher  of  the  gospel,  a  man  very  liberal  to  the  poor,  and 
exceedingly  beloved  by  all  sorts  of  men."  His  works 
were,  1.  "  Comment,  in  universum  Pentateuchum,"  MS, 
2.  *^  Apologia  contra  quorundam  calumnias,"  Lovan,  1520, 
4to.     3*  ^Mndex  annotationum  prioris  libri,"  ibid.  1520, 

4.  ^^Epistola  nuncupatoriaad  Desid.  Erasmum,"  ibid.  1520, 

5.  ^'  Annot.  lib.  duo  in  annotationes  Novi  Test.  ErasmL'* 

6.  ^'  Epistola  apologetica,  qua  respondet  D.  Erasmi  epis-< 
tolis."  ,  7.  ^*  Epistolss  sexcents."  8.  ^^  Epicedia  clarorum 
Tirorum."  The  two  last  articles  are  in  MS.  or  partially 
printed.  Some  of  his  MSS.  arc;  in  the  Harleian,.  ^nd  some 
in  the  Cotton  liWary."  * 

LEE  (Nathaniel),  an  English  dramatic  poet,  was  the 
son  of  Dh  Richard  Lee,  who  had  the,  living  of  Hatfield,  in 
Hertfordshire,  where  he  died  in  1684.  He  was  bred  at 
Westminster-school  under  Dr.  Busby,  whence  he  removed 
to  Trinity- college,  in  Cambridge,  and  became  scholar  upon 
that  foundation  in  1668.  He  proceeded  B.  A.  the  samQ 
year;  but,  not  succeeding  to  a  fellowship,  quitted  the 
university,  and  came  to  London,  where  be  made  an  un- 
successful attempt  to  become  an  actor  in  1672.  The  part 
lie  performed  was  Duncan  in  sir  William  Davenant^s  altera- 
tion of  Macbeth.  Gibber  says  that  Lee  /^  was  so  pathetic 
a  reader  of  his  own  scenes,  that  I  have  been  informed  by 
an  actor  who  was  present,  that  while  Lee  was  reading  to 
major  Mohun  at  a  rehearsal,  Mohun^  in  the  warcath  of  bis 
admiration,  threw  down  his  part,  and  said.  Unless  I  were 
able  to  play  it  as  wall  as  you  read  it,  to  what  purpose 

1  Atk  Ox.  Yol.  I.  new  odit— Dodd's  Ch.  Hist.-.Mpre's  life  of  lirT.  Uf^A^ 
.  D.  69.— Sti7pe'9  Life  ofCranmeo  f*  %  m^>  V*  .      ' 


L  E  E.  121 

sbould  I  undertake  it!  And  yet  (continues  the  laureat) 
this  yery  author,  whose  elocution  raised  such  admiration 
in  so  capital  an  actor,  when  he  attempted  to  be  an  actor 
himself,  soon  quitted  the  stage  in  an  honest  despair  of  ever 
making  any  profitable  figure  there."  Failing,  therefore,  ia- 
tfais  design,  he  had  recourse  to  his  pen  for  support ;  and 
composed  a  tragedy,  called  *^  Nero  Emperor  of  Rome,'* 
in  1675;  which  being  well  Veceiyed,  he  produced  nine 
plays,  besides  two  in  conjunction  with  Dryden,  between 
that  period  and  1684,  when  his  habits  of  dissipation,  aided 
probably  by  a  hereditary  taint,  brought  on  insanity,  and 
in  November  he  was  taken  into  Bedlam,  where  he  con- 
tinued four  years  under  care  of  the  physicians.  In  April 
1688,  he  was  discharged,  being  so  much  recovered  as  to 
be  able  to  return  to  bis  occupation  of  writing  for  the  stage ; 
and  he  produced  two  plays  afterwards,  ^^  The  Princess  of 
Cleve,"  in  1689,  and  "  The  Massacre  of  Paris,*'  in  1690, 
but,  notwithstanding  the  profits  arising  from  these  per- 
formances, he  was  this  year  reduced  to  so  low  an  ebb,  that 
|L  weekly  stipend  of  ten  shillings  from  the  theatre  royal  was 
bis  chief  dependence.  Nor  was  he  so  free  -from  his 
phrenzy  as  not  to  suffer  some  temporary  relapses;  and 
perhaps  his  untimely  end  might  be  occasioned  by  one.  He 
died  in  1691  or  1692^  in  consequence  of  a  drunken  froUc^^ 
by  night,  in  the  street;  and  was  interred  in  the  parish  of 
Clement  Danes,  near  Temple- Bar.  He  is  the  author  of 
eleven  plays,  all  acted  with  applause,  and  printed  as  soon 
as  finished,  with  dedications  of  most  of  them  to  the  earls  of 
Porset,  Mulgrave,  Pembroke,  the  duchesses  of  Ports- 
mouth and  Richmond,  as  his  patrons.  Addison  declares, 
that  among  our  modern  English  poets  there  was  none  better 
turned  for  tragedy  than  Lee,  if,  instead  of  favouring  bis 
impetuosity  of  genrius,  he  had  restrained  and  kept  it  within 
proper  bounds.  His  thoughts  are  wonderfully  suited  to 
tragedy,  but  frequently  lost  in  such  -a  cloud  of  words,  that 
it  is  hard  to  see  the  beauty  of  them.  There  is  infinite 
jSre  in  bis  works,  but  so  involved  in  smoke,  that  it  does 
not  appear  in  half  its  lustre.  He  frequently  succeeds  in  ^ 
the  passionate  parts  of  the  tragedy,  but  more  particularly 
where  he  slackens  his  efforts,  and  eases  the  style  of-  those 
epithets  and  metaphors  with  which  he  so  much  abounds. 
His  ^<  Riviil  Queens**  and  ^<  Theodosius**  stilLkeep  pos^^ 
session  of  the  stage.  None  ever  felt  the  passion  of  love 
pore  truly ;  nor  could  any  one  describe  it  with  more  ten** 


122  LEE. 

derness ;  and. for  this  reason  he  has  been  compared  to  Qrid 
among  the  ancients,  and  to  Otway  among  the  moderns. 
Dryden  *  prefixed  a  copy  of  commendatory  verses  to  the 
^<  Rival  Queens  ;'^  and  Lee  joined  with  that  laureat  in 
writing  the  tragedies  of  '^The  duke  of  Guise*'  and  *^Q£di* 
pub."  Notwithstanding  Lee^s  imprudence  and  eccen* 
tricities,  no  man  could  be  more  respected  by  his  contem* 
poraries.  In  Spen 00*^^8  *^  Anecdotes*'  we  are  told  that  Vii- 
Iters,  duke  of  Buckingham,  brought  him  up  to  town,  where 
he  never  did  any  thing  for  hioi ;  and  this  is  said  to  have 
contributed  to  bring  on  insanity.  ^ 

LEE  (Samuel),  an  English  nonconformist  divine,  was 
the  son  of  an  eminent  citizen  of  London,  from  whom  he 
inherited  some  property,  and  was  born  in  1625.  '  He  was 
educated  under  Dr.  Gale  at  St.  Paul's  scliool,  and  after- 
wards entered  a  commoner  of  Magdalen->hail  about  the 
year  1647.  The  following  year  be  was  created  M.  A. 
by  the  parliamentary  visitors,  and  was  made  fellow  of 
Wadbani  college.  In  the  latter  end  of  1650  he  was  elected 
by  his  society  one  of  the  proctors,  although  he  was  not 
of  sufficient  standing  as  master;  but  this  the  visitors,  with 
^hpm  he  appears  to  have  been  a  favourite,  dispensed  with. 
About  that  time  he  became  a  frequent  preacher  in  or  near 
Oxford,  and  was  preferred  by  Cromwell  to  the  living  of  St; 
Botolph's,  Bishopsgate-street,  but  ejected  by  the  rump  par«* 
liament.  Afterwards  he  was  icbosen  lecturer  of  Great  St« 
Helen's  church  in  Bisbopsgate-street  According  tO'Wood, 
he  was  iK)t  in  possession  of  either  of  these  preferments  at 
the  restoration,  but  Calamy  says  he  was  ejected  from  St. 
Botolph's.  His  friend  Dr.  Wiikins,  of  Wadham  college^ 
afterwards  bishop  of  Chester,  urged  him  much  to  conform, 
bat  he  was  inflexible.  He  then  lived  for  some  time  on  an 
estate  he  had  near  Bisseter  in  Oxfordshire,  and  preached 
o<;casionally.  About  1678  he  removed  to  Newingtoii 
Green  near  London,  where  he  was  for  many  years  minis- 
ter of  a  congregation  of  independents.  In  1686,  being 
dissatisfied  with  the  times,  be  went  over  to  New  England^ 
and  became  pastor  of  a  church  at  Bristol.  The  revohiUon 
in  1688  affording  brighter  prospects,  he  determined  to 
revisit  his  own  country,  but  in  his  passage  home,  with  hit 
femily,  the  ship  was  captured  by  a  French  privateer,  and 
carried  into  St.  Malo,  where  be  died  a  few  weeks  after,  in 

iCibber'6  Livefl.«-]{ioy.  Pram.— Censun  Ut  vol.  I.wSpea«e'9.Amo49li(»fi  M4 


LEE.  \2i 

Kov.  1691.  His  dMUb  is  said  to  have  been  hastened  bj 
bis  losses  in  this  capture,  and  especially  by  bis  being  kept 
in  oonfioemeBt  while  his  wife  and  children  were  permitted 
to  go  to  England.  He  was  at  one  time  a  great  dabbler  in 
astrology,  but,  disapproving  of  this  study  aftej^wards,  he  b 
said  to  have  burnt  many  books  and  manuscripts  which  he 
bad  collected  on  that  subject.  It  was  probably  when  ad^ 
dieted  to  astrology,  that  he  informed  his  wife  of  his  having 
seen  a  sUmt,  which,  according  to  all  the  rules  of  astrology, 
predicted  that .  he  should  be  taken  captive.  Mr.  Lee*a 
other  studies  were  more  creditable.  He'  was  a  very  eou'^ 
siderable  scholar ;  understood  the  learned  languages  well, 
and  spoke  Latin  fluently  and  eloquently.  He  was  also  a 
good  antiquary.  He  wrote  *^  Chronicoo  Caatrense,"  a 
chronology  of  all  the  rulers  and  governors  of  Cheshire  and 
Chester,  which  is  added  to  King's  <<  Vale  Royal.'*  Wood 
suspects  that  he  was  of  the  family  of  Lee  in  Cbethice.  Hia 
other  works  are :  1.  ^^  Orbis  Miraculum ;  or  the  Temple  of 
Solomon  portrayed  by  Scripture  light,''  Lond.  1659,  folio* 

2.  <<  Contemplations  on  Mortality,  &c."  ibid.  166$,  Svo» 

3.  ^<  Dissertation"  on  the  probable  conversion  and  restora- 
tion of  the  Jews,  prints  with  Giles  Fletcher's  <<  Israel 
Redux."  4.  «<  The  Joy  of  Faith,"  1689,  8vo.  He  pub-* 
lisbed  also  various  sermons  preached  on  public  occasions^ 
or  prescribed  subjects;  and  had  a  considerable  hand  in 
Helvicus's  <<Theatrum  Historicum,"  the  edition  of  1662.^ 

LEECHMAN  (Wu^liam),  a  learned  Scotch  divine,  was 
bom  at  Dolphinston,  in  Lanerkshire,  in  1706.  He  re- 
eeived  his  academical  education  at  the  university  of  Edin« 
burgh,  where  he  ^tinguished  himself  by  his  great  pro«« 
ficiency  in  different  branches  of  learning.  He  began  hia 
theological  studies  in  1724,  and  in  1727  he  undertook  the 
education  of  a  young  gentleman  at  Caldwell,  in  Renfrew^ 
ahire,  where  he  resided  in  the  summer  months,  but  during 
the  remainder  of  the  year  he  lived  at  Glasgow,  and  was 
honoured  with  the  friendship  of  professors  Hutcheson  and 
Duolop.  About  the  beginning  of  1731  he  was  licensed  as 
a  preacher,  but  it 'was  not  till  17S6  that  he  was  ordained 
minister  of  Beith,  on  which  charg^  he  continued  seven 
years^  In  1 740  he  was  elected  moderator  of  a  meeting  of 
^e  synod  at  Irvine,  and  opened  the  assembly  at  Glasgoir 

*  Ath.  Ox.  Tol.  lL-«C«aaiB^.^DiGL  Hist.  Suppl«a<Bifci^»NeaI'a  Hiatary  of 
New  Englaiid. 


124  L  E  E  C  H  M  A  N. 

on  the  7th  of  April  1741,  with  a  sermon  to  the  clergy  "On 
the  temper,  character,  and  duty,  of  a  minister  of  the  gos<* 
pel,"  which  has  passed  through  many  editions,  and  is  still 
in  high  reputation.  In  1743  he  published  a  much  longer 
discourse  on  "  The  nature,  reasonableness,  and  advan- 
tages of  Prayer  ;  with  an  attempt  to  answer  the  objections 
against  it."  This,  likewise,  added  much  to  his  reputation, 
and  has  been  frequently  reprinted.  He  was  shortly  after 
elected  to  the  professorship  of  theology  at  the  university  of 
Glasgow ;  an  honour  which  he  obtained  only  by  the  cast-* 
kig  vote  of  the  president,  owing  to  some  suspicions  enter- 
tained of  the  orthodoxy  of  his  sentiments,  founded  on  his 
sermon  on  prayer,  in  which  he  was  thought  to  have  laid 
too  little  stress  on  the  atonement  and  intercession  of  Chri  t.- 
A  prosecution  for  heresy  was  the  consequence,  which  was 
ultimately  decided  in  bis  favour  by  the  synod,  the  members 
of  which  almost  unanimously  determined,  that  there  was 
no  reason  to  charge  him  with  any  unsoundness  in  the  pas« 
sages  of  the  sermon  complained  against.  After  this  the 
prejudices  against  him  appear  to  have  subsided,  and  his 
character  becaine  very  generally  and  highly  respected, 
even  by  some  who  had  thought  it  their  duty  to  promote  the 
prosecution.  Soon  after  he  had  been  established  in  the 
professorship,  he  took  the  degree  of  doctor  in  divinity ;  and 
continued  in  the  .theological  chair  seventeen  years,  vindi- 
cating and  establishing  the  grand  truths  of  natural  and  re- 
vealed religion,  in  answer  to  the  principal  objectiops  made 
to  them  by  Mr.  Hume,  lord  Bolingbroke,  and  other  scep- 
tical writers.  He  had,  in  his  lectures,  a  remarkable  talent 
of  selecting  what  was  most  important  and  striking  on  every 
subject  that  he  handled  :  his  arguments  were  solid,  found- 
ed on  indisputable  facts ;  and  they  were  urged  with  a  de-^, 
gree  of  warmth  which  carried  his  auditors  along  with  him  t 
for  they  were  addressed  equally  to  the  judgment  and  the 
heart.  Dr.  Leechman^s  fame  extended  far  and  wide,  the 
divinity-ball  at  Glasgow  'was  crowded,  in  his  time,  with  a 
greater  number  of  scholars  than  any  other  in  Scotland : 
and  his  numerous  scholars,  however  they  might  differ  in 
their  sentiments  on  speculative  theology  and  church  go- 
vernment, were  all  cordially  united  in  their  affection  and 
veneration. for  their  master.  In  1761,  Dr.  Leechman  was 
raised  to  the  office  of  principal  of  the  university  of  Glas- 
gow by  a  presentation  from  the  king.  He  had  previously 
to  this  been  in  a  very  bad  stat^  of  health;  and  this  cbangQ 


L  E  E  C  H  M  A  N.  125 

in  his  avocations  was  probably  the  means  of  prolonging  his 
life  ;  yet,  though  released  from  the  more  fatiguing*  part  of 
his  duties,  be  gave  a  lecture,  for  some  time,  once  a  week, 
to  the  students  in  divinity,  and  weekly  lectures  to  the 
whole  university.  Dr.  Leechman^s  faculties  remained  in 
full  vigour  amidst  the  increasing  infirmities  of  old  age,  and 
his  taste  for  knowledge  continued  as  acute  as  ever.  Ii^ 
September  and  October  1785,  he  experienced  two  violent 
paralytic  strokes,  from  which  he  partially  recovered ;  but 
a  third  attack  carried  him  ofiPon  the  3d  of  December,  1785, 
when  he  was  almost  eighty  years  of  age.  Dr.  Leechman 
committed  nothing  to  the  press,  except  nine  sermons, 
which  went  through  several  editions  during  his  life-time. 
These  were  republished,  with  others,  forming  together  two 
volumes,  in  1789.  To  the  first  of  these  volumes  is  pre- 
fixed an  account  of  the  author,  by  Dr.  Wodrow,  from  which 
the  preceding  particulars  are  taken.^ 
^  LEGER  (Anthony),  a  learned  Protestant  divine,  was 
born  in  1594,  at  Ville  Seiche,  in  the  valley  of  St.  Martin 
in  Piedmont.  Going  to  Constantinople  as  chaplain  to  the 
ambassador  from  the  States-general,  he  formed  a  friend-' 
ship  in  that  city  with  the  famous  Cyrillus  Locar,  and  ob« 
tained  from  him  a  confession  of  the  faith  of  the  Greek  and 
Eastern  churches.  On  his  return  to  the  Vallies  he.  was  ap- 
pointed minister  there ;  but  being  condemned  to  death  by 
the  duke  of  Savoy,  took  refuge  in  Geneva^  where  he  was 
made  professor  of  divinity,  and  died  in  1661.  He  left  an 
edition  of  the  New  Testament  in  the  original  Greek,  and 
vulgar  Greek,  2  volsi  4to.  His  son,  Anthony  L£6ERy 
born  1652,  at  Geneva,  was  a  celebrated  preacher,  and 
five  volumes  of  his  sermons  have  been  published  since  his 
death,  which  happened  at  Geneva,  in  1719.' 

LEGER  (John),  a  learned  protestant  divine, born  in  1615,' 
at  Ville-Seiche,  in  the  valley  of  St.  Martin,  in  Piedmont, 
was  nephew  of  Anthony  Leger  the  elder.  He  was>  mi- 
nister of  several  churches,  particularly  that  at  St.  Jean, 
and  escaped  from  the  massacre  of  the  Waldenses  in  165J». 
Having  been  deputed  to  several  protestant  powers  in  1661, 
the  court  of  Turin  ordered  bis  Jiiouse  at  St.  Jean  to  be 
tAzed.to  the  ground,  and  declared  him  guilty  of  high  trea- 
son. He  became  pastor  afterwards  of  the  Walloon  church 
at  Leyden,  in  which  city  he  Was  living  in  1665,  and  there 

^  Lift  as  nbove,  >  Moreri.— Pict.  Hist. 


12&  L  £6  G  E.       : 

publisbjed  his  ^  Hist,  des  Eglises  Evangeliqu^s  det  Vall^as^ 
de  Pi^mont^"  foL    The  year  of  bis  death  is  unknQimJ 

LEGGE  (Georgb),  baron  of  Dartmouth,  an  eminent; 
naval  commander,  was  the  eldest  son  of  colonel  Williaai' 
I'^gg^y  groom  of  the  bed-chamber  to  king  Charles  I.  and 
brought  up  under  the  bi'aTe  admiral  sir  Edward  Spragge. 
He  entered  the  navy  at  seventeen  years  of  age,  and,  before 
be  was  twenty,  bis  gallant  behaviour  recommended  him  so 
effectually  to  king  Charles  IL  that  in  1667,  he  promoted 
bim  to  the  command  of  the  Pembroke.  In  1671,  be  wa^ 
appointed  captain  of  ikbe  Fairfax,  and  the  next  year  xe- 
moved  to  the  Royal  Catharine,  in  which  $hip  he  obtained 
high  reputation,  by  beating  off  the  Dutch  after  tbey  had 
boarded  her,  though  the  ship  seemed  on  the  point  of  sink* 
ing  ;  and  then  finding  the  means  of  stopping  her  leaks,  he 
carried  her  safe  into  port.  In  1673,  he  was  made  goveraoi^ 
of  Porbmouth,  m'aster  of  the  horse,  and  gentleman  to  the 
duke  of  York.  Several  other  posts  were  successively 
conferred  upon  bim,  and  in  December  1682,  he  was  created 
baron  of  Dartmouth.  The  port,  of  Tangier  having  been  at-< 
tended  with  great  expence  to  keep  the  fortifications  in  re^' 
pair,  and  to  maintain  in  it  a  numerous  garrison  to  protect 
it  from  the  Moors,  who  watched  every  opportunity  of  seizing 
it,  the  king  determined  to  demolish  the  fortifications,  and 
bring  the  garrison  to  England ;  but  the  difficulty  was  to 
perform  it  without  the  Moors  having  any  suspicion  of  the 
design.  Lord  Dartmouth  was  appointed  to  manage  thii 
difficult  affair,  and,  for  that  purpose,  was,  in  1683,  made* 
governor  of  Tangier,  general  of  his  majesty's  forces  *  in 
Africa,  and  admiral  of  the  fleet.  At  his  arrival  he  prepared 
every  thing  necessary  for  putting  bis  design  in  execution, 
blew  up  all  the  fortifications,  and  returned  to  England  with 
the  garrison ;  soon  after  which,  the  king  made  him  a  pre** 
sent  of  ten  thousand  pounds.  When  James  II.  ascended 
the  throne,  his  lordship  was  created  master  of  the  boiwe, 
general  of  the  ordnance,  constable  of  the  tower  of  London, 
,  Gi^tain  of  an  independent  company  of  foot,  and  one  of  the 
privy -council.  That  monarch  placed  the  highest  confidence 
in  his  friendship;  and,  on  his  being  thoroughly  convinced 
that  the  prince  of  Orange  intended  to  land  in  England,  he 
i^pliointed  him  commander  of  the  fleet ;  and,  bad  be  not 
been  prevented  by  the  wind  and  other  accidents  from  com-*^ 

r  Morcri.— Diet.  Hilt. 


L  E  G  G  E-  12T 

iog  up  with  the  prince  of  Orange,  a  bloadj  engagem^^t 
would  doubtless  have  endued. 

.  After  the  prince  landed,  lord  Dartttouth  returned  to 
Spithead,  in  November,  with  forty-three  ships  of  war,  the 
rest  of  the  fleet  being  put  into  other  ports.  Yet,  notwith* 
standing  be  brought  the  fleet  safe  home,  and  bad  acted 
by  order  of  king  James  when  in  power,  h^  was  deprived 
of  all  -his  employments  at  the  revolution  ;  and  in  1691 
committed  prisoner  to  the  Tower  of  London,  where,  after 
three  months  imprisonment,  he  died  suddenly  of  an  apo- 
plexy, Oct.  25  of  that  year,  in  the  forty-fourth  year  of  hifl 
age^  When  he  was  dead,  lord  Lucas,  who  was  constable 
of  the  Tower,  made  some  difficulty  of  permitting  his  body 
to  be  removed  without  order ;  On  which,  application  being 
made  to  king  William,  he  was  pleased  to  direct  that  the 
same  respect  should  be  paid  at  his  funeral,  that  would 
have  been  due  to  him  if  he  had  died  possessed  of  all  his^ 
employments  in  that  place ;  and  accordingly,  the  Tower-^ 
gUns  were  fired  when  he  was  carried  out  to  be  interred 
near  his  fitther,  in  the  vault  of  the  church  in  the  Minories, 
where  a  monument  of  white  marble  is  erectled  to  bis  me*- 
mory.^ 

LEGLEUS,  GiLftERTUS.    See  GILBERTUS  Anglicu^. 

LEIBNITZ  (Godfrey  William  de),  a  very  eminent 
mathematician  and  philosopher,  was  born  at  Leipsic,  July 
4,1646.  His  father,  Frederic  Leibnitz,  was  professor  of 
moral  philosophy,  and  secretary  to  that  university ;  but 
did,  not  survive  the  birth  of  his  s^on  above  six  years.  Hisi 
mother  put  him  under  messieurs  Homschucius  and  Bachu- 
chius,  to  teach  him  Greek  and*  Latin ;  and  he  made  so 
quick  a  progress  as  to  surpass  the  expectations  of  his 
master;  and  not  content  with  their  tasks',  when  at  home, 
wh(N«e  there  was  a  well-chosen  library  left  by  his  father, 
he  read  with  attention  the  ancient  authors,  and 'especially 
Livy.  The  poets  also  had  a  share  in  his  studies,  particu- 
larly Virgil,  many  of  whose  verses  he  could  repeat  in  his 
old  age,  with  fluency  and  accuracy.  He  had  himself  also 
a  trient  for  versifying,  and  is  said  to  have  composed  in  one 
day's  time,  a  poem  of  three  hundred  lines,  without  an 
elision.  This  early  and'  assiduous  attention  to  classical 
learning  laid  the  foundation  of  that  correct  and  elegant 
taste  which  appears  in  all  his  writings.     At  the  age  of 

^  CoHio9'f  Peereg«,  by  Sir  £.  Brydgtt. 


12S  L  fe  t  B  N  t  t  Z. 

fifteen,  he  blscame  a  student  in  the  university  of  Leipskfy 
and  to  polite  literature  joining  philosophy  and  the  mathe-^ 
matics,  he  studied  the  former,  under' James  Thomasius, 
mnd  the  latter  under  John  Kuhnius,  at  Leipsic.  He  after^ 
w.ards  went  to  Jena,  where  he  heard  the  lectures  of  pro- 
fessor Bohnius  .  upon  polite  learning  and  history,  and 
those  of  Falcknerjus  in  the  law.  At  his  return  to  Leipsic,: 
in  1663,  he  maintained,  under  Thomasius,  a  thesis,  *M3e 
Principiis  Individuationis."  In  1664,  he  was  admitted 
M.A. ;  and  observing  how  useful  philosophy  might  be  in 
illustrating  the  law,  he  iuaintained  several  philosophical 
questions  taken  put  of  the  ^*  Corpus  Juris."  At  the  same 
time  he  applied  himself  particularly  to  the  study  of  the 
Greek  philosophers,  and  engaged  in  the  task  of  reconciling 
Plato  with  Aristotle ;  as  he  afterwards  attempted  a  like 
reconciliation  between  Aristotle  and  Des  Cartes.  He.  was 
so  intent  on  these  studies,  that  he  spent  whole  days  in  me« 
dilating  upon  them,  in  a  forest  near  Leipsic. 

His  views  being  at  this  time  chiefly  fixed  upon  the  law, 
he  commenced  bachelor  in  that  faculty  in  1665,  and  the 
year  after  supplicated  for  his  doctor's  degree ;  but  was 
denied,  as  not  being  of  sufficient  standing,  that  is,  not^ 
quite  twenty ;  but  the  real  cause  of  the  demur  was  his 
rejecting  the  principles  of  Aristotle  and  the  schoolmen, 
against  the  received  doctrine  of  that  time.  Resenting  the 
affront,  he  went  to  Altorf,  where  he  maintained  a  thesis, 
^^  De  Casibus  perplexis,"  with  so  much  reputation,  that 
he  not  only  obtained  his  doctor's  degree,  but  bad  an  offer 
of  being  made  professor  of  law  extraordinary.  This,  how- 
ever, was  declined;  and  he  went  from  Altorf  to  Nurem- 
berg, to  visit  the  learned  in  that  university.  He  had 
beard  of  some  literati  there  who  were  engaged  in  the  pur-< 
suit  of  the  philosopher's  ston^;  and  his  curiosity  was  raised 
to  be  initiated  into  their  mysteries.  For  this  purpose  he 
drew  up  a  letter  full  of  abstruse  terms,  extracted  out  of 
books  of  chemistry;  and,  unintelligible  as  it  was  to  him- 
self, addressed  it  to  th<s  director  of  that  society,  desiring, 
to  be  admitted  a  member.  They  were  satisfied  of  bis  me- 
rit, from  the  proofs  given  in  his  letter  ;  and  not  only  ad- 
mitted him  into  their  laboratory,  but  even  requested  hiio> 
to  accept  the  secretaryship,  with  a  stipend.  His  office- 
was,  to  register  their  processes  and  experiments,  and  to* 
extract  from  the  books  of  the  best  chemists  such  things  as 
might  be  of  use  to  thetn  in  their  pursuits. 


LEIBNITZ^.  129 

About  this  tittie,  baron  Boinebourg,  first  miDister  of  the 
elector  of  MeiUz,  passing  through  Nuremberg,  met  Leib- 
liitz  at  a  common  entertainment ;  and  conceived  so  great 
lan  opinion  of  his  parts  and  learning  from  his  conversation, 
that  he  advised  him  to  apply  himself  wholly  to  law  and  his- 
^^y  9  giving  him  at  the  same  time  the  strongest  assurances, 
that  be  would  engage  the  elector,  John  Philip  of  Schon- 
bom,  to  send  for  him  to  bis  court.  Leibnitz  accepted' the 
Icindness^  promising  to  do  his  utmost  to  render  himself 
worthy  of  such  a  patronage ;  and,  to  be  more  within' the 
reach  of  its  happy  effects,  he  repaired  to  Francfart  upon 
the  Maine,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Mentz.  In  1668, 
John  Casimir,  king  of  Poland,  resignhig  his  crown,  the 
^rlector  pafatine,  among  others,  became  a  competitor  for 
that  dignity;  and,  while  baron  Boinebourg  went  into  Po- 
land to  manage  the  etector^s  interests,  Leibnitz  wrote  a 
treatise  to  shew  that  the  Polonnois  could  not  make  choice 
i^  a  better  person  for  their  king.  With  this  piece  the 
elector  palatine  was  extremely  pleased,  and  invited  our 
author  to  his  court.  But  baron  Boinebourg,  resolving  to 
provJd!e  for  him  at  the  court  of  Mentz,  would  not  suffer  him 
CO  accept  this  tast  offer  from  the  palatine ;  and  immediately 
obtained  for  him  the  post  of  counsellor  of  tbe  chamber  of 
review  to  tbe  elector  of  Mentz.  Baron  Boinebourg  had 
some  connexions  at  the  French  court ;  and  as  his  son,  who 
was  at  Paris,  was  not  of  years  to  be  trusted  with  the  ma* 
nagement  of  bis  affairs,  he  begged  Mr.  Leibnitz  to  under* 
take  that  charge* 

Leibnitz,  charmed  with  this  opportunity  of  shewing  his 
gratitude  to  so  zealous  a  patron,  set  out  for  Paris  in  1672. 
He  also  proposed  several  other  advantages  to  himself  in  this 
tour,  and  his  views  were  not  disappointed.  He  saw  all  the 
literati  in  that  metropolis,  made  an  acquaintance  with  tbe 
greatest  part  of  them,  and,  besides,  applied  himself  with 
vigour  to  the  mathematics,  in  which  stiJNjly  he  had  not  yet 
made  any  considerable  progress.  He  tells  us  himself,  that 
he  owed  his  advancement  in  it  principally  to  the  works  of 
Pascal,  Gregory,  St.  Vincent,  and  above  all,  to  the  ex« 
cellent  treatise  of  Huygens  '^  De  Horplogio  oiscillatorioJ* 
In  this  course,  having  observed  the  imperfection  of  Pascal's 
arithmetical  machine,  which,  however,  Pascal  did  not  live 
to  finish,  he  invented  a  new  one,  as  he  called  it ;  the  use 
of  which  be  explained  to  Mr.  Colbert,  who  was  extremely 
pleased  with  it ;  and,  the  invention  being  approved  like- 

Vol.  XX.  K 


130  L  E  I  B  N  IT  Z. 

wise  by  the  Academy  of  sciences,  he  was  offered  a  ieat 
there  as  pensionary  member.  With  such  encouragement 
he  might  have  settled  very  advantageously  at  Paris  if  he 
would  have  turned  Roman  catholic ;  but  he  chose  to  ad- 
here to  the  Lutheran  religion,  in  which  he  was  born.  In 
1673,  he  lost  his  patron,  M.  de  Boinebourg;  and,  being 
at  liberty  by  his  death,  took  a  tour  to  England,  where  he* 
became  acquainted  with  Oldenburg,  the  secretary,  and 
John  Collins,  fellow  of  the  royal  society,  from  whom  he 
received  some  hints  of  the  invention  of  the  method  of 
fluxions,  which  had  been  discovered  in  1664  or.  1665,  by 
Mr.  (afterwards)  sir  Isaac  Newton  *. 

While  be  was  in  England  he  received  an  account  of  the. 
death  of  the  elector  of  Mentz,  by  which  he  lost  his  pen- 
sion.  He  then  returned  to  France,  whence  he  wrote  to  the 
duke  of  Brunswick  Lunenburg,  to  inform  him  of  his  cir* 
cumstances.  That  prince  sent  him  a  very  gracious  answer^ 
assuring  him  of  his  &vour,  and,  for  the  present,  appointed 
him  counsellor  of  hfs  court,  with  a  salary ;  but  gave  himt. 
leave  to  st^y  at  Paris,  in  order  to  complete  his  arithmetical 
machine,  which,  however,  was  not  completed  until  after 
bis  death.  In  1674  he  went  again  to  England,  whence  he 
passed,  through  Holland,  to  Hanover,  and  from  his  first 

*  Tlie  right  to  this  invention  is  so  and  sometimes  the  Infinitesimal  me- 
interesting  to  oar  cooatrf ,  that  we  tbod,  in  the  **  Acta  Eruditorum  Lipsise, 
must  not  omit  this  occasion  of  assert-  for  the  yearl684."  And,  asi  he  still  per* 
lag  it.  The  state  of  the  dispute  between  fisted  in  bis  claim  to  the  invention,  sir 
the  competitors^  Leibnitz  and  Newton,  Isaac,  at  the  request  of  George  1.  gave 
is  as  follows  :  Newton  discovered  it  in  his  majesty  an  account  of  the  whole 
1663  and  .1666,  and  communicated  it  affiiir,  and  sent  Leibnitz  a  defiance  ia 
to  Dr.  Barrow  in  1669.  Leibnitz  said  express  terms/  to  prove  his  assertion, 
he  bad  some  glimpses  of  it  in  1672,  This  was  amwered  by  Leibnitz,  in  a 
before  he  had  seen  any  hint  of  New-  letter  wbi(;b  he  sent  by  Mr.  Kemobd, 
ton's  prior  discovery,  which  was  com-  at  Paris,  to  be  communicated  to  air 
municated  by  Mr.  Collins  to  several  Isaac,  after  he  had  shewn  it  in  France: 
foreigners  in  1673;  in  the  beginning  of  declaring  that  he  took  this  niethod  in 
which  year  Leibnitz  was  in  England,  order  to  have  indifferent  and  intelligent 
and  eemmenced  an  acquaintance  with  witnesses.  That  method  being  dis- 
Collins^  but  at  that  time  only  claimed  liked  by  sir  Isaac,  who  thought  that 
the  invention  -of  another  differential  London,  as  well  a«  Paris,  might  fur- 
method,  properly  so  called,  which  in-  nish  such  witnesses,  Ibe  resolved  to 
deed  was  Newton's  invention;  men-  carry  the  dispute  no  farther;  and, 
tioning  no  other  till  June  1677 :  and  when  Leibnitz's  letter  came  frolii, 
this  was  a  year  after  a  letter  of  New-  France,  he  refuted  it,  by  remarks  which 
ton's,  containing  a  sufficient  descrip-  he  communicated  only  to  some  of  his 
tion  of  the  nature  of  the  method,  had  friends ;  but,  as  soon  as  he  heard  of 
been  sent  to  Paris,  to  be  communi-  Leibiiita's  death,  which  happened  six 
cated  to  him.  However,  nothing  of  it  months  after,  he  published  Leibnitz^s 
was  printed  by  snr  Isaac ;  which  being  letter,  with  his  own  remarks,  by  way 
observed  by  the  other,  he  first  printed  of  supplement  to  Ralpbson^s  "History 
it,  under  the  name  of  the  Differential,  of  Fluxions." 


LEIBNITZ.  131 

Arrival  there  made  it  his  business  to  enrich  the  library  of 
that  prince  with  the  best  books  of  all  kinds.  That  duke 
dying  in  1679,  his  successor,  Ernest  Augustus,  then  bishop 
of  Osnabrug,  aftervvards  George  I.  extended  the  same  pa- 
tronage to  Leibnitz,  and  directed  him  to  write  the  history 
of  the  house  of  Brunswick.  Leibnitz  undertook  the  task  ; 
and,  travelling  through  Germany  and  Italy  to  collect  ma* 
terials,  returned  to  Hanover  in  1690,  with  an  ample  store. 
While  he  was  in  Italy  he  met  with  a  singular  instance  of 
bigotry,  which,  but  for  his  happy  presence  of  mind,  might 
have  proved  fatal.  Passing  in  a  small  bark  from  Venice 
to'Mesola,  a  storm  arose,  during  which  the  pilot,  imagin- 
ing' he  was  not  understood  by  a  German,  whom  being  ^ 
heretic  he  looked  on  as  the  cause  of  the  tempest,  proposed 
to'strip  him  of  his  cloaths  and  money,  and  throw  him  over- 
board. Leibnitz  hearing  this,  without  discovering  the  least 
emotion,  pulled  out  a  set  of  beads,  and  turned  them  over 
mtb  a.seeming  devotion.  The  artifice  succeeded  ;  one  of 
the  sailors  observing  to  the  pilot,  that,  since  the  man  was 
no  heretic,  it  would  be  of  no  use  to  drown  him.  In  1700 
he  was  admitted  a  member  of  the  royal  academy  of  sciences 
at  Paris.  The  same  year  the  elector  of  Brandenburg,  af- 
terwards king  of  Prussia,  founded  an  academy  at  Berlin, 
by  the  advice,  of  Leibnitz,  who  was  appointed  perpetual 
president  of  it ;  and,  though  his  other  affairs  did  not  per- 
mit him  ta  reside  constantly  upon  the  spot)  yet  he  made 
ample  ainends  by  the  treasures  with  which  he  enriched 
their  memoirs,  in  several  dissertations  upon  geometry,  po* 
lite  learning,  natural  philosophy,  and  physic.  He  also 
projected  to  establish  at  Dresden  another  academy  like 
that  at  Berlin.  He  communicated  his  design  to  the  king 
of  Poland  in  1703,  who  was  inclined  to  promote  it ;  but  the 
troubles  which  arose  shortly  after  in  that  kingdom,  hin- 
dered it  from  being  carried  into  execution. 

Besides  these  projects  to  promote  learning,  there  is 
another  still  behind  of  a  more  extensive  view,  both  in  its 
nature  and  use;  he  sec  himself  to  invent  a  language: so 
e^y  and  so  perspicuous,  as  to  become  the  common  lan- 
guage of  all  nations  of  the  world.  This  is  what  is  called 
"  The  Universal  Language,"  and  the  design  occupied  the 
thoughts  of  our  philosopher,  a  long  time..  The  thing  had 
been  attempted  before  by  d'Algarme,  and  Dr.  WiTkins, 
bishop  of  Chester ;  but  Leibnitz  did  not  approve  of  their 
lA^tbod^  and  therefore  attempted  a  new  one.     His  pre- 

K  2 


m  LEIBNITZ.       . 

d^ce$9Qrs  in  bU  opinion  h^d  not  reached  the  point ;  tb^jr 
might  indeed  enable  nations  who  did  not  understand  eacb 
Other,  to  correspond  easily  together  ;  but  they  had  not  at- 
tained the  true  real  characters,  which  would  be  the  best 
iQ^truments  of  the  human  mind,  and  extremely  assist  both 
the  reason  and  memory.  These  characters,  he  thought, 
ought  to  resemble  as  much  as  possible  those  of  algebra, 
which  are  simple  and  expressive,  and  never  superfluous 
^nd  equivocal,  but  whose  varieties  are  grounded  on ,  rea-> 
son.  In  order  to  hasten  the  execution  of  this  vast  project, 
he  employed  a  young  person  to  put  into  a  regular  oirdqr  the 
definitions  of  all  things  whatsoever ;  but,  though  he  la- 
boured in  it  from  1703,  yet  his  life  did  not  prove  sufficient 
to  Complete  it*.  In  the  mean  time,  his  name  became  Ca- 
mous  over  Europe;  and  his  merit  was  rewarded  by^other 
princes,  besides  the  elector  of  Hanover.  In  1711,  he  was 
made  aulic  counsellor  to  the  emperor;  and  the  czar  of 
Moscovy  appointed  him  privy-counsellor  of  justice,  with 
a  pension  of  a  thousand  ducats  f.  Leibnitz  undertook  at 
the  same  time  to  establish  an  academy  of  sciences  at  Vi- 
enna ;  but  that  project  miscarried  ;  a  disappointment  which 
som^  have  ascribed  to  the  plague.  However  that  be,  it  is 
certain  he  only  had  the  honour  of  attempting  it,  and  the 
emperor  rewarded  him  for  it  with  a  pension  of  2000 
florins,  promising  him  to  double  the  sum,  if  he  would 
come  and  reside  at  Vienna,  which  his  death  prevented. 
In  the  mean  time,  the  History  of  Brunswick  being  inter- 
rupted by  other  works  which  he  wrote  occasionally,  he 
found  at  his  return  to  Hanover,  in  1714,  that  the  elector 
bad  appointed  Mr.  Eckard  for  his  colleague  in  that  history. 
The  elector  was  then  raised  to  the  throne  of  Great  Britain ; 
and  soon  after  his  arrival,  the  electoral  princess,  then 
prineess  of  Wales,  and  after<irards  queen  Cau'oline,  en« 
gaged  Leibnitz  in  a  dispute  with  Dr.  Samuel  Clarke  upon 
the  subject  of  free*will,  the  reality  of  space,  and  other 
philosophical  subjects.  This  controversy  was  carried  on 
by  letters  which  passed  through  her  royal  highnesses  hands, 
and  ended  only  with  the  death  of  Leibnitz,  Nov.  14,  1716, 
occasioned  by  the  gout  and  stone,  at  the  age  of  seventy. 

•  He  speaks  ia  some  places  of  an  **  Recueil  de  Literature,"  printed  at 

alphabet  of  human  thoughts,   which  Amsterdam,  in  1140,  which  also  sayv 

he  was  contriving,  which,  it  is  rery  that   Leibnits    refused  the  place  of 

probable,   b»4  «ome  relation  to  his  keeper  of  the  Vatican  library,  ofTered 

yniTerttal  language.  him   by  cardinal  Casanata»  while  he 

f  The  particulars  we  bare  in  the  was  at  Rome. 


LEIBNITZ.  133 

Leibnite  wa«  in  person  of  n  middle  stature,  Und  of  a  thin 
habit/  He  had  a  studious  air,  and  a  sweet  aspect,  though 
short-sighted.  He  was  indefatigably 'industrious,  atid  sO 
continued  to  the  end  of  his  life.  He  ate  find  drank  little. 
Hunger  alone  marked  the  time  of  his  itieals,-  and  his  diet 
was  plain  and  strong.  He  loted  tratelling,  and  different 
climiites  never  affected  his  health.  In  ordet  to  impress 
lipon  his  memory  what  he  bad  a  mind  to  remember,  he 
wrote  it  down,  and  never  read  it  afterwards.  His  temper 
«^as  naturally  choleric,  but  on  most  occasions  he  had  the 
art  to  restrain  it.  As  he  bad  thd  honour  of  passing  for 
bne  of  the  greatest  men  Jn  Europe,  he.  was  sufficrentljr 
iensible  of  it  He  was  sblicitous  in  procuring  the  favotrr 
6f  princes,  which  he  turned  to  his  own  advantage,  as  well 
as  to  the  semce  of  learning.  He  was  affable  and  polite  ih 
conver^tion^  and  averse  to  disputes.  He  was  thought  to 
ieve  money,  and  is  said  to  have  left  sixty  thoussind  crowns, 
'yet  nd  mbre  tbiln  fifteen  or  twenty  thousand  out  at  interest; 
the  risst  being  found  in  crown-()iece^  and  6ther  specie, 
ifoarded  in  corn-sacks.  He  always  professed  himself  a  Lu- 
tbeMin,  but  never  joined  in  public  wor^i^;  and  in  bis 
last  sickness,  being  desired  by  his  coachman;  who  was  his 
fiivourite  servant,  to  send  for  a  minister,  hie  would  not 
hear  of  it,  saying  be  had  no  occasibn  for  one.  He  was 
never  married,  atifd  never  attempted  it  but  once,  when  he 
ivais  about  fifty  years  old;  and  the  lady  destring  time  to 
consider  of  it,  gave  him  an  opportunity  of  doing  the  same ; 
which  produced  this  conclusion,  **  that  marriage  was  a 
good  thing,  but  a  wise  man  ought  to  consider  of  it  all  his 
life."  Mr.  Loefler,  son  of  his  sister,  was  his  sole  heir, 
whose  Mfe  died  suddenly  with  joy  at  the  sight  of  so  much 
AHoBey  left  them  by  their  uncle.  It  is  said  he  had  a  na- 
total  son  in  his  youth,  who  afterwards  Kved  with  him,  was 
serviteable  to  hrm  in  many  ways,  and  had  a  considerable 
share  \h  his  confidence.  He  went  by  the  name  of  William 
Dioninger,  and  extremely  resembled  his  father. 

The  following  particulars  i^Jating  to  M.  Leibnitz  are 
^exf ract^d  from  the  works  of  the  abb^  Conti,  as  given  in 
the  Gazette  Litteraire  for  1765  : 

"  This  great  nlan,'*  says  the  abb^,  "  owed  his  death  to 
a  medicine  given  him  by  a  jestrit  at  Vienna,  which  he 
tobk  ffom  ft  diisire  to  obtain  a  too  speedy  cure  for  the 
gout  This  removed  the  disorder  suddenly  from  his  foot 
to  bis  atomach,  and  killed  hhn.    At  the  time  of  his  ddatb, 


134  LEIBNITZ. 

he  was  sitting  on  the  side  of  his  bed,  with  an  ink-stand  ^nd 
Barclay's  Argenis  beside  him.  They  say  that  he  was  con- 
tinually reading  this  book,  the  style  of  which  pleased  him 
exceedingly  ;  and  that  it  was  from  this  taste  he  intended 
to  form  his  history. 

^^  He  left  behind  him  twelve  or  thirteen  thousand  crowns 
in  specie,  and  a  bag  full  of  gold  medals.  Among  his 
papers  was  found  a  manuscript  on  the  Cartesian  method, 
which  has  not  yet  appeared  ;  a  political  tract  of  Bud^,  the 
letters  of  pope  Sylvester  II.  and  Spinoza's  letters..;  His 
awn  manuscripts  were  in  great  disorder.  There .  were 
found  many  papers  filled  with  his  thoughts,  and  with  bon 
mots  either  his  own,  or  collected  by  hiip.  Leibnitz  had 
passed  part  of  his  life  with  almost  all  the  sovereigns  of 
Europe, -and  expressed  himself  with  much  spirit  and  ele- 
gance. He  left  behind  him  poems,  epigrams,  and  love-* 
letters.  He  was  connected  with  the  learned  c^f  ail  coun- 
tries ;  and  carefully  preserved  all  the  letters  he  wrote  and 
received.  M.  Eckard  says,  there  were  found  in  his  letters 
the  history  of  the  inventions,  discoveries,  and  literary 
disputes  during  the  space  of  forty  years.  He  applied  ^him- 
self  to. every  thing ;  having  left  behind  him  a  book  of  ety- 
mologies in  the  German  language,  and  he  laboured  at  an 
universal  language  to  the  time  of  his  death.  He  loved 
chemistry ;  and  to  acquire  the  secrets  of  that  art,  he  con- 
trived a  language  chiefly  composed  of  foreign  words,  which 
procured  him  the  acquaintance  of  several  chemists. 

"  He  read  all  books  without  exception ;  the  more  odd 
and  whimsical  the  title  was,  the  more  curious  he  was  to 
examine  the  contents.  He  found  a  romance  written  in 
German  by  Mr.  Eckard:  thi^  romance  contained  the  his- 
tory of  a  father,  who  having  consulted  an  astrologer  about 
the  future  destiny  of  his  son,  learnt  that  to  preserve  him 
from  death,  there  was  no  other  method  than  to  make  him 
pass  for  the  son  of  a  hangman.  Leibnitz  found  this  ro- 
mance so  excellent  that  he  read  it  through  at  one  sitting. 

"  The  first  time  he  visited  Hanover,  he  never  went  out 
of  his  study.  He  never  spoke  of  the  sacred  Scriptures 
without  reverence ;  they  are  full,  he  would  say,  of  lessons 
useful  to  mankind.  .  He  was  unwilling  to  engage  in  religi- 
ous disputes,  but  when  his  own  principles  were  attacked, 
he  defended  himself  with  much  warmth.  He  was  fond  ,of 
the  Estern  manners,  bad  a  great  esteem  for  the  Arabic 
and  Chinese  languages,  and  recommended  the  study  of 


!    > 


LEIBNITZ.  135 

them.  He  formed  a  project  for  making  a  voyage  to  China, 
and  the  Czar  promised  to  fit  him  out ;  but  on  reflexion,  he 
found  himself  too  far  advanced  in  life  to  undertake  it.  He 
collected  many  Chinese  books  in  which  were  contained  the 
antiquities  of  that  empire."  ' 

Leibnitz  was  author  of  a  great  multitude  of  writings; 
several  of  which   were   published   separately,  and   many 
others  in  the  memoirs  of  different  academies.     He  invented 
a  binary  arkhmetic,  and  many  other  ingenious  matters. 
His  claim  to  the  invention  of  Fluxiiiiis,  we  have  already 
noticed.     Hanschius  collected,  with  great  care,  every  thing 
that  Leibnitz  had^  said,  in  different  passages  of  his  works, 
upon  the  principles  of  philosophy ;  and  formed  of  them  a 
complete   system,    under   the  title  of  "  G.  G.  Leibnitaii 
Principia  Philosophic  more  geometrico  demonstrata,*'  &ۥ 
1728,^  4to.     There  came  out  a  collection  of  our  author's 
letters  in  1734  and  1735,  entitled,  "  Epistolse  ad  di versos 
theologici,  juridici,  tnedici,  philosophic!,  mathematici,  his- 
torici,  &  philologici  argument!  e  MSS.  auctores:  cum  an- 
fiotationibus  suis  primum  divulgavit  Christian  Cortholtus," 
^nd  another  collection  of  his  letters  was  published  in  1805 
at  Hanover,  by  M.  Feder,  under  the  title  of  "  Commercii 
epistolici  Leibnitziani^  typis  nondun)  vulgati  selecta  speci- 
roina,"  8vo.     Of  his  collected  works,  the  best  edition,  dis- 
tributed into  classes  by  M.  Dutens,  v^as  published  at  Ge- 
neva  in  six  large  volumes  4to,  in  1768,  entitled,  ^^  Gothos- 
fredi  Guillelmi  Leibnitzii  Opera  omnia,"  &c. 

As  Leibnitz  was  long  the  successful  teacher  of  a  new 
system  of  philosophy,  it  may  be  now  necessary  to  give 
some  account  of  it,  which  was  formed  partly  in  emenda* 
tion  of  the  Cartesian,  and  partly  in  opposition  to  the  New* 
tonian  philosophy.  In  this  philosophy,  the  author  retained 
the  Cartesian  subtile  matter,  with  the  vortices  and  univer- 
sal planum  ;  and  he  represented  the  universe  as  a  machine 
that  should  proceed  for  ever,  by  the  laws  of  mechanism,  in 
the  most  perfect  state,  by  an  absolute  inviolable  necessity. 
After  Newton's  philosophy  was  published,  in  1687,  Leib- 
nitz printed  an  essay  on  the  celestial  motions  in  the  Act 
Erud.  1689,  where  he  admits  the  circulation  of  the  ether 
with  Des  Cartes,  and  of  gravity  with  Newton;  thoqgh  he 
has  not  reconciled  these  principles,  nor  shewn  how  gravity 
arose  from  the  impulse  of  this  ether,  nor  how  to  account 
for  the  planetary  revolutions  in  their  respective  orbits.  His 
system  is  also  defective,  as  it  does  not  reconc^ile  the  cirgu- 


1S6  LEIBNITZ. 

Utioa  of  tl^  eth^  with  the  free  motions  of  the  cotnet»  i» 
mil  directions,  or  with  the  obliquity  of  the  planes  of  the 
planetary  orbits ;  nor  does  it  resolve  other  objections  to 
which  the  hypothesis  of  the  vortices  and  plenum  is  liable. 

Soon  after  the  period  just  mentioned,  the  dispute  coqa^ 
menoed  concerning  the  invention  of  the  method  of  fluxions, 
which  led  Mr.  Leibnitz  to  take  a  very  decided  part  in  op'f 
position  to  the  philosophy  of  Newton.  From  the  goodness 
and  wisdom  of  the  Deity,  and  his  principle  of  a  sufficient 
teasofij  he  concluded,  that  the  universe  was  a  perfect  work, 
or  the  best  that  could  possibly  have  been  made ;  and  thai 
Other  things,  which  are  evil  or  incommodious,  were  per-r 
mitted  as  necessary  consequences  of  what  was  best :  thai 
the  material  system,  considered  as  a  perfect  machine,  can 
never  fall  into  disorder,  or  require  to  be  set  right ;  and  to 
suppose  that  God  interposes  in  it,  is  to  lessen  the  skill  of 
the  author^  and  the  perfection  of  his  work.  He  expressly 
charges  an  impious  tendency  on  the  philosophy  of  Newton, 
because  he  asserts,  that  the  fabric  of  the  universe  and 
course  of  nature  could  not  continue  for  ever  in  its  present 
stat^  but  in  process  of  time  would  require  to  be  re-esta« 
blished  or  renewed  by  the  hand  of  its  first  framer.  Tim 
perfection  of  the  universe,  in  consequence  of  which  it  is 
capable  of  continuing  for  ever  by  mechanical  laws  in  its 
present  state,  led  Mr.  Leibnitz  to  distinguish  between  the 
quantity  of  motion  and  the  force  of  bodies ;  and,  whilst  he 
owns  in  opposition  to  Des  Cartes,  that  the  former  varies, 
to  maintain^  that  the  quantity  of  force  is  for  ever  the  same 
in  the  universe ;  and  to  measure  the  forces  of  bodies  by  the 
squares  of  their  velocities. 

Mr.  Leibnitz  proposes  two  principles  as  the  foundation 
of  all  our  knowledge ;  the  first,  that  it  is  impossible  Ibf  a 
thing  to  be,  and  not  to  be,  at  the  same  time,  which,  he  says 
is  the  foundation  of  speculative  truth ;  and  secondly,  thai 
nothing  is  without  a  student  reason  why  it  should  be  so, 
rather  than  otherwise ;  and  by  this  principle  he  says  we 
make  a-  transit^n  from  abstracted  truths  to  natural  philo* 
sophy.  Hence  he  coacludea  that  the  mind  is  naturally 
determined,  in  its  volitions  and  elections,  by  the  greatest 
apparent  good,  and  that  it  is  impossible  to  make  a  choice 
between  things  perfectly  like,  which  he  calls  indiscemi-' 
Ues;  from  whence  he  infers,  that  two  things  perfectly  like 
could  not  have  been  produced  even  by  the  Deity  himself : 
and  one  reason  why  he  rejects  a  vacuum,  is  because  the 


LEIBNITZ.  1$» 

ppcM  9f  it  must  be  sitpposed  perfectly  like  to  eftcfa  other. 
For  the  8ame  reason  too,  he  rcjecu  atoms,  and  all  'timilar 
parts  of  matter,  to  each  of  which,  though  divisible  ad  tnfi*' 
mium,  he  asoribes  a  monad,  or  active  kind  of  principle^ 
endued  with  perception  and  appetite.  The  essence  of  sub* 
stance  be  places  in  action  or  activity,  or,  as  he  expresses 
it,  in  something  that  is  between  acting  and  the  faculty  of 
acting.  He  affirms  that  absolute  rest  is  impossible,  and 
holds  that  motion,  or  a  sort  of  nisvis,  is  essential  to  all  ma* 
terial  substances.  Each  monad  he  describes  as  represent* 
I9tive  of  the  whole  universe  from  its  point  of  sight;  and 
yet  he  tells  us,  in  one  of  his  letters,  that  matter  is  not  a 
substance,  but  a  substantiaium,  or  phenomena  Hen/andf^ 
From  this  metaphysical  theory,  Which  must  be  confessed 
too  hypothetical  to  afford  satisfaction,. Leibnitz  deduced 
luany  dogmas  respecting  the  divine  nature  and  operations^ 
the  nature  of  human  actions,  good  and  evil,  natural  and 
moral,  and  other  subjects  which  he  treats  with  great  sub- 
tlety, and  in  a  connected  train  of  reasoning. 

The  translator  of  Mosheim's  Ecclesiastical  History  ob*- 
serves,  that  the  progress  of  Arminianism  haa  declined  in 
Germany  and  several  parts  of  Switzerland,  in  conseqiaence 
of  the  influence  of  the  Letbnitzian  and  Woliian  philosophy. 
Leibnitz  and  Wolf,  by  attacking  that  liberty  of  indif* 
ference,  which  is  supposed  to  imply  the  power  of  acting 
noft  only  without,  but  against  motives,  struck,  he  says,  at 
the  very  foundation  of  the  Arminian  system.  He  adds, 
that  the  greatest  possible  perfection  of  the  universe,  con« 
sidered  as  the  ultimate  end  of  creating  goodness,  removes 
from  the  doctrine  of  predestination  those  arbitrary  proce-^ 
dures  and  narrow  views,  with  which  the  Calvinists  are  sup* 
posed  to  have  loaded  it,  and  gives  it  a  new,  a  more  pleas*- 
ing,  and  a  more  philosophical  aspect.  As  the  Leibnitzians 
laid  down  this  great  end  as  the  supreme  object  of  God's 
iinivefsal  dominion,  and  the  scope  to  which  all  his  dispen- 
sations are  directed^  so  they  concluded,  that,  if  this  end 
was  pvoposed,  it  must  be  accomplished.  Hence  the  doc- 
trine of  necessiQr,  to  fulfil  the  purposes  of  a  predestination 
founded  in  wisdom  and  goodness;  a  necessity,  physical 
and  mechanieal,  in  the  motions  of  material  and  inanimate 
things )  bat  a  necessity,  moral  and  spiritual,  in  the  volun- 
tary determinations  of  intelligent  beings,  in  consequence 
of  pvepollent  moti?ves,  which  produce  their  effects  with 
eenaioty,  though,  these  effects  be  contingent,  and  by  ho 


138  L  E  I  B  N  I  T.  Z. 

means  the  offspring  of  aii  absolute  and  essentially  imn>uta<* 
bie  fatality.  These  principles,  says  the  same  writer,  are 
evidently  applicable  to>  the  main  doctrines  of  Calvinism  ; 
by  them  predestination  is  confirmed,  though  modified  with 
respect  to  its  reasons  and  its  end  ;  by  them  irresistible  grace  . 
(irresistible  in  a  moral  sense)  is  maintained  upon  the  hypo* 
thesis  of  propellent  motives^  and  a  moral  necessity;  the 
perseverance  of  the  saintsMs  also  explicable  upon  the  same 
system,  by  a  series  of  moral  causes  producing  a  series  of 
moral  ef&cts.  But  Maclaine  adds,  that  ihe  Leibnitzian 
system  has  scarcely  been  embraced  by  any  of  the  English 
Calvinists,  because,  as  he  supposes,  they  adhere  firmly  to 
their  theology,  and  blend  no  philosophical  principles  with 
their  system. 

.  Gibbon  has  drawn  the  character  of  Leibnitz  with  great 
force  and  precision,  as  a  man  whose  genius  and  studies 
have  ranked  his  name  with  the  first  philosophic  names  of 
bis  age  and  country ;  but  be  thinks  bis  reputation,  per- 
haps, would  have  been  more  pure  and  permanent,  if  he 
bad  not  ambitiously  grasped  the  whole  circle  of  human 
science.  As  a  theologian,  says  Gibbon  (who  is  not,  per-> 
•haps,  the  most  impartial  judge  of  this  subject),  be  succes- 
sively contended  with  the  sceptics,  who  believe  too  little, 
■and  with  the  papists;  who  believe  too. much  ;  and  With  the 
heretics,  wlio  believe  otherwise  than  is  inculcated  by  the 
Lutheran  confession,  of  Augsburgb.  Yet  the  pbilosc^ber 
betrayed  his  love  of  union  and  toleration.;  bis  faith  in  re- 
velation was  accused,  while  he  proved  the  Trinity  by  the* 
•principles  of  logic ;  and  in  the  defence  of  the  attributes 
and  providence  of  the  Deity,  he  was  suspected  of  a  secret 
correspondence  with  his  adversary. Bay le.  The  metaphy- 
sician expatiated  in  the  fields  of  air;  his  pre-established 
.harmony  of  the  soul  and  body  might  have  provoked  the 
jealousy  of  Plato;  and  his  optimism,  the  best  of  all  possi^ 
ble  worlds,  seems  an  idea  too  vast  for  a  mortal  mind.  He 
was  a  physician,  in  the  large  and  genuine  sense  of  the 
word ;  like  his  brethren,  he  amused  him  with  creating  a 
globe  ;  and  his  Protogaa^  or  primitive  earth,  has  not  been 
useless  to  the  last  hypothesis  of  Buffon,  which  prefers  the 
agency  of.fire  to  that  of  water.  ^'  I  am  not  worthy,^'  adds 
Gibbon,  ^^  to .  praise  the  mathematician ;  but  his  name  is 
mingled  in  all  the  problems  and  discoveries  of 'the  times  ; 
the  masters  of  the  art  were  his  rivals  or  disciples ;  and  if 
he  borrowed  from  sir  Isaac  Newton>  the  sublime  method  of 


LEIBNITZ.  139 

iloxioDs,  Leibnitz  was  at  least  the  Prometheus  who  impart-« 
ed  to  mankind  the  sacred  fire  which  he  had  stolen  from  the 
gods.  His  curiosity  extended  to  every  branch  of  che-» 
mistr)',  mechanics^  and  the  arts ;  and  the  thirst  of  know* 
ledge  was  always  accompanied  with  the  spirit  of  improve* 
ment.  The  vigour  of  his  youth  had  been  exercised  in  the 
schools  of  jurisprudence  ;  and  while  he  taught,  he  aspired 
to  reform  the  laws  of  nature  and  nations,  of  Rome  and 
Germany.  The  annals  of  Brunswick,  and  of  the  empire, 
t)f  the  ancient  and  modern  world,  were  presented  to  the 
mind  of  the  historian  ;  and  he  could  turn  from  the  solution 
of  a  problem,  to  the  dusty  parchments  and  barbarous  style 
of  the  records  of  the  middle  age.  His  genius  was  mare 
nobly  directed  to  investigate  the  origin  of  languages  and 
nations ;  nor  could  he  assume  the  character  of  a  gram- 
marian, without  forming  the  project  of  an  universal  idiom 
and  alphabet.  These  various  studies  were  often  interrupted 
by  the  occasional  politics  of  the  times ;  and  his  pen  was 
always  ready  in  the  cause  of  the  princes  and  patrons  to 
whose  service  he  was  attached  ;  many  hours  were  consumed 
in  a  learned  correspondence  with  all  Europe  ;  and  the  phi* 
losopher  amused  bis  leisure  in  the  composition  of  French 
and  Latin  poetry.  Such  an  example  may  display  the  ex^ 
teat  and  powers  of  the  human  understanding,  but  even  his 
powers  were  dissipated  by  the  multiplicity  of  his  pursuits. 
He  attempted  more  than  he  could  finish ;  he  designed  more 
than  he  could  execute :  his  imagination  was  too  easily  sa- 
tisfied with  a  bold  and  rapid  glance  on  the  subject,  which 
he  was  impatient  to  leave ;  and  Leibnitz  may  be  compared 
to  those  heroes,  whose  empire  has  been  lost  in  the  ambi^ 
tion  of  universal  conquest."* 

LEIGH  (Charles),  a  naturalist  and  physician  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  was  born  at  Grange,  in  Lancashire. 
He  entered  in  1679,  of  Brazen-nose  college,  Oxford,  and 
took  a  bachelor's  degree  in  arts,  whence  he  removed  to 
Cambridge,  and  proceeding  in  the  faculty  of  medicine, 
afterwards  practised  in  London  with  considerable  reputa- 
tion. He  was  admitted  a  member  of  the  royal  society  in 
May  1685.  He  left  the  following  works:  "The  Natural 
History  of  the  Counties  of  Lancashire,  Cheshire,  and  Der- 
byshire, &c."  London,  1700,  folio,  with  plates.     Into  this 

^  G«n.  Diet. — Eloge  by  Fonteoelle.— Brucker.<! — Hutton't  Dictionary.— Gib. 
boa's  MifceUaneous  Works. — Diet.  Hist.-«SaYii  Onomast. 


I 

I 


HO  t-JE  I  G  a 


is  incorporated  the  best  part  of  the  following  pubUcatioUt : 
''  Piitbtsiologia  Lancastriensis,  cum  teiitamine.  pbilosQ- 
pbico  de  Mineralibus  Aquis  in  eodem  comitatu  observatis/* 
London,  1694,  8vo.  <^  Exercitationes  quinqoe  de  Aquis 
Mineralibus,  Thermis  calidis,  Morbis  acutis,  Morbis  inter^ 
mittentibus,  Hydrope,"  ibid.  1697.  "  History  of  Virginia/* 
drawn  up  from  observations  made  during  a  residence  ia 
that  country,  London,  1705,  12dio,  Of  bis  ^^  Na,tural  Hisr 
tory  of  Lancashire,*'  bishop  Nicolson  speaks  with  gjreat^ 
and,  as  Mr.  Gough  thinks,  deserved  contempt.  The  cpii^ 
described  in  this  book  were  left  to  Mr.  Prescot  of  Catb^rinQ* 
hall,  Cambridge.  The  time  of  his  death  is  not  mentioned 
in  any  of  the  accounts  we  have  seen  of  bim.^ 

LEIGH  (Edward),  a  learned  theological  writer  of  thip 
seventeenth  century,  the  son  of  Henry  Leigh^  esq.  wa^ 
born  at  Shawell  in  Leicestershire^  March  24,  1602*3.  H^ 
bad  his  grammatical  learning  under  a  Mr.  Lee  of  WaJ^ 
shall  in  Staffordshire  j  and  when  removed  to  Oxfordj  beh 
came  a  conmjoner  of  Magdalen-ball,  in  1616,  under  Mt^. 
William  Pemble,  a  very  celebrated  tutor  of  that  society. 
After  completing  his  degrees  in  arts  in  1623^  be  removed 
lo  the  Middle  Temple  for  the  study  of  the  law^  During 
the  violence  of  the  plague  in  1625,  he  took  thctt  opportu^ 
nity  to  visit  France ;  and  on  his  return  to  the  Temple^ 
added  to  his  law  studies  those  of  divinity  and  history^  in 
both  which  he  attained  a  great  stock  of  knowledge.  He 
was  in  fact  a  sort  of  lay  divine,  and  superior  to  many  of  the 
profession.  About  1636,  we  find  him  representing  tb0 
borough  of  Stafford  in  parliament,  when  some  of  tbe  memr^ 
bers  of  tiiat,  which  was  called  tbe  Long  pafliameii.t«  .hs^d 
withdrawn  to  the  king  at  Oxford.  Mr.  Leigh's  sentiment 
inclining,  him  to  refmainand  to  support  the  measures  of  the 
party  in  opposition  to  the  c()urt^  he  was  afterwards  ap:^ 
pointed  to  a  seat  in  the  assembly  of  divines^  and  pertainly 
sat  with  no  little  propriety  in  one  respect,  being  as  ably 
skilled  in  matters  of  divinity  and  ecclesiastical  history  ^a 
most  of  them.  He  was  also  a  colonel  of  a  regiment  ip  the 
parliamentary  service,  and  custos  rotulorum  for  the  county 
of  Stafford.  He  was  not,  however,  prepared  to  approve  of 
all  the  proceedings  of  the  parliament  and  army ;  ami  bett- 
ing, in  Dec.  1648,  voted  that  his  majesty's  concessions  were 
satisfactory,  he  and  some  others,  who  held  the  same  opi- 

1  Aitu  Ox.  vol.  If  (-tonsil's  Topogr»phy.<i«-PatteDey'8  3ketcfaes  of  Botany. 


LEIGH.  141 

(tfkxby  were  turned  out  of  parliament.  Fron  that  time  he 
tppears  to  have  retired  from  public  life,  and  to  have  eaw 
played  his  time  in  study.  He  died  June  2,  1671,  at  Rus* 
baU  Hall  in  Staffordshire,  and  way  buried  in  the  chancel  of 
that  church.  His  works,  which  afford  abundant  proofs  of 
his  learning  and  industry,  are,  1 .  **  Select  and  choice  Ob- 
servations concerning  the  first  twelve  Cesars,"  Oson.  1631, 
8vo.  Additions  were  made  to  this  work  both  by  himself  and 
his  son  Henry,  who  published  an  enlarged  edition  in  1657, 
8vo,  with  the  title  of  ^*  Anaieota  Caesarum  Romanorum.** 
Two  other  editions,  with  farther  improvements  and  plates 
of  coins,  &c.  appeared  in  1664  and  1670)  8vo.  2.  ^^  Trea* 
tise  of  Divine  promises,"  Lond.  163^3,  often  reprinted,  and 
waathe  model  of  Clarke*^  '*  Scripture  Promises,''  and  other 
collections  of  the  same  kind.  3.  *^  Critica  Sacra,  or  the 
Hebrew  words  of  the  Old,  and  of  the  Greek  of  the  New 
Testament,"  Lond.  16^9,  and  1646,  4to,  afterwards  en^ 
larged  with  a  supplement,  to  2  vols,  folio.  This  was  one 
bf  the  books  on  which  the  late  learned  Mr.  Bowyer  bestow- 
ed great  pains,  and  had  filled  it  with  critical  notes.  4. 
'*  A  Treatise  of  Divinity,"  ibid.  1648,  1651,  8vo.  5.  "The 
Saint^s  encouragement  in  evil  times ;  or  observations  con- 
Qeruing  the  martyrs  in  general,"  ibid.  1648,  8vo.  6.  "  An« 
notations  on  all  the  New  Testament,"  ibid.  1650,  folio. 
7«  **.  A  philological  Commentary  ;  or,  an  illustration  of 
the  most  obvious  and  usefol  words  in  the  Law,  &c."  ibid. 
1652,  &c.  8.  "  A  System  or  Body  of  Divinity,"  1654, 
Md  1669,  folio.  9.  "  Treatise  of  Religion  and  Learning," 
ibid.  1656,  folio,  which  not  succeeding,  was  republished 
in  1663^  with  only  the  new  title  of  "Fcelix  consortium,  or 
a  fit  conjuncture  of  Religion  and  Learning."  10.  '<  Choice 
French  Proverbs,"  ibid.  1657,  1664,  8vo.  11.  "  AnnoU- 
tions  on  the  five  poetical  books  of  the  Old  Testament,  viz. 
Job,  Psalms,  P<roverbs,  Ecclesiastes,  and  Canticles,"  ibid. 
}$57^  folio.  12;  ^<  Second  considerations  of  the  high  court 
of  Chancery,"  1658,  4to.  13.  *<  England  described,"  1659, 
8vo^  mostly.firom  Camden.  14.  "  Choice  observations  on 
ail  (be  kings  of  England,  from  the  Saxons  to  the  death  of 
Cbarle$^L"  166i,  avo.  15.  '<  Three  Diatribes,  or  Dis* 
courses,  of  travel,  moneys  and  measuring;,  &c."  1671,  8vo; 
in  another  edition  it  is  calied  the  '^  Gentleman's  Guide." 
1:6.  ^^  Two  Ser^npns,"  on  the  magistrate's  authority,  by 
Christ.  Cartwright,  B.  D.  To  these  sir  Edward  prefixed  a 
preface  in  vindication  of  his  own  character  for  appearing 


142  LEIGH. 

in  the  assembly  of  dirines. — ^This  gentleman  la  by  some 
writers  called  Sir  Edward  Leigh,  but  not  ^o  by  Wood,  nor 
can  we  find  any  information  respecting  his  being  knighted. 
In  all  his  works^  tbat  we  have  seen,  be  is  styled  Edward 
Leigh,  Esq.^ 

LEIGHTON  (Alexander),  a  Scotch  divine,  was  born 
at  Edinburgh,  in  1568,  and  educated  in  the  university  of 
that  city,  under  the  direction  of  the  pious  and  learned 
Mr.  Rollock.  In  1603  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  and 
was  appointed  professor  of  moral  philosophy  in  his  own 
college,  a  place  which  he  enjoyed  till  the  laureation  of  his 
class,  in  1613.  At  tbat  time  he  came  to  London,  and 
procured  a  lectureship,  which  he  enjoyed  till  1629,  when 
he  wrote  two  books,  the  one  entitled  "  Zion's  Plea,"  and 
the  other,  "  The  Looking-glass  of  the  Holy  War."  In 
the  former  of  these  books,  he  spoke  not  only  with  free- 
dom, but  with  rudeness  and  indecency  against  bishops, 
calling  them  ^'men  of  blood,"  and  saying  tbat  we  do  not  read 
of  a  greater  persecution  and  higher  indignities  done  towards 
God'si  people  in  any  nation  than  in  this,  since  the  death  of 
queen  Elizabeth.  He  called  the  prelacy  of  the  church 
anti-cbristian^  and  declaimed  vehemently  against  the  ca- 
nons and  ceremonies.  He  styled  the  queen  a  daughter  of 
Heth,  and  concluded  with  expressiag  bis  pity  that  so  in* 
genuous  and  tractable  a  king  should  be  so  monstrously 
abused  by  the  bishops,  to  the  undoing  of  himself  and  his 
subjects.  This  brought  him  under  the  vengeance  of  the 
star-chamber,  and  a  more  cruel  sentence,  was  jprobably 
never  pronounced  or  executed.  After  receiving  sentence, 
he  made  his  escape,  but  was  soon  re-taken  and  brought 
back  to  London.  Historians  have  recorded  the  manner  of 
his  shocking  punishment  in  these  words  t  ^^  He  was  se- 
verely whipped  before  he  was'f^ut  in  the  pillory.  2.  Being 
set  in  the  pillory,  he  had  one  of  his  ears  cut  off.  3.  One  . 
side  of  his  nose  slit.  4.  Branded  on  the  cheek  with  a  red 
hot  iron  with  the  letters  8S  (a  sower  of  sedition).  On 
that  day  seven*night,  his  sores  upon  his  back,  ear,v  nose,' 
and  face,  being  not  yet  cured,  he  was  whipped  again  at 
the  pillory  in  Cheapside,  and  had  the  renuunder  of  his  sen- 
tence executed  upon  bim^  by  cutting  off  the  other  ear, 
slitting  the  other  side  of  his  nose,  and  branding  the  other 
cheek."     This  happened  in  1630.    Granger  has  recovered 

I  Ath.  Ox. vol.  II.— Faller's  Worlbies.-^Nicfaolt'i  Bowyer. 


L  E  I  G  H  T  O  N.  145 

SI  memoir  of  hitn  by  which  it  appears  that  he  practisedias 
a  physiciati  in  the  reign  of  James  I.  and  that  he  was  inter- 
dicted the  practice  of  physic  by  the  college  of  physicians, 
as  .a  disqualified  person.  He  alledged  in  bar  to  this  pro-^  '- 
hibition,  that  he  had  taken  his  doctor's  de;L;ree  at  Leyden,. 
under  professor  Heurnius.  It  was  then  objected  to  him|. 
that  he  had  taken  priest's  orders,  and  being  asked  why  he 
did  not  adhere  to  the  profession  to  which  he  had  been  or* 
dained,  he  excepted  against  the  ceremonies,  but  owned 
himself  to  be  a  clergyman.  Still  persisting  to  practise  in 
London,  or  within  seven  miles  of  that  city,  he  was  cen* 
sured  "  tanqiuim  infamis^^^  he  having  before  been  sentenced 
in  tbe  star-chamber  to  lose  his  ears.  But  in  this  accouftc 
there  is  some  inaccuracy.  He  did  not  lose  his  ears  until 
1630,  and  then  underwent  his  long  imprisonment*. 
.  Be  this  as  it  may,  after  eleven  years  imprisonment  in 
the  Fleet,  be  was  set  at  liberty  by  the  parliament,  1640, 
and  appointed  keeper  of  Lambeth-palace,  which  at  that 
time  was  made  use  of  as  a  state-prison.  There  be  re- 
mained till  1644,  when  he  died  rather  insane  of  mind  from 
the  hardships  he  had  suffered.  He  has  no  works  extant, 
except  those  already  mentioned.  He  was  the  father  of 
archbishop  Leighton,  the  subject  of  the  next  article.' 

LEIGHTON  (Robert),  some  time  bishop  of  Dunblane, 
and  afterwards  archbishop  of  Glasgow,  squ  to  the  pre- 
ceding, was  born  at  London  in  1613,  but  educated  at  the 
university  of  Edinburgh,  where  his  talents  were  not  mor^e 
conspicuous  than  his  piety  and  humble  temper.  He  after-i 
wards  spent  some  time  in  France,  particularly  at  Dowaj, 
where  some  of  his  relations  lived.  Our  accpunts,  however, 
of  his  early  years,  are  very  imperfect.  All  we  know  with 
certainty  of  the  period  before  us  is,  that  when  he  bad 
reached  his  thirtieth  year,  in  1643,  he  was  settled  in  Scot- 
land, according  to  the  presbyterian  form,^  as  minister  of  . 
tfa^    parish    of  Newbottle,    near  Edinburgh.      Here^  be 

^  It  tras  when  Dr.  Leighton  received  popularity.    The  sentence  itself,  bow. 

sentence  that  archbishop  Laud,  then  ever,  could  not  fail  to  make  a  deep 

in  tourt,  ie  said  to  hare  takes  off  his  impression  on  the  minds  of  a  people 

cap,    and   returned  thanks    to    God.  already  taught  to  be  dissatisfied  with 

This  story  bas'been  repeated  in  all  the  the  government,  and  to  thirst  for  that 

histories   of  the  tiiiie,    and    whether  vengeance  which  fell  upon  Strafford, 

true  or  not,  must  have,  if  only  a  cur-  Laud,  and  lastly  on  the  king  himself, 
rent  report^  added  heavily  to  his  un- 

1  Brook's  Lives  of  the  Puritans.— Kushworth  and  Nalson's  Collections.— 
Granger. 


144  L  K  I  G  ft  T  ON. 

.  iPtmained  severali  years,    and  vmn  most  a«idiioua  in  Ag^ 
cbargiQg  the  varibus  duties  of  his  office.     He  did  not^  bow«« 
(^er,  conceive  it  to  be  any  part  of  that  office  to  add  to 
the  distractions  of  that  uivbappy  period,  by  naking  the 
pulpit  the  vehicle  of  political  opinions.     Hia  object  wae 
to  exhort  his  parishioners  to  live  in  charity,  and  not  t«i 
double  tbeinselves  with  religious   and  political  disputes^ 
But  such  was  not  the  common  practice ;  and  it  being  the 
custom  of  the  presbytery  to  inquire  of  the  several  brethven^ 
,  twice  a  year,  '<  whether  they  had  preached  to  the  tifoes  ?*'* 
''  For  God's  sake/'   answefed  Leigbton,  *^  when  all  titf 
brethren  preach  to  the  times,   sumr  one  poor  priest  to 
preach  about  eternity."     Such  moderation  could  not  hAl 
to  give  offence ;  and  finding  his  labours  of  no  service,  be 
retired  to  a  life  of  privacy.     His  miud  was  not,  however,- 
indi&iient  to  what  was  passing  in  the  political  worM,  and 
he  was  one  of  those  who  dreaded  the  downfall  of  the  mo^ 
narcfay,  and  the  subsequent  evils  of  a  republican  tyranny, 
and  having  probably  declared  his  sentiments  on  these  sub- 
jects, he  was  solicited  by  bis  friends,  and  particularly  by- 
his  brother,  sir  Elisba  L^gblon,  to  change  his  connexions. 
For  this  he  was  denounced  by  the  presbyterians  as  an  apos- 
tate, and  welcomed  by  the  episcopalians  as  a  conirert;     lit 
lus  first  outset,  however,  it  is  denied  that  he  was  a  thorough 
presbyteriaa^  or  in  bis  second,  entirely  an  episcopalian ; 
and  it  is  certain  that  his  becoming  the  latter  could  not  be: 
imputed  to  motives  of  ambition  or  interest,  for  episcopacy 
was  at  this  time  the  profession  of  the  minority,  atid  ex-*' 
tremely  unpopular.     His  design,  however,  of  retirifn^  to- 
a  life  of  privacy,  was  prevented  l^  a  circumstance  w^^ich 
proved  the  high  opinion  entertained  of  his  int^rity,  learn^^ 
iAg,  and  piety.    The  office  of  principal  in  the  university* 
of  Edinburgh  becoming  vacant  soon  after  Leighton's  re^* 
signation  of  bis  ministerial  charge,  the- magistrates^  wha* 
bad  the  gift  of  presentation,  unanimously  chose  him  to* 
fill  the  chair,  and  pressed^  his  acceptance  of  it  by  urging 
that  he  might  thereby  be  of  great  service  to  the  churcl\, 
without  taking  any  part  in  public  measures.     Such  a  mo- 
tive to  a  man  of  his  moderation,  was  irresistible;  and  ac* 
cordingly  he  accepted  the  offer,  and  executed  the  dutiea 
of  his  office  for  ten  years  with  great  reputation.     It  waa 
the  custom  then  for  the  principal  to  lecture  to  the  students 
of  theology  in  the  Latin  tongue ;  and  Leighton^s  lectures 
delivered  at  this  period,  which  are  extant  both  in  Latia 


L  £  I  G  H  T  O  N.  14< 


Aod  Englisli,  ate  ymty  slrflting  proofs  of  the  abffity  tnd  M« 
«iduity  with  wUeb  he  dhcharged  this  paact  of  his  doty. 

After  the  death  of  the  king,/  Dr.  LeightOB  sometimes 
-niited  London  during  the  vacations^  but  was  disgusted 
with  the  pfToceedings  there,  and  particntavly  conceived  a 
dislike  to  the  eondoct  of  the  independents  as  well  as  to 
their  form'  of  charch'^governnent.  He  made  several  ex- 
cursions, likewise,  to  FJandciv,  that  he  might  observe  the 
actoal  state  of  the  Romish  church  on  the  spot,  and  carried 
on  a  correspondence  with  some  of  his  rebMions  at  Doway, 
who  were  in  popish  ard&rs}  bat  with  the  exeeption  of 
some  Jansemsts,  of  whom  be .  entenained  a  favourable 
opinion,  hifr  genial  avevsioii  to  popish  divines  and  po- 
pery appeara  to  have  been  increased  by  his  experience 
I  abroad. 

When  Cfaavlea  II.  after  the  reatomtion  decemined  to 
ttfablish  episeopaey  in  Svotlaiid,  Dr.  Leighton  was  per* 
siiaded  to  accept  a  bishopric.  This  his  presbyterian 
biographers  seem  to  consider  as  a  part  of  his  conduct 
wUph  is4iot  to  be  lecoaiciled  with  bis  gjieneral  character 
for  wiadoiii  and  caution.  They  deduce,  bowevier,  from 
.  dieXMlowittg  circumstances,  that  he  did  not  enter  cordially 
into  the  plan,  and  waa  even  somewhat  averse  to  it.  ^^  He 
chose  tb«r  most  obsenre  and  least  lucrative  see^  tfaatof 
Donfaj^flfie ;  he  diaapprofed  of  the  feasting  at  the  time>  of 
coDsiter^ion,  and  plainly  testified  against  it ;  be  objected 
iw the  title  of  Lord;  be  refused  to  accompany  the  other 
Scotch  bishops  in  their  pMipoiis  entry  into  Edinburgh. 
He  hastened  to  Dunblane;  did  not  accept  of  the  invitation 
to  pa|f]^a■lent,  and  almost  the  only  time  he  took  hfs  seat 
there  wasfor  the  purpose  of  urging  lenity  toward  the  pres*^ 
foyterians;  be  dc^sted  all  violent  measures;  persecuted 
no  oian^  upbraided  no  man;  t)ad  tittle  correspondence 
smfa  his  brethren,  and  incurved  l^ir  ^eep  resentm^ent  by 
.  bis  resorts  and  strictness ;  acknowiedged  that  Providence 
frowned  both  on  the  scheme  and  the  instruments ;.  aiid 
confined  himself  to  his  diocese**' 

All  this  ttigbt  be  true,  and  yet  not  interfere  with  the 
conclusion,  that  Br:  l^ighton  saijir  nothing  in  the  charac-' 
ter  and  office  of  a  bishop  which  coold  hinder  the  success 
of  the  gospel;  on  the  contrary,  bishop  as  he  was,  for 
which  these  bic«raphers  cannot  forgive,  him,-  he  exhibited 
such  an  exaropkB  of  ptons  diligence  as  could  not  be  est- 
4Eeeded  hf  tiM  divines  of  any  church ;  and  although  during 

VeL.  XX.  L 


Ue  L  E  I  G  H  T  O  N. 

.  his  holdiog  this  see,  tbe  presbyterisn^  were  persecuted 
with  the  greatest  severity,  in  other  dioceses,  not  one  indt*- 
vidual  wasfliolested  in  Dunblane  on  account  of  hisreligiouis 
principles.  But  as  he  had  no  power  beyond  his  own  bound- 
aries, and  could  not  approve  the  conduct  of  Sharp  and  others 
of  his  brethren,  he  certainly  became  in  time  dissatisfied 
with  his  situation,  and  it  is  possible  he  might  be^so  with 
himself  for  accepting  it.  In  an  address  to  his  clergy,  in 
1665,  not  four  years  after  his  settlement  at  Dunblane,  he 
intimated  to  them  that  it  was  his  intention  to  resign,  as- 
signing as  a  reason,  that  be  was  weary  of  contentions* 

Before  taking  this  step,  however,  he  had  the  courage  to 
try  the  effect  of  a  fair  representation  of  the  state  of  matters 
to  the  king,  and  notwithstanding  his  natural  diffidence^ 
went  to  London,  and  being  graciously  received  by  Cbaries, 
detailed  to  him  the  violent  and  cruel  proceedings  in  Scot- 
land ;  protested  against  any  concurrence  in  such  raeasurefr; 
declared  that  being  a  bishop  he  was  in  some  degree  ac- 
cessary to  tbe  rigorous  deeds  of  others  in  supporting  epis- 
copacy, and  requested  permission  to  resign  his  bishopric. 
The  king  heard  him  with  at^tention,  and  with  apparent  sor-* . 
row  for  the  state  of  Scotland ;  assured  him  that  lenieftt 
measures  should  be  adopted,  but  positively  refused  to :  ac- 
cept his  resignation.  Leigbton  appears  to  have  credited 
his  majesty^s  professions,  and  returned  home  in  hopes  that 
the  violence  of  peraecution  was  over ;  but,  finding  himself 
disappointed,  be  made  a  second  attempt  in  1667,  and  waa 
more  urgent  with  tbe  king  than  before,  although  still  with- 
out effect. 

It  may  seem  strange  that  Leigbton,  who  was  so  disgusted 
with  tbe  proceedings  of  bis  brethren  as  now  to  think  it  a 
misfortune  tp  belong  to  tbe  order,  and  who  had  so  earnestly 
tendered  his  resignation,  should  at  no  great  distance  of 
time  (in  1670)  be  persuaded  to  remove  from  his  sequestered 
diocese  of  Dunblane,  to  the  more  important'  province  of 
Glasgow.  This,  however,  may  be  accounted  for  (o  bis 
honour,  and  not  to  the  discredit  of  the  court  which  urged 
him  to  accept  tbe  archbishopric.  Tbe  motive  of  the  king 
and  bis  ministers  was,  that  Leigbton  was  tbe  only  man 
qualified  to  allay  the  discontents  which  prevailed  in.  the 
west  of  Scotland;  and  Leigbton  now  thought  be  might 
have  an  opportunity  to  bring  forward  a  scheme  of  accom- 
modation between  tbe  Episcopalians  and  Presbyterians, 
which  had  been  for  years  the  object  of  his  study^  and  the 


t  E  I  G  H  T  O  N.  147 

iriib  of  his  bean.  The  king  bad  examined  this  scbeme/ 
and  promised  his  aid.  It  had  all  the  features  of  mode- 
ration ;  and  if  moderation  had  been  the  characteristic  of 
either  party,  might  have  been  successful.  Leighton  wished 
that  each  party,  for  the  sake  of  peace,  should  abate  some* 
what  of  its  opinions,  as  to  the  mode  of  church-government: 
and  worship  ;  that  the  power  of  the  bishops  should  be  re- 
duced considerably,  and  that  few  of  the  ceremonies  of 
public  worship  should  be  retained;  that  the  bishop  should 
ooiy  be  perpetual  moderator,  or  president  in  clerical  as- 
semblies; and  should  have  no  negative  voice;  and  that 
every  question  should  be  determined  by  the  majority  of 
presbyters.  Both  parties,  however,  were  too  much  exas* 
peiated,  and  too  jealous  of  each  other  to  yield  a  single 
poiot,  and  the  scheme  came  to  nothing,  for  which  various 
reasons  may  be  seen  in  the  history  of  the  times.  The 
only  circumstance  not  so  well  accounted  for,  is  that 
Cbarleip  II.  and  his  ministers  should  still  persist  in  retaining 
a  man  in  the  high  office  of  bishop,  whose  plans  they  dis- 
liked, atid  who  formed  a  striking  contrast  to  his  brethVen 
whom  they  supported; 

Disappeinted  in  his  scheme  of  comprehension,  arch- 
bishop  Leighton  endeavoured  to  execute  his  office  with  his 
usual  care,  doing  all  in  his  power  to  reform  the  clergy,  to 
promote  piety  among  the  people,  to  suppress  violence,  and 
to  soothe  the  minds  of  the  presbyterians.  For  this  last 
purpose  be  held  conferences  with  them  at  Glasgow,  Paisley, 
and  Sdinburgh,  on  their  principles,  and  on  his  scheme  of 
accommodation,  but  without  effect.  The  parties  could  not 
be  brought  to  mutual  indulgence,  and  far  less  to  religious 
coacord.  Finding  his  new  situation  therefore  more  and 
more  disagreeable,  he  again  determined  to  resign  his  dig- 
nity, and  went  to  London  for  that  purpose  in  the  summer 
of- 1-678.  The'  king,  although  he  still  refused  to  accept  his 
i«signation,  gave  a  written  engagement  to  allow  him  to 
retire,  after  the  trial  of  another  year ;  and  that  time  being 
expiced^  and  all  hope  of  uniting  the  different  parties  having 
Yaiiisbed,  his  resignation  was  accepted.-  He  now  retired 
to  Broadfaurst,  in  Sussex,  where  his  sister  resided,  the  wi- 
do<^  of  Edward  Lightmaker,  esq.  and  here  he  lived  in 
great,  privacy,  dividing  his  time  between  study,  devotion, 
and  acts  of  benevolence,  with  occasional  preaching.  In 
1679  ht  very  unexpectedly  received  a  letter,  written  iti 
the  king's  own  hand,  requesting  him  to  go  to  Scotland  and 

L  2 


148  I.  E  I  (J  H  T  O  N- 

« 

pi^oiApjte  co^potd  ainong  tbi^  toqiK^nding  paitieis,  but  it  does 
opt  ^pp^iir  il^t  b<e  eaqipUed  with  his  nuijesty's  pie&sune. 
It  is  cert^aip  that  h^  nev^sr  agaij)  visited  Scotland,  nor  inter-^* 
ipeddled  with  ecple^iasiticai  it09if«,  but  remained  quietly  in 
bi3  retirement  jijiiuil  near  his  death.     This  event,  however, 
did  not  ta{^e  pia^e  at  Broadhiir^t.    /Although  be  had  ei!i«< 
joyed  this  retirement  aluiost  wkbout  interruption  fer  tea 
years,  be  w/a^  unexpectedly  brought  to  London  to  see  ht»  ' 
friends.     Thef  reason  of  this  vi$tt  is  not  very  clearly  ex*. 
plained,  nor  is  it  of  great  i&iportanee,  but  it  appean  that 
be  bad  been  accqstomed  to  express  a  wish  that  be  xnigbt 
die  frppa  home,  and  at  an  iiio  ;  and  tbiB  wish  was  gratified, 
fpr  be  died  at  the  Bell-ion,  in  Warwick^lane,  far  apart 
from  bis  rieUtions,  whose  concern,  bethought,  might  dti-> 
compose  his  noind.     He  was  confined  to  his  room  about  a 
week,  and  to  bis  bed  only  three  days.     Bishop  Burnet,  and 
Qtber  friends,  attended  him  constantly  during  tUs  iilnt^s, 
and  witnessed  his  tranquil  departure*     He  expired  Feb.  1^ 
16S4,  in  the  seventy-fif^t  year  of  bia  age.    By  his  «xpresa 
'(^sire,  bi9  remains  were  conveyed  to  Broadhnr^,  and  in- 
terred in  the  church ;  and  a  monument  of  plain  marble^ 
inscribed  with  his  name,  office,  and  age,  was  erected  at 
tbi?  ^jcpence  of  his  sifter. 

Archbishop  Leighton  is  celebrated  by  all  wbo  have  wiit- 
ten  his  lifci  or  incidentally  noticed  him,  as  a  striking  ex«» 
ampl^  of  unfeigned   piety,  extensive  learning,  and  nn-* 
bounded  liberality.     Every  period  of  his  life  was  marked 
with  sqbstantial,  prudent,  unostentatious  charity ;  and  tfaafc 
hp  might  be  enabled  to  employ  bis  H'ealtb  in  this  way^ 
be  practised  the  arts  of  frugality  in' his  own  concerns.     He 
enjpyed  some  property  from  bis  father,  but  his  income  as 
bishop  of  Dunblane  was  only  200/.,  and  as  archbishop  o€ 
Glasgow  about  400/. ;  yet,  besides  his  gifts  of  charity  du* 
ring  his  life,  he  founded  an  exhibition  in  the  collie  of 
Edinburgh  at  the  expence  of  150/.  ami  three  more  in  the 
cpllege  of  Glasgow,  at  the  expence  of  400/. ;  and  gave 
3po/.  fpr  the  maintenance  of  four  panpers  in  St.  Nichdaa^a 
hospits^l.     He  also  bequeathed  at  last  the  whole  of  his 
remaining  property  to  charitable  purposes.     His  Kfatarjr 
>pd  MSS.  he  left  to  the  see  of  Dunblalie.     His  love  for 
retifement  we  have  often  mentioned  ;  ■  be  carried  it  perhaps 
to  an  excess,  and  it  certainly  unfitted  him  fi>r  the  o^orft. 
s^ptive  dutie9  of  bis  high  station.    Although  a  pvelaiie^,  lie 
i)$ver  seemed  to  have  coixaidered  hia\seif  as  wotq  than  % 


L  B  I  O  B  T  O  N;  149 

par^b  pritst)  and  hi^  diocese  k  Ivrge  pwrith.    He  wfta^  riot 
Bnade  for  the  times  in.vrbicb  be  lived,  ik  a  public  cbardCter. 
They  were  too  yi^lent  for  bu  gentle  spirit,  and  impressed  / 
bim  leith  a  melancholy  that  cbec)ied  the  natural  cheerf\il- 
sess  of  bis  temper  and  conversation.     As  a  prea^ber^  be 
was  admired  beyond  all  bis  contemporaries,  ai^  bis  wotin 
have  niot  yet  lost  their  popalarity«     Sofne  of  them,  ts  his 
*^  Commentary  on  St.  Peter,"  hdive  been  dfien  reprifritedi 
but.tbe  most  complete  edition,  inetuding  many  pieces  ne« 
yer  before  poblisbed,  is  that  which  appeared  in  t80S,  fiy  6 
vols.  Svo,   with  a  life  of  the  aothor  by  the  Rev.  G.  Jtt^ 
ment.    Of  this  last  we  have  availed  ourselves  in  the  pire^ 
ceding  s&etcb,  but  most  refer  io  it  for  a  nfore  Mkpte  acf^ 
count  of  tbe  character  and  actions  of  thi&  revere^^  preialtd/^ ' 
LE1.AND,  ov  LAYLONDE  (John),  sin  emiiMent  En^Ks^ 
aDtiqfli^yi  was  born  in  Loiulon,  in  the  legfAfiing  of  tbe 
sixtetntb  cenCury^  bot  in  what  parish  at  year  is  Mk:ertain'. 
He  #aa  bred^at  Su  Paofs^efaoo^,  tfnder  the  famous  WvlKam 
Lilly,     Having  lost  both  bis  parerMs  in  his  infancy,  he 
fotacid  a  foster^'faiber  in  one  Mr;  Tbomas  Myles^^  who  botb 
nKMntained  ]^\tn  at  school,^  and  sent  hiM  tAenee  to  Chriye' J 
college,  hir  Cambridge^    Of  this  sd^eiety,  it  is  saiid,  be  be« 
came  fellow ;  yet,  it  isi  certarin'  (tait  be  afterwards  renfioved 
to  Oxford,  and  spent  ^erevai  yeafs^^  in  Allf  Souls  Cottege^ 
wbece  be  pmiebiMed  hiiTRiUdiie^  wiub  great  as^idiril^)^,'  not 
cmiy,  in  tbe- Greek  and  Latm  se^goes^  bait  in  ibel^Mt>H 
4oid  Welcfa^  tile  adcievvt  la:ngnage9i  of  hM  country.     fo# 
^MTtber  impvofttment  be  travelled  to  Paris,  wh^re-  be  bad 
the  coaviers^tion  and  instfiM^tioii  pf  Budseus,  Pab^,  I'aiulil^ 
wlgmUitta^  BueliiuS)  and  Francis  Syt>vttti» ;  by  whose  assibt4 
toce  be  m>t  oo^  perfected  himself  in  die  Latin  and*  Gr^B 
toogues^  but  learned  French,  Italian,  ai|d  Spanish.     H^ 
also. improved  his  iiatun^l  diposition  to  poe^.-    On.  bis 
return  brnme  heeolered  intio  holy  ordiers^  ai^d  beingiesteemed 
aik  accomplished  scholar,  king  Heevy  Vl'tl.  ma^de  hitts  enW 
of  bia  ehafJatos,  gave  him  tbe  rectory  of  Popeb^ig,  Po^ 
peiung,  or .  Pepling^  in^  the  marches:  it  Calsws,  appointed 
bim?  his:  liihndry-keeper,  and  by  a  commission  dated  1  $^% 
digoified^  hiin  witb  the  tithe  of  his' antiquary.     By  thist  com^ 
mssaioa  his  mi^esty  laid  hia  commands  on'  bint'  to  miAe 
seatcb  after  ^  EngUaldi^s  antic^ies,'  and  pemise  ti})^  lifolE^^ 
xiea  o£  all  cathedrals^  abbiesi  priories,  eollc^ge»,  &ic.  at)dF 

1  I4fe,.w  mbore,— Buf net'i  Oi«o  Tlaw^;— taiuf »a  Hi^t;  of  SJciiUaiidi  Ac. 

»  4 


150  .      L  E  L  A  N  D. 

places  where  recordsi  writings,  and  secrets  of  antiqnity 
.w^re  reposited.^'     For  this  purpose  he  had  an  honourable 
;5tipend  allotted  him>  and  obtained,  in  1536,  a  dispensa- 
Uon  for  non-residence  upon  his  living  at  Popeling.     Being 
•now  at  full  liberty,  he  spent  above  six  years  in  travelling 
About  Eogl^jid  and  Wales,  and  collecting  materials  for  the 
liistory  and  antiquities  of  the  nation.     He  entered  opoci 
bis  journey  with  the  greatest  eagerness;  and,  in  the  exe* 
eutioo  of  his  design  was  so  inquisitive,  that,  not  content 
with  what  the  libraries  of  the  respective  houses  afibrded^ 
nor  with  what  was  recorded  in  the  windows  and  other  mo* 
numents  belonging  to  cathedrals  and  monasteries,  &c.  he 
wandered  from  place  to  place  where  he  thought  there  were 
any  footsteps  of  Roman,  Saxon,  or  Danish  buildings,  and 
took  particular  notice  of  all  the  tumuli,  coin$>  inscriptions, 
&c.     In  short,  he  travelled  every  where,  both  by  the  sea- 
cQasts  and  the  midland  parts,  sparing  neither 'paind  nor 
qost ;  insomuch  that  there  was  scarcely  either  cape  or  bay, 
haven,    creek,  or  pier,    river,    or  confluence  of  rivers, 
breaches,  washes,  lakes,  meres,  fenny  waters,  mountains, 
yalleys,  moors,  heaths,  forests,  chaces,  woods,  cities,  bo<> 
roughs,  castles,  principal  manor- places,  monasteries,  and 
colleges,  which  he  bad  not  seen,  and  noted,  as  he  says,  a 
whole  world  of  things  very  memorable. 
.    Leland  not  only  sought  out  and  rescued  antique  monu- 
inents  of  literature  from  the  destructive  hands  of  time,  by 
a  faithful  copy  and  register  of  them,  but  likewise  saved 
many  from  being  despoiled  by  the  hands  of  men.    In  those 
days  the  English  were  very  indifferent  and  negligent  in  this 
particular :  they  took  little  heed  and  less  care  about  these 
precious  monuments  of  learning;  which,  being  perceived 
by  foreigners,  especially  in  Germany,  young  students  were 
frequently  sent  thence,  who  cut  them  out  of  the  bocdcs  in 
the  libraries ;  and,  then,  returning  home,  published  them 
at  the  press  of  Frobenius,  and  other  printers.     This  pil« 
ferage^  together  with  the  havock  made  of  them  at  the  ais«> 
solution  of  the  monasteries,^  was  observed  by  our  antiquary 
with  great  regret ;  and  he  wrote  a  letter  to  Cromwell,  then 
secretary  of  state,  begging  his  assistance  to  bring  to  light 
many  ancient  authors  buried  in  dust,  and  sending  them  ta 
the  king^s  library.     His  majesty  was  truly  sensible  of  the 
indefatigable  industry  and  labour  of  his  antiquary,  and^on 
bis  return  from  his  travels  in  1 542,  presented  him  to  the 
rich  rectory  of  Hasely,  in  Oxfordshire,  and  the  year  foU 


L  £  L  A  N  D.  151 

lowing  gave  kim,  by  the  name  of  John  Leland,  scholar, 
and  king's  chaplain,  a  canonry  of  King^s  college,  now 
Christ  Church,  in  Oxford  ;  and,  about  the  same  time,  the 
prebend  of  East   and  West  Knowle,   in  the  church   of 
Sarum.     In  }  545  he  lost  the  canonry  pf  Christ  Church, 
upon  the  surrendry  of  that  college  to  the  king,  and  had 
no  pension  allowed  him  in  the  lieu  of  it,  as  other  canons 
had,  yet  as  he  is  said  to  have  been '*  otherwise  provided 
for,''  it  was  probably  at  this  time  that  the  prebend  of  East 
and  West  Knowle  was  given  him.  In  1545,  havino;  digested 
into  four  books  that  part  of  his  collections  which  contains 
an  account  of  the  illustrious  writers  in  the  realm,  with  their 
lives  and  monuments  of  literature,  he  presented  it  to  his 
mayesty,  under  th^  title  of  **  A  Newe  Year's  Gifte ;"  with 
a  scheme  of  what  he  intended  to  do  farther  *,    For  that 
purpose  he  retired  to  a  house  of  his  own,  in  the  parish  of 
St  Michael  le  Querne,  London ;  where  he  spent  near  six 
years  in  digesting  and  bringing  into  form  and  order,  the 
immense  collections  he  had  with  so  great  assiduity  amassed 
together.     It  appears  by  a  letter  of  his  published  by 
Hearne,  that  he  was  desirous  af  procuring  an  able  assistant, 
but  we  are  not  informed  whether  he  succeeded.     I^  is  cer- 
tain that  some  assistance  was  necessary ;  for  though  he  ivas 
a  person  of  a  clear  judgment,  and  of  great  insight,  to  dis- 
cern the  difference  **  between  substantial  and  superstitious 
learning,"  notwithstanding  these  and  other  natural  endow- 
ments of  his  mind,  it  is  no  wonder  this  double  labour,  this 
augsean  task,  to  realize  these  undigested  heaps,  should 
overpower  the  strength  of  his  constitution,  and  the  spirits 
submit  to  what  nature  could  no  longer  support.    This  was 
the  fate  of  Leiaud  ;  and  by  this  unfortunate  event  an  end 
vras  put  to  his  labours,  ^<^a  fatal  stop  tp  the  satisfaction  he 
vyas  anxious  to  give  to  his  king  and  country." 
.  King  Henry  died  Jan.  28,  1547,  and  probably  the  great 
concerns  of  state  had  for  some  time  slackened  the  attention 
of  the  court  to  his  labours.     Bay)e  suggests  that  the  court 
did  not  pay  Iceland  his  stipend,  ^nd  gives  this  as  a  plausible 
reason  for  bis  misfprtune ;  but  as  we  are  told  by  his  con- 
temporary, bisi^op  Bale,  who  had  a  better  opportunity  to 
» 

*  This,  was,  to  give  a  map  of  Eng-  books  as  there  are  shires  in  E^ogland 

Und  on  a  siver  plate ;  a  description  of  and  Walev^  viz.  fifty  ;  a  sarvey  of  the 

the  same  within  twelvemonths;  where-  British  isles,  id  six  boohs  ;  and,  finally, 

in  would'  be  restored  the  ancient  naipes  nn  account  of  the  nobility  of  En^l;|nd, 

of  places  in  Britain  ;  with  the  antiqui-  in  three  books, 
ties  or  civil  bistocy  of  it ;  in  as  ipAnjr 


IM  L  E  L  A  N  D. 

know  Ills  history^  tfaoit  be  was  «  man  entiirelf  abslratsted  front 
the  world,  peeuoiary  considerations  eoald  scarce  b^  thd 
object  of  his  T4dwt.  Hovire^er^  to  wbat^fer  ^{^ritiiar^  ut  se- 
condary cause  his  disorder  thay  be  assigned^  he  fdl  into  a 
deep  melancholy^  and,  in  a  short  time  after^  was  totally 
(deprived  of  his  ^enfi^* 

His  distemper  being  made  known  to  Edward  YL  his  oa^ 
jesty^  by  leuei's  patents^  daited  March  5,  iSSO,  granted 
the  eu^ody  of  him,  by  the  name  cf  John  Laylond^  juhior^ 
of  St.  Michael's  parish  in  le  Querae,  eterk,  to  his  brother 
John  Layiond/  senior ;  and,  for  his  tnaintenanbe,  to  receive 
the  pmfitft  of  Hasely,  Popeling,  and  bis  Salisbury  prebea4 
srbove-m^ntioned.  In  this  distraction  be  contiasea,  with^ 
out  ever  teco^^ering  bis  senses/  two  yeaard,  when  the  A^q»^ 
der  put  a  period  to  his  life,  April  13,  15S2.  He  was  in* 
terred  in  the  church  of  St,  Michael  le  Qiieme,  wbidi  stood 
at  tbe  weyt  tsAd  of  Cheapside,  between  tbe  conduit  there 
and  Patemoster-row ;  but,  being  burnt  in  the  great  fire  of 
1666,  the  site  of  it  was  laid  out  to  enlarge  tbe  street. 

This  events  as  his  illuesi;  before  had,  was  ddemed  a  na- 
tional misfortuUle,  g^ready  lamented  by  conteeiporaries^ 
and  by  succeeding  ages.  On  his  demise^  Lefhnid^s  papers 
wete  soagbt  after  by  persons  of  the  fim  rank  and  learning 
in  the  kingdom.  Kiug  Edward,  aware  of  their  value,  eoih^ 
mitted  tbm  to'tbe  custody  of  sir  John  Cheke,  his  tiit^^ 
who  probably  Wotild  hkre  made  simie  importahtusejE^f  them 
bad  be  hot  beeU  bihdei^d  by  tbe^oonfu^ipns  which  feiUowed 
the  de&th  4jf  bis  sovereign.  Sir  John,, being  then  sfeliged 
to  go  abroaH^  leftfoiir  folio^  volumes  of  Leland's  coUec^i^s 
to  Humphrey  Purefoy,  iesq.  and  these  descended  to  Butlioii^ 
^author  of  the  History  of  Leicestershire,  who  obtained 
possession  also  of  eight  othfer  volumes  ef  Lels^d^s  MS6«- 
called  his  ^Mtinerary,^  all  which  he  deposifleil,  in  l^S^^i 
in  the  Bodleian  library.  The  only  other  portion  of  Le« 
land's  MSS.  is  in  the  Cdttoman  collection.  Of  all  tbese^ 
Holin^hed,  Drayton,  Camden,  Dugdale,  Stohve,  Lam^^ 
bard,  Battdy,  Wood,  &b.  &c.  have  made  muibb  «se  in. 
their  historical  researches;  but  ^e  oatonottoo  deejply  !«•* 
gret  that  the  author  did  not  live  to  -execute  his  own  plams^ 
His  collections  were  in  truth  but  labares  incepHy  begun,  not 
completed.  In  that  light  be  mentions  them  himself  in  an 
address  to  archbishop  Cranmer,  intreating  the  favour  of 
that  prelate's  protection  of  his  indigested  papers.  Yet  in 
this  imperfect  state  they  have  been  JiM»tLy  deeioed&natiaiud 


L  E  L  A  N  D.  153 

tressdre,  b«re  alws^s  been  consulted  by  our  best  antt- 
qasrie»,  aiid  their  autbortty  is  eked  as  equal,  if  not  su^ 
perior  to  any,  iii  points  tifaat  concern  antiquiiies*  Dr.  Tan^ 
ner  bad  once  fdrmed  a  plan  for  ppblisbing  Leland's  papers^ 
but  i^airioQs  afocatious  pr^ented  him :  at  length  Heame 
undertook  the  task,  and  produced  those  two  invaluable 
coUectiont,  the  '*  Itinerary/'  and  ^  Collectanea,''  both  too 
w<eU  known  to  require  a  more  tbihdte  description.  To 
these  may  be  added  a  work  not  so  well  edited,  *^  Coni<- 
tnentarit  de  sCriptortbus  Bntannlcis,"  Oxon.  1709,  2  vols. 
^o.  (See  Anthony  Hall.)  Soiiie  unpublished  MSS«  still 
remain,  and  it  appears  that  Leland  had  prepared  a  large 
work  entitled  **  De  Antiquitate  Britannica,  sive^  Historia 
Civilts.'*  It  altfo  appears  that  he  had  made  large  collect* 
tioiis  towards  the  antiquities  df  London,  but  these  have  . 
k^ng  been  lost  to  the  public,  as  well  as  bis  quadrate  table 
on  silver,  mentioned  in  the  {ireceding  note,  and  the  **  De^ 
scription  of  England,**  which  he  said  would  be  publkbed 
in  twelve  months.  * 

LELAND  (John),  an  eminent  writer  in  defence  of 
Cht^sUantty, '  was  bt)rn  at  Wigan^  in  Lancashire,  Oct.  18^, 
1081.     Boon  after,  his  father,  who  had  lived  in  good  re« 
ptite  for  many  years,  being  involved  in  pecunislry  diffi^t^ 
eulties^  ^ave  up  bis  effects  tdhis  creditors,  and  removed  to 
Dublin.     Finding  here  an  opportunity  for  settling  in  busi^ 
ness^  he  sent  over  for  his  wife  and  family  of  three  sons, 
and  was  enabled  to  support  them  in  a  decent  manner. 
Miny  thefitlbje^^t  of  this  memoir,  was  his  second  son,  and 
vdieii  in  his  aixtfa  yeilr,  whi<!fh  was  before  they  left  Eng^ 
hfnA,  as  our  aecoont  states,  he  met  with  a  singular  misforf 
iiine.  He  Wtts  seized  with  the  small  pox,  which  proved  of  so 
sralignantsl  bind  that  hts  life  was  despaired  of ;  and  when^ 
eontrary  to  all  expectation,  he  recovered,  be  was  found 
t6  be  deprived  of  his  understanding  and' memory^  which 
last  retairiied  no  traces  ofwhat  he  had  been  taught*     In  this 
atate  he  remained  a  yeary  when  his  facnities  returned  ;  but 
intving^tiil mo  remembranee  df  the  past^  he  began  ane^ 
to  learn  his  letters,  aiiditi  this  his  second  edueation,  made 
so  quid!  a  pro^r^ss,  and  gate  such  prodfe  of  sliperior  me* 
Itldry  «nd  understandifvg,  that  hi^psirents  r^Ol^d  to  br^ed 
Itkn  iip  to  one  of  th^  learned  professioiiai    In  this,  fi^om 

4ejrf9rd|  )»ef€r  of  U^e  ^sbviole^o  library. 


154  ^  L  E  L  A  N  D. 

their  situation  in  Hie,  they  probably  had  not  much  cfaoiee^ 
from  'the  great  expenses  necessary  to  law  or  physic ;  and 
tbis|  with  their  religious,  principles^  induced  them  to  de«- 
.eide  in  favour  pf  divinity.     He  was  therefore  educated  for 
the.  ministry  among  the  dissenters ;  and  having  first  ex« 
hibited  his  talents  to  advantage  in  a  congregation  of  dis-r 
centers  in  New-row,  Dublin,  was,  in  a  few  n^onths^  in- 
cited to  become  joint-pastor  wi|;h  the  Rev.  Mr.  Weld,  to 
which  office  he  was  ordained  in  1716.    As  he  entered  upon 
this  station  from  the  best  and  purest  motives,  he  discharged 
the  duties  of  it  with  the  utmost  fidelity  ;  and,  by  indefa-^ 
tigable  application  to  his  studies,  he  made  at  the  same 
time  such  improvements  in  every  branch  of  useful  know- 
ledge, that  be  soon  acquired  a  distinguished  reputation  in 
the  learned  world.     In  1730  Tindal  published  his  <<  Chris- 
tianity as  old  as  the  Creation,'*  and  although  several  excel- 
lent answers  appeared  to  that  impious  work,  Mn  L^land 
was  of  opinion  that  much  refnain^d  to  be  said,  in  order  to 
expose  its  fallacious  reasonings  and  inconsistencies*     Acr 
cordingly  he  first  appeared  as  an  author  in  1733,  by  pub- 
lishing <^  An  Answer  to  a  late  book  entitled  '  Christianity 
as  old  as  the  Creation,  &c.^'*  in  2  vols.     In  1737  he  em^ 
barked  in  a  controversy  with  another  of  the  same  clasa  of  , 
writers,  Dr.  Morgan,  by  publishing  "  The  Divine  Autho-^ 
rity  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament  asserted  s^ainst  the 
unjust  aspersions  and  false  reasonings  of  a  Book  eptitled 
^  The  Moral  Philosopher.' "  .  The  learning  and  abilities 
displayed  by  Mr.  Leiand  in  these  publications,,  and  the. 
service  which  he  rendered  by  them  to  the  Christian  cause^ 
procured  him  many  marks  of  respect  and  esteem  from  per*^ 
sons  of  the  highest  rank  in  the  established  church,  as.  well 
as  from  the  most  eminent  of  his  disfepting  brethren ;  and 
from  the  university  of  Aberdeen  he  received,  in  the  most 
honourable  manner,  the  degree  of  D.  D.    In  1742  Dr. 
Leiand  published  an  answer  to  a  pamphlet  entitled  ^*  Chris-i 
tianity  not  founded  on  Argument;'*  and  in  1753  he  dis- 
tinguished himself  still  further  as  an  advocate  in  behalf  of 
Christianity,  by*  publishing  **  Reflections  on  the  late  Iptd 
Bolingbroke's  Letters  on  the  study  and  use  of  History ; 
especially  so  far  as  they  relate  to  Christianity  and  th<^  Holy 
Scriptures.'*     It  i9  said  to  have  been  with  sQnit*^  reluctance 
that  be  was  persuaded  to  exert  himself  upon  this  occasion ; 
for  although,  as  he  himself  observes^  no  man  needs  mak^ 
an  apology  for  using  his  best  endeavours  in  defence  of. 


L  £  L  A  N  D.  ISB 

Cbristianity  when  it  is  openly  attacked,  yet  he  was  appre,^ 
hensive  that  his  engaging  again  in  this  cause,  after  having 
done  so  on  some  former  occasions,  might  have  an  appear- 
ance  of  too  much  forwardness.  But  these  apprehension^ 
gave  way  to  the  judgment  and  advice  of  his  friend,  the  late 
Dr.  Thomas  Wilson,  rector  of  St  Stephen*s,  Waibrook;  and 
in  complying  with  his  recommendation,  he  performed  an 
acceptable  service  to  the  Christian  world,  and  added  not  a 
little  to  the  reputation  he  had  already  acquired. 

Dn  Leland  being  now  justly  considered  a  master  in  this 
branch  of  controversy,  at  the  desire  of  some  valuable  friends 
he  sent  to  the  press,  in  1754,  '^  A  View  of  the  principal 
Deistical  Writers  that  have  appeared  in  England,  in  the 
last  and  present  century,  with  observations  upon  them, 
&c.    In  several  letters  to  a  friend.*'     This  friend  was  Dr. 
Wilson,  to  whom  the  letters  were  sent  by  the  author,  in 
the  form  in  which  they  appear.     When  the  work  was  ready 
for  the  press,  the  copy  was  so  little  esteemed  that  no  book- 
seller would  give  more  than  50/.  for  it;  on  which  Dr.  Wil- 
son  generously   printed  a  numerous  edition  at  his  own 
risque,  and  the  subsequent  editions  sold  with  great  rapidity 
and  profit     The  design  of  this  work  was  to  give  some  idea 
of  the  productions  of  the  deistical  writers,  and  of  the  seve- 
ral schemes  which  they  have  advanced,  as  far  as  the  cause 
of  revealed  religion  is  concerned.    He  afterwards  published 
a  supplement  relating  to  the  works  of  Mr.  Hume  and  lord 
Bolingbroke,  and  this  was  followed  by  a  third  volume,  com- 
prehending the  author's  additions  and  illustrations,  with  a 
new  edition  of  ^*  Reflections  upon  lord  Bolingbr6ke*s  Let- 
ters,** &c.    Tlie  uriiole  of  this  work  is  now  comprised  in 
two  volumes;  it  secured  the  author  general  public  appro- 
bation, and  encouraged  him  to  continue  his  exertions  to  a 
very  advanced  age.     Accordingly,  when  he  was  upwards 
of  seventy  years  old,  he  published,  in  2  vols.  4to,  '*  The 
advantage  and  necessity  of  the  Christian  Revelation,  shewn 
from  the  state  of  religion   in  the  ancient  heathen  world, 
especially  with  respect  to    the  knowledge  and  worship  of 
liie  one  true  God ;  a  rule  of  moral  duty,  and  a  state  of 
fiiture  rewards  and  punishments,"  &c-     This  work  was  af- 
terwards reprinted  in  two  volumes,  3vo.     Dr.  Lelatid  died- 
in  bis  seventy -fifth  year,  on  the  l^th  of  January  1766';  he 
was  distinguished  by  considerable. abilities,  and  very  exten- 
sive learning;  he  had  a  memory  so  tenacious^  that  he  was 
often  called  <'  the  walking  library.**  After  his  d  ea  th  a  collec- 


156  L  E  L  A  N  D. 

I 

\ 

tion  of  bis  sermons  wim  pdblisrbe<i  in  four  volumes  oetsivo^ 
with  a. preface  cootaining  some  account  of  tb4^  life,  ebtfrtfd-^ 
ter,  and  writings  of  the  aathory  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Isaac 
Weld,  who  preacbkl  bis  funeral  frermon  at  the  meeting  iff 
Eustace-streetf  Dublin,  of  which  Dr.  Leiand  had  for  man]^ 
years  been  the^  pattot;  The  extensire  circulation  of  iofidel 
writings  about  twenty  years  ago^  induced  the  Rev.  Dr. 
W.  L.  Brown,  principal  of  Marithal  college,  Aberd^enf,  to 
superintend  a  new  edition  of  the  *^  View  of  the  Deis^ical 
writer^/'  1798^  2  rols.  8vo,  to  which  he  added  an  excel- 
lent **  View  of  the  Present  Times,  with  regard  to  religion 
and  morals,  and  other  inaportstnt  subjects.*^' 

LELAND  (Thomas),  a  learned  ditine  and  translatof^ 
the  sqn  of  a  citizen  of  Dub  Ho,  was  bom  in  that  city  in  1722, 
iTbe  first  rudiments  of  classical  education  he  received  at 
the  school  kept  by  the  celebrated  Dr.  I^eridan,  whose  ta« 
lents  and  success  in  forming  excellent  sthoiart,  were  thenf 
well  f(nown«  In  17:57  he  entered  a  pensioner  in  Trinity 
college;  and  in  1741  was  elected  a  scholar;  commCDced 
bachelor  of  arts  in  174*2,  and  was  a  candidate  for  a  fellow- 
ship  in  1 745,  in  which  he  failed  at  this  time,  bot  succeeded 
the  following  year  by  the  unanimous  voice  of  the  electors. 
On  being  tbi^s  placed  in  a  state  of  independence,  he  did 
not  resign  himself  to  ease  aiid  indolence,  but  was  conspif- 
euous  for  the  same  ardent  We  of  knowledge  which  apU 
peared  in  the  comme^ement  of  his  studies,  and  was  pre- 
dominant throughout  bis  whole  life.  In  174S  he  entered 
into  hply  orders,  and  from  'a  deep  sense  of  the  importance 
of  Us  profession,  drew  up  a  dtsconrse  '^  On  the  hh^ps.and 
impediniQnts  to  the  acqcHaition  of  knowledge  iu  religians 
and  moral  subjects,''  which  was  mucbadBiired  at  that  time, 
butino  Qopy  is  nctwto  be  foMd.  In  1754,  in  conjunction 
with  Dr^  iohfi  Stokes^  he  published,  at  the  desire  of  the' 
uniyersitjFf  an  edition  of  the  **  Orations  of  Demosthenes,'^ 
with  a  Latin  version  and  notesy  which  we  do  not  find  men- 
tioned by  any  of  ovr  dassica)  bibiiogiraphers^  excejpic  Har- 
wood,  who  say»  it  is  im  a  vols.  ISoio;  Iw  1756  Dry  Lel^nd 
published  the  first  vohtne  of  his  English  '*  Translation  of 
Demostbenes/'  4to,  with'  notes  criticid  a^d  hiistorical ;  the 
second  volusae  of  which  sq^peared  in  i761,  and  the  third  in 
1770.    This  rsAsad  his  repnfefttion  i«ry  high  as  a  ciassittaA 

1  tCeTd't  preTace,  ms  above,  snd  funeral  sermoD.-^Life,i  19  Biitish  Biognu 

ftfSfftiyi  vdKjt. 


L  E  L  A  M  D.  157 

*  • 

bcbolar  and  critic,  and  public  expectation  was  farther  gra« 
tified  in  1758  by  his  <f  History  of  the  Life  and  lUign  of 
PfaUip  king  of  Macedon,  the  fother  of  Alexander/*  2  vol§. 
4to.  His  attention  to  the  orations  of  Demosthenes  and 
^Eschines,  and  to  Grecian  politics,  eminently  qualified 
him  for  treating  the  life  of  Philip  with  copiousness  and  ac« 
curacy.  After  this  he  proceeded  with  translations  of  JEn* 
chines,  and  the  other  orations  of  Demosthenes.  In  1762, 
he  is  supposed  to  have  written,  although  he  never  formallj 
avowed  it,  the  ingenious  historical  romance  of  *iLong«* 
sword,  earl  of  Salisbury/* 

In  1763,  he  was  appointed  by  the  board  of  senior  fellows 
of  Trinity  college,    professor  of  oratory.     His  course  of  ^ 
study,  and  the  labour  he  had  bestowed  on  his  translations^ 
bad  furnished  him  with  a  perspicuous  and  energetic  style> 
which  he  displayed  both  in  the  profes8or*s  chair  and  in  the 
pulpit,  being  the  most  admired  preacher  of  bis  time  in 
Dublin  ;  nor  was  he  less  esteemed  for  bis  talents  as  a  con- 
troversial  writer,  of  which .  he  now  afforded  a  specimen. 
Bishop  Warburton  having  noticed  in  his  **  Doctrine  of 
Grace,*'  the  argumtnt  used  by  infidel  writers  against  the 
divine  inspiration  of  the  New  Testament,  from  its  want  of 
purity,  elegance,  &c.  opposed  this  opinion  by  some  of  hie 
own  which  appeared  equally  untenable;  namely,'  1.  That 
the  evangelists  and  apostles,  writing  in  a  language,  the 
knowledge  of  which  had  been  miraculously  inftised,  coutd 
he  masters  of  the  words  only,  and  not  of  the  idioms ;  and 
therefore  must  write  barbarously.     2.  That  eloquence  was 
not  any  real  quality;    but  something  merely  fantastical 
'  and  arbitrary,  an  accidental  abuse  of  human  speech.     S. 
That  it  had  no  end  but  to  deceive  by  the  appearance  of 
vehement  inward  persuasion,  and  to  pervert  the  judgment 
by  inflaming  the  passions ;  and  that  being  a  deviation  from 
the  principles  of  logic  and  metaphysics,  it  was  frequently^ 
vicious.  Dr.  Lelaod  quickly  perceived  the  danger  of  thesei 
positions,  and  in  1764  published  *' A  Dissertation  on  the 
priocipl«i  of  human  Eloquence ;  vrith  particular  regard  to 
the  s^ie  and  composition  of  the  New  Testament ;  in  which 
the  observations  on  this  subject  by  the  lord  bishop  of  Glo«« 
cester,  in  hit  discourse  on  the  Doctrine  of  Grace,  are  dis* 
tiactly  considered ;  being  the  substance  of  several  lectures 
read  in  the  oratory  school  of  Trinity  college,  DuUin,'*  4to. 
la  thia  be  refuted  Warburton's  positions  in  a  candid  and 
liberal  aMUMier,  but  was  attempted  tQ  be  answered  by  Dn 


15»  L  ELAN  D. 

Hurd  (without  bis  name),  in  a  manner  grossly  illiberal 
and  unmanly^  from  wbicb  Dr.  Hurd  could  derive  no  bthef 
advantage  than  that  of  flattering  Warburton ;  and  (tdui 
the  manner  in  which  he  notices  his  controversial  tracts 
(See  HuRDy  vol.  XVIII.  p.  342)  in  the  latter  part  of  his 
life,  it  would  appear  that  be  was  himself  of  this  opinion* 
Bn  Leiand  published  a  reply  to  Dr.. Hurd,  in  which,  by 
jBtill  preserving  the  dignity  of  the  literary  character,  be 
gained,  in  manners  as  well  as  argument,  a  complete  vic«* 
tory  over  his  antagonist. 

In  1765,  through  the  suggestion  of  Dr.  Leiand,  the  uni- 
versity of  Dublin  bestowed  on  Dr.  Johnson  their  highest 
honour,  by  creating  him  doctor  of  laws,  a  favour  which  he* 
ficknowledged  in  a  letter  to  Dr.  Leiand,  which  may  be 
seen  in  the  last  edition  of  BoswelFs  Life.    In  1768,  Dr. 
Leiand  was  appointed  chaplain  to  lord  Townsend^  lord  lieu*- 
tenant  of  Ireland ;  and  his  friends  entertained  hopes  that 
his  merits  would  have  raised  him  to  the  episcopal  bench ; 
but  he  obtained  only  in  that  year  the  prebend  of  Rath"- 
michael,  in  the  cathedral  church  of  St.  Patrick^  Dublin, 
united  with  the  vicarage  of  Bray,  both  of  small  value,  but 
tenable  with  his  fellowship.     In  1773,  appeared  his  ^^  His* 
tory  of  Ireland,  from  the  invasion  of  Henry  II.  with  a  pre* 
liminary  ^discourse,  on  the  ancient  state  of  that  kingdom,'^ 
3  vols.  4to.     The  merit  of  this  work  has  been  disputed  by 
critics. ,  It  may  be  pronounced,  however,  an  el^ant  sketch 
of  Insjx  history,  and  calculated  for  common  use ;  but  he 
appears  to  have  taken  no  pains  to  consult  original  materials^ 
and  therefore  has  brought  very  little  accession  to  our  know* 
ledge.of  Irish  affairs.  .  , 

Dr.  Leland's  other  publications  in  his  life- time  were 
only  a  few  occasional  sermons,  of  greater  merit  as  to  man* 
ner  and  matter  than  the  three  volumes  of  sermons  printed 
after  bis  death,  which  have  the  disadvantage  of  not  being 
prepared  for  the  press.  'He  died  in  1785.  His  fame  rests 
on  his  '^  Life  of  Philip,"  his  "Demosthepes,''  and  his  ^'Dis* 
aertation  upon  Eloquence.*'  The  ^^  Life  of  Philip,"  says 
an  eminent  living  scholar,  '<  contains  many  curious  re* 
searches  into  the  principles  of  government  established 
among  the  leading  states  of  Greece;  many  sagacious  re-- 
marks on  their  intestine  discords ;  many  exact  descriptions 
of  ^heir  most  celebrated  charaoters;  together  with  an  ex* 
tensive  and  correct  view  of  those  subtle  intrigues,  and  those 
ambitious  projects,  by  which  Philip,  at  a  favourable  crisis^. 


L  E  L  A  N  D.  159 

•  t  •  T 

gradually  obtained  an  unexampled  and  fatal  mastery  over 
the  Grecian  republics.  In  the  translation  of  **  Demo^* 
thenes/*  Leiand  unites  the  man  of  taste  and  the  man  of 
learning ;  and  shews  himself  to  have  possessed,  not  only 
a  competent  knowledge  of  the  Greek  language,  but  that 
clearness  in  bis  own  conceptions,  and  that  animation  in 
hb  feelings,  which  enabled  him  to  catch  the  real  meaning, 
imd  to  preserve  the  genuine  spirit  of  the  most  perfect 
orator  that  Athens  ever  produced.  Through  the  **  Disser- 
tation upon  Eloquence,^'  and  the  *^  Defence"  of  it,  we  see 
great  accuracy  of  erudition  ;  great  perspicuity  and  strength 
of  style;  and  above  all,  a  stoutness  of  judgment,  which, 
in  traversing  tbe^open  and  spacious  walks  of  literature,  dis- 
dained to  be  led  captive." ' 

Le  LONG.     See  LONG. 

LELY  (Sir  Peter),  a  most  capital  painter  of  the  reign 
of  Charles  IL  was  bom  at  Soest,  in  Westphalia,  in  1617. 
His  family  name  waa  Vander  Vaas ;  but  from  the  circum- 
stance bf  his  father,  who  was  a  captain  of  foot,  being  born 
in  a  perfumer's  shop,  whose  sign  was  a  lily,  and  receiving 
the  appeliatk)h  of  captain  Du  Lys,  or  Leiy,  our  artist  ob- 
tained it  as  a  proper  name.  He  was  first  instructed  in  the 
art  by  Peter  Grebber,  at  Haerlem ;  and  having  acquired  a 
very  considerable  degree  of  skill  in  execution,  he  came 
to  England  in  1641,  and  commenced  portrait-painter. 
After  the  restoration  he  was  appointed  state-painter  to 
Charles  II.  and  continued  to  hold  that  office  with  great  re- 
putation till  his  death,  which  happened  in  1680.  He  was 
seized  by  an  apoplexy  while  painting  a  portrait  of  the 
duchess  of  Somerset,  and  died  instantly,  at  the  age  of 
•ixty- three. 

Though  Leiy's  talents,  as  an  artist,  do  tiot  entitle  him 
to  bold  a  rank  equal  to  that  filled  by  his  great  predecessor, 
Vandyke,  yet  they  justly  claim  very  great  respect  and  ad- 
miration. He  fell  short  of  Vandyke  in  two  very  essential 
parts  of  portraiture,  viz.  taste  and  expression.  It  is  ia 
parts  only  that  he  wrought  with  taste  :  in  the  ringlets  of  the 
hair,  for  instance ;  seldom  in  the  actions  of  his  figures, 
and  scarcely  ever  in  the  tout- ensemble  of  his  pictures.  As 
to  the  expression  of  his  portraits,    it  is  almost  entirely 

1  Lif«  prefixed  to  his  «  Sermons."— Enrop.  Ma^^.  for  August  J799,r— Nichols't 
Bow jer.— Warburton's  Letters  to  Hurd. — BosweU's  Life  of  J^hnsoo* 


160  L  E  L  y. 

d^crib^d,  9,t  leas^  in  those  of  his  fipinales,  by  what  tb(?  poet 
h^  said,  th^t  he 

ie     ,        OQ  animated  canvas  stde 

The  sleepjr  eye  that  sppke  the  n^elting  soul," 

The  consequence  vis,  that  individual  expression,  the  vety 
(essence  of  poruait^painting,  is  lost  sight  of ;  and  a  certain 
air  of  general  resemblance  is  seen  in  them  ail.  Yet  Leiy'a 
pictures,  by  the  mastery  of  his  execution,  and  hjs  skill  q£ 
imitation,  where  he  pleased  to  employ  it,  will  ever  com- 
•jnand  admiration.  He  possessed  the  art  of  flattery  more 
than  most  aitists  ;  and  no  doubt  by  that  secured  the  appn>- 
liation  of  his  contemporaries,  and  consequently  great  prac- 
tice. He  acquired  a  very  considerable  fortune,  of  which 
he  employed  a  large  portion  to  furnish  himself  with  a  col« 
lection  of  pictures  and  drawings.  These,  at  kis  death, 
were  sold  by  auction,  and  were  sp  numerous,  that  forty 
days  were  consumedin  the  sale ;  and  the  product  amounted 
to  26,000/. ;  besides  which,  he  left  an  estate  he  had  pur- 
chased, of  900/.  per  annum.  Among  )m  niore  celebrated 
pictures  in  this  country,  are  the  series  of  beauties  at  Wind- 
sor ;  a  remarkable  picture  of  Charles  L  and  heads  of  the 
duke  of  York,  and  lady  Elizabeth,  at  Sion-bouse  ;  ^veial 
portraits  in  the  gallery  at  Altliorp ;  the  duke  of  Devon*- 
shire's,  lord  Pcmifiret's,  &c.  ^ 

LEMERY  (Nicolas),  a  celebrated  chemist,  was  born 
Nor.  17,  1645,  at  Rouen  in  Normandy,  of  which  pariia« 
ment  his  father  was  a  proctor,  and  of  the  reformed  reli- 
gion. Having  received  a  suitable  edpcajtion  at  the  place  of 
his  birth,  he  was  pi|t  apprentice  to  an  apothecary,  who  was 
a  relation ;  but,  finding  in  a  short  ^me  that  his  master 
knew  little  of  chemistry,  he  left  him  in  1666,  and  went  to 
improve  himself  in  that  art  at  P9m,  where  he  applied  to 
jMr.  Giazer,  then  demonstrator  of  chemistry  in  the  royoi 
gardens ;  but  as  Mr.  Giazer  was  one  pf  those  professors 
who  ^are  full  of  obscure  ideas,  and  was  also  fiar  from  being 
communicative,  Lemery  stayed  with  him  only  two  months,, 
and  thea  proceeded  to  travel  through  France  in  quest  of  some 
better  masters.  In  this  resolution  he  wen>t  to  Montpeiier,. 
where  he  continued  three  years  with  Mr.  Vernaut,  an  apothe- 
cary, whogavehinsi  an  oppartunijty  of  performing  several  che^ 
mical  operations,  and  of  reading  lectures  also  to  some  of 
his  scholars.     By  these  means  he  made  such  advances  iv^ 

*  Walpole'f  Anecdotei.— Dechamps  and  D'Argenville. — Piikington. 


L  E  M  E  R  Y.  l^i 

ifiiemistfy,  that  in  a  Iittl«  time  he  drew  alf  (he  ptott^soti 
of  physic^  as  well  as  other  curious  persons  at  Monfpeliet^ 
to  bear  him ;  having  alwtiyd  some  new  discoveries,  whrch 
raised  bis  reputation  so  high,  that  he  practised  physic  iii 
(hat  nmversity  without  a  doctor's  degree. 
'  .  In  1672,  baring  made  the  tour  of  France,  be  returki^d 
to  Paris,  where  be  commenced  an  acquaintance  with  Mf. 
Martyn,  aipothecary  to  monsieur  the  prince ;  and  mak- 
ing use  of  the  laboratory  which  this  apothecary  had  in  the 
hotel  de  Cond^,  he  performed  several  courses  of  chemistry^ 
Wiiich  brought  him  into  the  knowledge  and  esteem  of  the 
prince.  At  length  he  provided  himself  with  a  laboratory 
of  bid  own,  and  might  have  been  <nade  a  doctor  of  ph'ysic^ 
but  hi^  attachment  to  chemistry  induced  him  to  rietd^ain  an 
apothecary,  and  his  lectures  were  frequented  by  scr  great 
a  number  of  scholars,  that  he  bad  scarce  room  t6  penbrrii 
his'  operations.  Chemistry  was  then  coming  iritd  great 
irogue  in  that  metropolis ;  and  Lemery  contributed  greatly 
10  its  advancement,  by  treating  it  in  a  simple  aiid  perspi- 
cuous mi^nner,  divesting  it  of  the  jargon  of  mysticism  i^ 
which  it  bad  been  hitherto  obscured,  and,  by  the  dexterity 
tt  his  experiments,  exhibiting  the  facts  which  it  discloses 
to  the  comprehension  of  every  understanding.  !By  these 
means  be  established  such  a  character  for  superior  che- 
mical skill,  as  enabled  him  to  make  a  fortune  by  the  sale  of 
his  preparations,  which  were  in  great  request  both  in  Paris 
und  the  provinces.  One  article  in  particular  was  the  source 
of  great  profit,  namely,,  the  oxyd,or,  as  it  was  then  called, 
(he  magistery  of  bismuth,  and  known  as  a  cosmetic  by  the 
name  of  Spanish  white,  which  no  other  persoq  in  Paris 
knew  how  to  prepare.  In  1675  he  published  his  <^  Cours 
de  Chymie,*''  which  was  received  with  general  approbation 
imd  applause,  and  passed  through  numerous  editions :  in- 
deed seldom  has  a  work  on  a  subject  of  science  been  so  po- 
pular. It  sold,  says  Pont^nelle,  like  a  novel  or  a  satire;  new 
editions  followed  year  after  year ;  and  it  was  translated  into 
l.atin,  and  into  various  modern  languages.  Its  chief  value 
Consisted  in  the  clearness  and  accuracy  with  which  the  pro- 
cesses and  operations  were  detailed  :  the  science  was  not 
yet  sufficiently  advanced  for  a  rational  theory  of  them. 
Indexed  he  seems  to  have  worked  rather  with  the  view  of 
directing  apothecaries  how  to  multiply  their  preparations, 
than'  aS  a  pbilqsophical  chemist ;  and  his  materials  are  not 
arranged  in  the  most  favourable  manner  for  the  instruction 
Vol.  XX.  M 


162  L  E  M  E  R  Y. 

of  beginners  in  the  science.  Nor  did  he  divulge  tbe  wfaok^ 
of  bis  pharmaceutical  knowledge  in  this  treatise  ;  be  kep^ 
the  preparation  of  several  of  bis  chemical  remedies -secrety 
in  order  to  obtain  tbe  greater  profit  by  their  sale* 

In  1681  bis  tranquillity  began  to  be  disturbed  on  account 
of  bis  religion ;  and  he  received  orders  to  quit  his  employ. 
At  this  time  the  elector  of  Brandenburgh,  by  Mr.  Span** 
heim,  bis  envoy  in  France,  made  him  a  proposal  to  go  to 
Berlin,  with  a  promise  of  founding  a  professorship  in  .cher 
mistry' for  him  there;  but  tbe  trouble  of  transporting  his. 
family  to  such  a  distance,  added  to  the  hopes  of  some  ex- 
ception that  would  be  obtained  in  his  favour,  hindered  bim 
from  accepting  that  offer,  and  he  was  indulged  to  read 
some  courses  after  the  time  limited  ,by  the  order  was  ex« 
pired ;  but  at  length,  this  not  being  suffered,  he  came  to 
England  m  1683,  where  Charles  II.  gave  him  great  encou- 
jagement.  Yet,  as  .the  face  of  the  public  affairs  here  ap-* ' 
peared  not  more  promising  of  quiet  than  in  France,  be  re- 
solved, to  return  thither,  though  without  being  ^ble  to 
determine  what  course  he  should  then  take. 

In  this  dilemma,  imagining  that  tbe  title  of  doctor  of  . 
physic  might  procure  bim  some  tranquillity,  be  took  that 
degree  at  Caen  about  the  end  of  tbe  year;  and,  repair- 
ing to  Paris,  had  a  great  deal  of  business  for  a  while, 
Wt  the  edict  of  Nantz  being  revoked  in  1685,  he  was  for- 
bid to  practise  his  profession,  as  well  as  other  protest^nts^. 
He  read,  however,  two  courses  of  chemistry  afterwards,  . 
under  some  powerful  protections;  and  having  no  longer 
.courage  to  support  his  religious  principles,  entered  into 
the  Romish  church,  in  the  beginning  of  1686.  This  change  . 
procured  him  a  full  right  to  practise  phy^c,  and  haying 
obtained  xhe  kind's  letters  for  holding  his  course  of  che- 
tnisiry,  and  for  the  sale  of  his  medicines,  although  not  uo«f  : 
an  pipbtUecary,  what  with  his  pupils,  his  patients,  and  tbe  v 
sale  j6f  his  pbemical  secrets,  he  made  considerable  gaios^ 

UpoQ  the  revival  of  the, royal  academy  of  sciences,  in- 
1699,1)0  was  made  associate  chemist,  and  at  the  end  of 
the  y£8r  became  a  pensionary.     In  1707  be  began  to  feel  :. 
the  infirmities  of  age,,  and  had  a  slight  attack  of  apoplexy, : 
which   not  being  so  severe  as  to  hinder  bim  from  going  . 
abroad,  be  attended  tbe  academy  for  a  considerable  time, 
bttt.utjie.ngth  being  confined  to  bis  house,  he  resigned  his 
pensionary'^  place.     Another  stroke  of  apoplexy  in  1715, 
after  seven  days,  put  a  period  to  his  life  June  19^  >t  the 


age  of  seventy*  Hh  priocipal  works  are,  1.  The  '*  Couds 
de  Chymie^'  before  meotioned.  2.  f^  An  universal  Pbar->. 
maeopceia.''  3.  <<  Diet.  Uoirersel  des  Drogues  sifuples,'* 
a  very  useful  work.  4.  "  A  Treatise  of  Antituony  ;  con- 
taiuing  the  chemical  analysis  of  that  n)ineral/'  which  inn 
voiced  him  in  a  controversy  with  an  anonymous  critic,  ia 
which  he  was  not  very  successful.  ^ 

LEMERY  (Louis),  son  of  the  preceding,  w^a  bom-  at 
Paris  in  January  1677,  and  was  intended  for  the  profession 
of  the*  law;  but^  he  had  imbibed  from  the  pifirsuits  of  his 
father  so  great  a  taste  fon  those  sciences,  that  he  entered 
the  faculty  of  medicine  of  his  native  city,  and  received  the 
d^ree  of  doctor  in  1698.    Two  years  afterwards  he  wa9 
admitted  into  the  academy  of  sciences,  and  in  1708  he 
delivered  lectures  on  chemistry  in  the  royal  garden.     In 
171.0  be  was  appointed  physician  to  the  Hotel-Dieu,  a  post 
which  he  occupied  during  the  remainder  of  his  life.    In 
J17 12  be  obtained  the  rank  of  associate  in  the  academy,  and 
succeeded  his  father  as  pensionary  in  1715.    He  purchased 
the  oj£ce  of  king's  physician  in  1722  ;  and  in  that  capacity 
he  accompanied  the  infanta  of  Spain  on  her  return  from 
France,  whither  she  had  gone  with  the  view  of  being  mar- 
ried to  Xouis  XV.     Soon  after  his  return  to  Paris  he  was 
honoured  by  the  queen  of  Spain  with  the  title  of  her  con- 
sulting physician.     In  1731  he  was  appointed  professor  of 
chemistry  in  the  royal  garden,  in  the  place  of  Gboffroy. 
At'a  subsequent  period  he  became  particularly  attached  to 
the  establishment  of  the  duchess  of  Brunswick,  whom  he 
frequently  visited  in  the  palace  of  Luxembourg ;  and  he 
Jikewise  obtained  the  patronage  of  the  princess  of  Contt, 
in  whose  hotel  he  regularly  passed  a  part  of  every  day,  and 
there  composed  several  of  the  chemical  papers  which  he 
read  before  the  academy  of  sciences.    These  papers  treat ' 
of  the  subjects  of  iron,  of  nitre,  and  some  other  salts,  of 
vegetable  and  animal  analyses,  of  the  origin  and  formatioa 
of  monsters,  &c.     He  died  on  June  9,  1743,  and  the  loss 
of  him  was  much  regretted ;  for  to  the  mild  and  polished 
manners  of  the  gentleman,  he  united  great  sincerity  and 
constancy  in  his  attachments,  and  sentiments  of  liberality 
jand  generosity  in  all  bis  proceedings. 

In  addition  to  the  papers  published  in  the  Memoirs  of 
the  academy^  he  left  the  following  works :  I.  '*  Trait6  des 

^  ^kms,  Tols,  JhT.  and  X.— Morcri..— llMi't  Cycloptiduu 

M  2 


ie4  LtU  fe  Ry.  " 

*HtMns,*»  Pafisj  iVC^^  #Hkh  wis  frequency  i*|>ife£ed, 
and  greatly  augmented  by  Bfuhierj  Jnf  theeditibti  of  lr755, 
2  tols;  l^mo.  2.  "  DMseftatibn  sur  te  Noutritiirt  dCi  Os,**  ' 
Parity '  1704,  12tno:  He  Kkev^ise  publtshed  thre^  letters 
Cti  the  generatidn  of  trorms  in^  the  buthiltv  body,  in  oppo- 
sition to  this  trtfatr^  of  Anrdrj)  \tith  iVtiom  a  nharp  contro- 
versy was  carried  on  upon  this  topic.  * 

LE  MOINE.     9ee  MOINE. 

JLEMONNIER.     See  MONNIEtt. 

LEM'OS  (Thomas  dk),  a  cetebrated  Spanish  Dominican/ 
^sis  born  abont  155€^,  of  &n  illuilHou^  fnnily  at  Rivadavia, 
in  Gallicia.  He  defended  s6  forcibly  the  doctrine  of  thd 
Thorn  ists,  on  grace,  in  opposition  to  the  opit^torts  of  Mb- 
lina,  that  he  was  sent  with  Alvarez,  by  the  general  chap- 
ter of  his  order,  held  at  Naples,  1600,  to  support  this  doc- 
trine against  the  Jesuits  at  Rome,  and  excited  the  famous' 
disputes  held  in  the  congregations  de  AuxiKit,  assembled 
in  that  city  under  pope  Clement  VIII.  and  Paul  V.  iti 
<^hich  he  had  the  principal  part.  This  made  him  so  cete- 
brated,  that  the  king  of  Spain  offered  him  a  bishopric ;  but 
he  refnsed  it^  being  contented  With  a  p<inidbn^  and  dl^  ai 
Rottie,  August  23,  162&,  aged  eighty-four,  in  the  conf ebt 
de  la  Minervfe.  He  tost  his  sight  three  yeart  before. 
'  Many  of  his  writings  on  the  subject  6f  gi-ace  rettiairt,  com- 
posed' during  th6  congregation  de  Auxiiiis  j  artJ  li  very 
minute  journal  of  What  passed  there,  printed  at  Rh^ms, 
tinder  the  nate6  of  Louvaiu,  1702,  fol.  He  also  coibpited 
a  large  work,  (etititlted  ,"  Panofpfia  Gratias,**  ^  vols,  fbl, 
printed  at  Beziers-,  tmder  the  naitie  of  Lerge,  lelQ.'* 

LENT  ANT  (James),  a  learned  Ertnch  writfer  Itf  tfttt 
^iglitteehth  century,  was  bohl  at  Ba«dch6?,  iti  Beausse, 
April  1  ?,  1 6  6 1 ;  He  was  son  of  Piul  Litifarjt,  totri?ster  at 
ChatiHoti^  who  died  at  MaAotfrg,  ifi  Jime  1686.  He  Sttidted 
divrrt?tjr  at  Satinrtir,  wh^«  he  Ibdged  at  thetiouse  Of 'Jibed 
Cappel,  profe^or  of  Hebrew,  by  ^hottt  he  was  alwayi 
highly  esteemed ;  and  afterwards  went  to  ©feneva,  to  con- 
tinue hife  studies  there.  Leading  Genevk  toward^  the  fend 
of  1683,  be  went  to  Heidelberg,  where  he  Wte  drdafned 
in  Atign^t,  1684.  He  discharged  the  duties  of  his  fhnetioil 
there  witU  great.  i;eptitation  as  eliapl^m  of  tb'i^ ^tecttes^ 
dow^^  of  Palatine,  and  {iaStor  in*  otdlnai^y  te  the  IfreAch 
chnrdi.    The-deiScent  of  the  EIrettch  itltd  th^  Pklatfnate, 

•  JStore^l-^i^eiH  CycTo|>tedla.  «  Morer}.— Diet  fiist. 


L  E  N  F  A  N  T.  «f 

boi^reTiec^  obliged  bim  io  dep^(  fjxupi  Heiilelbei;g  in  168$. 
Two  letters  wbicb  be  bad  written  f gainst  ^ha  ^^^uits,  anfl 
wbich  are  in3erted  at  tbe  (end  of  ^is  "  Presfirvi^uf,"  ren- 
det^ed  1%  soinewbat  hazardous  to  copiinue  .at  i^^  mercjr  of 
a  sQ(;i{ety  whQse  pQwer  w^  then  io  its  p^pitfide*  ^e  Jl^ft 
the  Palatinate,  therefore,  in  Octpbpr  1.683*  with  the  conr 
tent  f){  his  church  and  superior^,  and  arrived. at  Berliri  ip. 
Kovember  following.  Tbongb  the  Fc^ch  cbiirch  of  Ber?- 
lin  bad  alre^y  a  sufficient  nuniber  of  minist^r%  the  ^lectof 
Frederic,  afterivards  king  of  Prussia,  appointed  IVIr.  I^enr 
jfai^t  9ue  of  tbei%  w1;i,q  began  bis  functions  on  Easter-d^ay, 
March  the  ^]l«ty  lj689,  and  continued  t^m  t^irtjr-fiinp  , 
yf^^xs  and  j(6ur  ^Qnt|)«y  and  during  thi^  time  j^dded  greatly 
to  bis^  reputation  by  \f}f  writings.  His  merit  wa#  so  fvlly 
ackqoY^dedgf^d,  as  to  be  rewarded  with  eve^y  mark  of  d^* 
tu^ction  suitable  to  hi^  profession.  He  w^  prefchiepr.tQ  t^e 
qt^een  of  ,Prns^^.  CharlpjbtaT Sophia,  who  wu»  eminent  for 
Aex^  senjse  a^d  exten^nre  knowledge,  and  after  her  death  he 
became  chaplain  to  the  king  of  Prussia.  lie  w^s  cou^- 
l^ellor.of  the  siuperior  copsistory,  and  member  of  th^  French 
cQjancil,  ^hiph  w^i;e  form^  to  direct  the  general  fi,ffairs  of 
that  nation.  Iq  1710  he  yviis  c^osep  a  member  of  the  so<- 
piety  for  propagating  ^e  gospel  established  in  England  j 
^\kd  A{arch  the  Sd,  1724»  was  elept^d  member  of  the  ^^^' 
de^y  of  sciences  at  B/^rlin.  in  1707  he  took  a  journey  to 
Qolland  and  Enghmd,  where  he  bad  the  h^nonr  to  preach 
before  queen  Anne ;  and  if  he  bad  thougJit  proper  to  leave 
)}i,s  chnrcb  at  Berlin,  for  which  he  bad  a  great  respect,  he 
^migbt  haye  had  a  settlemeijLt  at  JUmdon,  ^witih  the  rank  of 
(ch^lainto  her  majesty.  In  1712,  he  went  to  Helmstad; 
10  1715  to  Leipsic;  and  ^  172^$^  tp  3re$Ja,w,  to  searcii 
foff  rare  books  an,d  mj^ru^s^ipts  i)€;cf»i^i»aqr  ^ot  the  biscocie^ 
vfhif^  be  w^  writing..  Jp  tpp^  pjicnrh^f^^  he  was  ho- 
j^r^d.  iji^jith  several  Valiffjbk  materials  frpni  the  elec tress 
pj^.Br,u9^wic-Ljjin^ufj|^  pr^icess  Pala^ne;  the  prinee^ 
pf  >Valp^,  aftertfardr  Cf^o|ine  qneeii  of  ^reat  J^riit^in-; 
the  coi^nt  ie  Fleming;  4dw^  Pagn^s^au,  obaoQellorof 
|';t^^c/9  i  ffjfA  a  gref^t,  nnqaber  of  Iw^nH  men,  boih  FOr 
t/^i)^  iaitd  p^p^„aipQng4J}e  l^ter  of  wbpm  tyas  the  Abb^ 

^%W-r  u^^  i?4io);  pf;c^i^.  i^^et^er  b§  ftcat.fqrmed  ihe  4er 
j^^  '^  ,tbe  "  BvbJiio^^que  ,f^eri|ianinsLefeV  wi^eh  ^  begpn 
^p.l^^O ;  qr.  whetl>er  jf.  w^»  fuggfasfted ^o  him  hy  one  of  *he 
abci^^y  of  learn^ed  nien,  which  to^k  th^  ,name,  of  Anopyr 
mpus ;  but  tiiey  ordvaarily  inet  at  hi^  'hou^e,  find  tiei  wa^  9^ 


166 


L  E  N  F  A  N  1*. 


freqaent-cbtitribiitor  to  that  journal.  When  the  king  of 
■"Poland  was  at  Beilin,  in  the  end  of  May  and  beginning  6f 
Jutie  1728; 'Mr.  Lenfant,  we  are  told,  dreatnt  that  he  was 
ordered  to  preach.  He  excused  himself  that  he  was  not 
prepared ;  and  not  knowing  what  subject  he  should  pitch 
tip6n,  was  directed  to  preach  upon  these  words,  Isaiah 
xxxviii  1.  "  Set  thine  house  in  order,  for  thou  shalt  die, 
and  not  live."  He  related  this  dream  to  some  of  his 
fViends,  and  although  not  a  credulous  man,  it  is  thought 
to  have  made  some  impression  'on' him,  for  he  applied  with 
additional  vigour  to  finish  h\i  *^  History  of  the  War  of  the 
Hdishes  and 'the  Council  of  Basil.^'  On  Sunday  July  the 
25th  following,  he  had  preached  in  his  turn  at  hiis  church ; 
biSit  on  Thursday,  July  the  29'th,  he  had  a  slight  attadk 
of  the  palsy,  which  was  followed  by  one  more  violent,  of 
which  be  died  on  the  7th  of  the  next  month,  in.  his  sixty- 
eigfith  year.  He  was  interred  at  Berlin,  at  the  foot  of  the  pul- 
pit of  the  French  church,  where  he  ordinarily  preached  since 
1715,  'When  his  Prussian  majesty  appointed  particular  mi- 
Disters  to  every  church,*  which  before  were  served  by  the 
same  ministers  in  their  turnd.  His  stature  was  a  little  be- 
low the  common  height.  His  eye  wks  very  lively  and  pe- 
netrating. He  did  not  talk  much,  but  always  well.  When- 
lever  any  dispute  arose  in  conversation^  he  spoke  Without 
any  heat;  a  proper  and  delicate  irony  was  the  only  weapon 
be  made  use  of  on  such  occasions.  *  He  loved  company, 
and  passed  but  few  days  without  seeing  some  of  his  frienck. 
He  was  a  sincere  friend,  and  remarkable  for  a  disinterested 
and  generous  disposition.  In  preaching,  his  voice  was 
good ;  his  pronunciation  distinct  and  varied ;  his  style 
clear,  grave,  atid  elegant  without  affectation ;  and  he  en- 
tered into  the  true  sense  of  a  text  with  great  force.  His 
-publications  were  numerous  in  divinity,  ecclesiastical  his- 
tory, ctiticism,  and  polite  literature.  Those  which  itfe 
held  inf  the  highest  estimation,  are  his  Histories  of  the 
Councils  of  Pisa,  Constance,  and  Basils  each  in  2"  vols. 
4to.  These  ai^e  written  with  great  ability  and  impartiality, 
and  they  abound  with  interesting  facts  and  curious  re- 
searches. Lenfant,  in  Conjunction  virith  M.  Beausclbre, 
published  **  The  New  Testament',  translated  from  the  ori- 
ginal Greek  into  Fl^nchi^*  in  2  vols.  4to,  with  notes,  and 
a  general  preface,  or  introduction  to  the  reading  of  the 
Holy  Scriptures,. useful  for  students  in  divinity.  'He Ms 
known  also  by  his  "  De  iuquirenda  Veritate/*  which  is  a 


L  E  N  F  A  N  T.  167 

Craiislation  of  Malebrancbe's  "  Search  after  Truth ;" 
**  ThiB  History  of  Pope  Joan ;"  "  Poggiana ;  or,  the  life, 
character/  opinions,  &€.  of  Poggio  the  Florentine,  with 
the  History  of  the  Republic  of  Florence,'*  and  the  above-' 
fiieniioned  "  History  of  the  Wars  of  the  Hussites,"  Utrecht, 
J  731,  2  vols,  in  4to,  dedicated  by  his  widow  to  the  prince 
Toyal  of  Prussia.  This  was  the  last  work  in  which  our 
author  was  engaged.  He  had  revised  the  copy  of  the  first 
volume,  and  was  reading  over  that  of  the  second,  when  he 
was  seized  with  the  apoplexy..  But  for  this  it  appears  to' 
have  been  his  intention  to  continue  his  History  to  about 
1^60..  To  this  History  is  added  monsieur  Beausobre^s 
**  Dissertation  upon  the  Adamites  of  Bohemia."" ' 

LENG  (John),  a  learned  English  prelate,  was  born  at 
Norwich  in  1665,  and  educated  at  St.  Paul's  school,  Lon- 
don, whence  be  removed  to  Catherine-hall,  Cambridge; 
and  took  his  degrees  of  A. B.  in  1686,  A.M.  1690,  and 
B.  D.  1698.'  He  was,  in  1708,  presented  to  the  rectory  of 
Beddington  in  Surrey,  by  sir  Nicholas  Carew,  bart.  who 
-bad  been  his  pupil ;  and  he  was  appointed  chaplain  to  king 
George  I.  who  also  promoted  him  to  the  see  of  Norwich 
in  1723.  He  died  Oct.  26,  1727,  of  the  small-pox,  which 
be  caught  at  the  coronation  of  George  II.  He  lies  buriefl 
in  the  church  of  St.  Margaret,  Westminster,  where  is  a 
monument  to  bis  memory.  Richardson,  in  his  continuation 
of  Godwin,  calls  him  a  man  of  the  first-rate  genius  and 
abilities.  In  1695,  he  published  two  of  the  comedies  of 
Aristophanes,  the  "  Plutus'*  and  "  Nubes,"  Gr.  &  Lat. 
.8vo,  with  notes;  and  in  1719  preached  the  sermbns  at 
Boyle^s  lecture,  which  are  printed,  as  are  a  set  of  his  ser* 
inoRs  preached  at  Tunbridge,  and  a  few  others  upon  occa- 
liional  subjects.  He  was  editor  also  of  one  of  the  most 
magnificent  and  correct  editions  of  '^Terence,"  that  printed 
at  Cambridge  in  1701,  4to.  For  this  he  consulted  thirteen 
manuscripts,  and  many  ancient  editions,  and  enriched  the 

,  work  with  critical  notes,  and  a  dissertation  '^  De  ration'e 
«t  licentia  metri  Terentiani."  It  was  reprinted  at  Cam- 
bridge, in  octavo,  1701  and  1723,  Which  last  Dr.  Harwood 
thinks  the  best  editon.  Dr.  Leng  coinrect^d  and  revisecl 
the  sixth  edition  of  sir  Roger  L'Estrange^s  traiislation  of 

;  Cicero  de  Officiis,  an  employment  which  we  are  surprized 
he  should  have  undertaken,  who  could  with  more  ease  and 

.  elegance  have  given  a  new  one.* 

'  ^  Bibl.  Gemuuuque,  vol.  XVL  «od  XXI.-^Niceron,  vols.  IX.  and  X««-*GeQ* 
Diet*  I  Nichols^!  Bowyer.^Lysuns's  £iirirons. 


170  L  E  N  G  L  E  TV 

having  dined  with  his  sister,  be  fell  asleep,  while  reading  a 
new  book  which  had  been  sent  him,  and  fell  into  the  fire. 
The  neighbours  went  to  his  assistance,  but  too  Itite,  his  head 
being  almost  entirely  burnt.  He  had  attained  the  *  age  of 
eighty-two.  The  abb€  Lenglet^s  works  are  numerous ;  their 
subjects  extremely  various,  and  many  of  them  very  extrava-* 
gant.  Those  which  are  most  likely  to  live  are  his,  •'  M^-?- 
thode  pour  6tudier  THistoire,  avec  un  Catalogue  des  prin-» 
cipaux  Historiens,**  12  vols. ;  "  M^thode  pour  6tudier  la 
G^ographie,"  .  with  maps ;  **^  Histoire  de  la  Philosophic 
Hermetique,"  and  "  Tablettes  Chronologiques  de  THis* 
toire  Universelle,*'  1744,  two  vols.  An  enlarged  edition 
of  this  work  was  published  in  1777.  His  "  Chronological 
Tables"  were  published  in  English,  in  Svo.  It  is  a  work  of 
great  accuracy,  and  of  some  whim,  for  he  lays  down  ^ 
calculation  according  to  which  a  reader  may  go  uirough  an 
entire  coarse  of  universal  history,  sacred  and  profane^  in 
the  space  of  ten  years  and  six  months  at  the  rate  of  six 
hours  per  day,  * 

LENNARD  (Sampson),  an  English  writer,  was  related 
to  Sampsoii  Lennard,  who  married  Margaret  baronet 
Dacre,  and  of  whom  honourable  mention  is  made  in  Cam- 
den\s  Britannia.  In  early  Ufe  he  followed  the  profession  of 
arms,  and  was  attached  to  sir  Philip  Sidney,  with  whom 
he  fought  at  the  battle  of  Zutphen.  He  was  afterwards 
distinguished  as  a  man  of  letters,  and  published  various 
translations  from,  the  Latin  and  French,  particularly  Pe^ 
rin's  "  History  of  the  Waldenses;'*  Du  Plessis  Momay^s 
"  History  of  Papacie  ;'*  and  Cbarron  **  On  Wisdom."-  Uf 
was  of  some  note  as  a  topographer,  and  of  considerable 
eminence  as  a  herald,  having  been,  in  the  latter  part  df 
his  life,  a  member  of  the  college  of  arms.  Some  of  his 
heraldical  compilations,  which  are  justly  esteemed,  (see 
**  Catalogue  of  the  Harleian  MSS.")  are  among  the  manc»- 
scripts  in  the  British  Museum.  He  died  in  August  1689, 
and  was  buried  at  St.  Bennetts,  Paul's  Wharf.  Mr!  Gran- 
ger received  this  brief  memoir  of  Lennard,  from  Thomas 
the  late  lord  Dacre.* 

LENNOX  (Charlotte),  a  lady  long  distinguished  for 
her  genius  and  literary  merit,  and  highly  respected  by 
Johnson  and  Richardson,  was  born  in  17^0.  Her  father, 
colonel  James  Ramsay,  was  a  field-officer,  and  lieutenant* 

.  ^  Moreri.— Diet.  Hiat.-^NicerQi),  toU  XVII*  ia  art.  Dofresnojs 
•  Granger,— Noble's  College  of  Ar'ins, 


LENNOX, 


171 


governor  of  New- York,  who  sent  her  over,  at  the  age  of 
fifteen,  to  England,  to  an  opulent  aunt,  but  whom,  on  her 
arrtvai,  she  found  incurably  insane.  The  father  died  soon 
after,  leaving  his  widow  (who  died  at  New  York  in  Aug', 
1765),  and  thij  daughter,  without  any  provision.  Who 
Mr.  Lennox  was,  or  when  she  married,  we  have  not  been 
able  to  learn,  and,  indeed,  very  little  is  known  of  her 
early  history  t>y  her  few  surviving  friends,  who  became  ac- 
quainted with  her  only  in  her  latter  days.  We  are  told, 
riiat  fi*om  the  death  of  her  father  she  supported  herself 
by  her  literary  talents,  which  she  always  employed  use* 
fully.  * 

She  published,  in  1751,  "The  Memoirs  of  Harriot 
fittiart,''  andj  in  1752,  <*  The  Female  Quixote.**  In  the 
latter  of  these  novels,  the  character  of  Arabella  is  the 
counter-part  of  Don  Quixote;  and  the  work  was  veiy 
favourably  received.  Dr.  Johnson  wrote  the  dedication  to 
the  earl  of  Middlesex.  In  the  following  year  she  published 
"  Shakespeare  illustrated,"  in  2  vols.  12rao,  to  which  she 
afterwards  added  a  third.  This  work  consists  of  the  novels 
and  histories  on  which  the  plays  of  Shakspeare  are  founded^ 
collected  and  translated  ft'om  the  original  authors  :  to  which 
are  added  critical  notes,  censuring  the  liberties  which 
Shakspeare  has  generally  taken  with  the  stories  on  which 
his  plays  are  founded.  In  1756,  Mrs.  Lennox  published, 
^'  The.  Memoirs  of  the  Couiitess  of  Berci,  taken  from  the 
French,"  2  vols.  12mo;  and,  **  Sully's  Memoirs/'  trans- 
llited,  3  vols.  4to ;  which  have  since  been  frequently  re- 
printed in  8vo,  and  are  executed  with  no  small  ability* 
In  1757,  she  translated  ^^  The  Memoirs  of  Madame  Main- 
tenon."  In  1758,  she  produced  **  Philander,  a  Dramatic 
Pastoral,"  and  ^*  Henrietta,"  a  novel  of  considerable  merit, 
2  vols.  12mo;  and,  in  1760,  with  the  assistance  of  the 
earl  of  Cork  and  Orrery,  and  Dr.  Johnson,  she  publish- 
ed a  translation  of  "  Father  Brumoy*s  Greek  Theatre,*'  3 
vols.  4to ;  the  merit  of  which  varies  materially  in  different 
fmrts  Y>f  the  work.  In  1760-1,  she  published  a  kind  of 
Magazine,  under  the  name  of  the  **  Ladies  Museum/* 
which'  extended  to  two  volumes,  octavo,  and  seems  to  have 
been  rather  an  undertaking  of  necessity  than  choice.  Two 
years  after,  she  published  *^  Sophia,  a  Novel,"  2  vols. 
]2mo,  which  is  inferior  to  her.  earlier  performances;  and, 
after  an  interval  of  seven  years,  she  brought  out,  at  Co^ 
vent-garden  theatre,    "The  Sisters,  a  Comedy,"   taken 


17^  L  E  N  N  O  3f . 

from  her  navjel  of  Henrietta,  which  w^s  concLemned  on  th^ 
fir»t  night  of  its  appearance.  In  1773,  she  furnished  Druryi- 
jlane  theatre  with  a  cooiecly,  entitled,  ^^  Old  City  Maix* 
i^eri.''  Her  last  perfornaance,  not  inferior  to  any  of  bp[r 
former  in  that  species  of  composition,  was  ^*  Eophemia,  a 
Kovel,  17yo,"  4  vols.  12mo.  lo  1775,  we  find  Dr.  John- 
^n  assisting  her  in  drawing  up  proposals  for  an  edition  gf 
her  work9>  in  3  voU.  4to ;  but  it  doefs  Aoi  appear  to  hav^ 
b«en  published.  Dr.  Johnson  had  such  an  opinion  of  Mr^ 
^iinox  that,  on  one  occasion,  not  Ipng  before  hb  death, 
})^  went  so  far  as  to  pronounce  her  superior  to  Mrs.  Car^ 
ter,  miss  Hannah  Moore,  and  miss  Burney.  Sir  Jobi^ 
Hawkins  has  given  a  ludicrous  a^Goni^t  of  the  4octorU  ce- 
lebration of  the  bi^th  of  Mrs.  Lennox's  lir^  lite|rary  chiM^ 
**  The  Life  of  Harriot  Stjuart.''  This,  however,  was  cer* 
iaij^y  not  her  first  pcoductipn^  for  in  174,7,  she  published 
*^  Poems  on  several  occasions/*  printed  for  S^un.  PatersoiK 
(She  was  then  Miss  liarosay. 

It  is  to  be  regretted,  that  the  latter  days  of  this  ingeoiowr 
lady  were  clouded  by  penury  and  sickness;  calamities  whie)^ 
were  in  a  considerable  degree  alleviated  by  the  kindness  of 
^me  friends,  who  revered  alike  her  literary  and  her  mora) 
fcbarajct^r.  Among  thesfs  it  would  be  unjust  not  to  mentioQ 
^fae  naootes  of  the  rifht  bon.  Cneorge  Rose,  and  ttie  rev.  W. 
Beloe.  3ut  the  most  effectual  aid  s«he  received  was  frogs 
The  Literary  Fund  society,  in  consequence  of  which  her 
pnly  «on  was,  a  few  years  since,  enabled  to  fit  himself  ou^ 
for  an  employm.ent  in  the  Anglo* Anjteriean  States ;  and  from 
the  same  source  the  means  of  decient  subsistence  were,  for 
the  kist  twelvenionth  of  her  life^  afforded  to  the  mother,  i^h^ 
died  Jan.  4,  1804.^ 

LEO  L  (St.)  ^urnfu;n(&d  THE  GREAT,  axloctor  of  the  churcfai, 
and  ode  of  the  niosjt  en^inent  popes  who  have  filled  the  Ro- 
laan^see,  was  born  iin  Tuscany,  or  rather  at  Roi^e.  flemad^ 
Ibimself  very  useful  ;,o  the  cbuurch  under  pope  St.  Cel^s^it^i^ 
and  Sixtus  IIL  and  was  concerned  iu  all  importaiit  .affipirii 
fvhiie  kmi  a  cleacpn.  The  Roman  pl^rgy  recalled  hi^  froi^ 
Gaul,  wbiiherfae  was  gocve  ILo  reconcile  Al^biiiu^  and  jEetiujs^* 
gf^raU  of  the  army,  and  raised  hi^  to  the  papal  ^:^r  SepiU 
jl>440.  He^i>^eaii>e4^tbe  Mj^nichQanai  ip^iCQuncll  h^d ji^ 
S^oqae  in  tbe  j^ar  444,  ^^4  *c<^£^lete}y  e^tirp^at^d  the  rer 
p^ips  ^  .^h^  F^^^au  biei^y  in  My :  **  Let  ji^ose  P^b^gi- 
-..■••  .        . 

1  Kicl^d^'8'$owye)r. — Boswell's  and  HawKios's  Ufe  of  Johnson.— -•Biographka  1 


LEO.  17$ 

itw/'  ^A  he,  **  who  return  to  the  church,  declare  by  a  csleat 
and  public  profession,  that  they  condemn  the  authors  of  their 
htteajf  that  they  detest  that  part  of  their  doctrine  whi<!:h 
the  universal  church  has  beheld  with  horror,  and  that  they 
receive  all  such  decrees  of  the  councils  as  have  been  passed 
for  eiterminating  the  Pelagian  heresy,  and  are  confirmed 
by  the  authority  of  the  apostolical  see,  acknowledging  by 
k  clear  and  full  declaration,  signed  by  their  hand,  that  tbt^y 
admit  these  decrees,  and  approve  them  in  every  thing.** 
Leo  ilso  condetnned  the  Priscillianists,  and  annulled  all 
the  proceedings  in   the  council  of  Ephesus,    which  Wa4 
called  "  the  band  of  Ephestan  robbers,"  in  the  year  44f . 
He  presided  by  his  legates  at  the  general  council  of  Cbal- 
eedon,  in  the  year  451,  but  opposed  the  canon  made  ther^ 
ih  favonr  of  the  church  of  Constantinople,,  which  gave  it 
the  second  rank,  to  the  prejudice  of  that  at  Alexandriil. 
The  letter  which  Leo  had  written  to  Fiavianus  on  the  niy^- 
tery  of  the  Incarnation,  was  received  with  acclamations  in 
this  council,  and  the  errors  of  Eutyches  and  Dioscorus 
condemned.    The  following  year  he  went  to  mteet  Attila; 
king  of  the  Huns,  who  was  advancing  to  Rome,  and  ad- 
dressed him  with  so  much  eloquence  that  he  was  prevailed 
tep6n  to  returt)  home.     Genseric  having  taken  Rome,  iti 
t^  year  455,  Leo  obtained  from  that  barbarous  prince,  that 
his  soldiers  should  liot  set  fire  to  the  city,  ana  saved  the 
three  gtand  chutches  (which  Const^ntine  had  enricbed  with 
fiiagnificettt  gifts)  flroui  being  plundered.     He  was  a  strict 
ebseryer  of  ecctesiastic^l  discipline.  He  died  November  3^ 
in  the  year  461,  at  Rome.    Never  has  the  Romish  church 
appeaiied  with  more  true  grandeur,  or  less  pomp,  than  iu 
this  pontiff's  time ;  no  pope  was  ever  more  honoured,  es- 
teem^, and  respected ;  no  pope  ever  displayed  more  hu« 
iliiiity,  wisdom,  mildness,  and  charity.  Leo  left  ninety -six 
•  Settnotts,"  on  the  principal  festivals  throughout  the  year, 
Md  one  hundred  and   forty-one  Letter^,  which  may  bd 
Ibtfnd  in  tfce  library  of  the  fathers.     The  best  edition  ot 
his  w^o^ks  is  that  by  Pei'e  Queshel,  Lyons,  1700,  fol.   They 
f  Iiav%  wen  printed  at  Rome,  by  father  Cacciaci,  3  vols. 
fbl.  >nd  at-Venice,  by  Messns.  Ballarimi,  ^  vols,  fol.;  but 
Atts^  editions  have  not  souk  the  credit  of  QuesnePs.     P. 
Maifnbourg  has  vnritten  a  history  of  his  pontificate,  4to,  or 

LEO'X.  Was  a  pontiff  whose  history  is  so  connected  with 
^t  ^  literature  and  the  reformation,  that  more  notice 

t  Cave,  ToK  I.— Milner's  Church  Hist.  toI.  II.  p.  539.— Diet.  Hist. 


174  L  E  O. 

'  of  him  becomes  necessary  than  we  usually  allot  to  tub; 
brethren^  although  scarce  any  abridgment  of  his  life  will 
be  thought  satisfactory,  after  the  very  luminous  and  in-^ 
teresting  work  of  Mr.  Roscoe.  Leo  was  born  at  Florence 
in  December  1475,  the  second  son  of  Lorenzo  de  Medici, 
the  Magnificent,  and  was  christened  John.  Being  ori- 
ginally destined  by  his  father  for  the  church,  he  was  pro- 
moted before  he  knew  what  it  meant,  received  the  tonsure 
at  the  age  of  seven  years,  two  rich  abbacies,  and  before 
be  ceased  to  be  a  boy,  received  other  preferments  t6  the 
number  of  twenty-nine,  and  thus  early  imbibed  a  taste  for: 
aggrandizement  which  never  left  him.  Upon  the  acces- 
sion of  Innocent  VIIL  to  the  pontificate,  John,  then  thirf 
teen  years  of  age  only,  was  nominated  to  the  dignity  of 
cardinal;  Having  now  secured  his  promotion,  his  fadier 
began  to  think  of  his  education,  and  when  he  was  nomi- 
nated to  the  cardinalate,  it  wsis  made  a  condition  that  he 
should  spend  three  years  at  the  university  of  Pisa,  in  pro^ 
fessional  studies,  before  he  was  invested  formally  with  the 
purple.  In  1492  this  solemn  act  took  place,  and  heim-.. 
mediately  went  to  reside  at  Rome  as  one  of  the  sacrfd 
college.  His  father  soon  after  died,  and  was  succeeded 
in  his  honours  in  the  Florentine  republic  by  his  eldest  s<^ 
'Peter.  The  young  cardinal's  opposition  to  the  election  of 
pope  Alexander  VI.  rendered  it  expedient  for  him  to  with- 
draw to  Florence,  and  at  the  invasion  of  Italy  by  Cbarlesr 
VIII.  he  and  the  whole  family  were,  obliged  to  take  refuge 
in  Bologna.  About  1500  he  again  fixed  his  residence  at 
Home,  where  he  resided  during  the  remainder  of  Alexan- 
der's pontificate,  and  likewise  in  the  early  part  of  that  p£ 
Julius  n.  cultivating  polite  literature,  and  the  pleasures  o£ 
elegant  society,  and  indulging  his  taste  for  the  fine  arts^ 
for  music,  and  the  chase,  to  which  latter  amusement  he 
was  much  addicted.  In  1 505  he  began  to  take  an  .active 
part  in  public  affairs,  and  was  appointed  by  Julius  to  the 
government  of  Perugia.  By  his  firm  adherence  to  the 
interest  of  the  pope,  the  cardinal  acquired  the  most  un- 
limited confidence  of  his  holiness,  and  was  entrusted  with 
the  supreme  direction  of  the  papal  army  in  the  Holj 
League  against  the  French  in  1511,  with  the  title  of  le- 
gate of  Bologna.  At  the  bloody  battle  of  Ravenna,  in 
1512,  be  was  made  prisoner,  and  was  conveyed  to  Milang 
but  afterwards  effected  his  escape.  About  this  time  be 
contributed  to  the  restoration  of  his  family  at  Floren^,  by 
overthrowing  the  popular  constitution  of  that  republic> 


LEO.  17« 

And  there  he  remained  ontil  the  death  of  Julius  IL  in  1513^ 
when  he  was  elected  pope  in  his  stead,  in  the  thirty-eighth 
^ear  of  his  age.  *  He  assumed  the  name  of  Leo  X.  and 
ascended  the  throne  with  greater  manifestations  of  good- 
will, both  from  Italians  and  foreigners,  than  most  of  his 
predecessors  had  enjoyed.  One  of  his  first  acts  was  to  in- 
terpose in  favour  of  some  conspirators  against  the  house  of 
M'edic],  at  Florence,  and  he  treated  with  great  kindness 
the  family  of  Sodorini,  which  bad  long  been  at  the  head 
of  the  opposite  party  in  that  republic*  He  exhibited  bis 
taste  for  literature  by  the  appointment  of  two  of  the  most 
elegant  scholars  of  the  age,  Bembo  and  Sadoleti,  to  the 
€>ffice  of  papal  secretaries.  With  regard  to  foreign  politics, 
h^  pursued  the  system  of  his  predecessor,  in  attempting 
to^  free  Italy  from  the  dominion  of  foreign  powers :  and 
in  order  to  counteract  the  antipapal  council  of  Pisa,  which 
wa's  assembled  at  Lyons,  he  renewed  the  meetings  of 
the  council  of  Lateran,  which  Julius  II.  had  begun,  and 
he  had  the  good  fortune  to  terminate  a  division  which 
threatened  a  schism  in  the  church.  Lewis  XII.  who  had 
incurred  ecclesiastical  censtlre,  made  a  formal  submission, 
and  received  absolution.  Having  secured  external  tran- 
quillity, Leo  did  not  delay  to  consult  the  interests  of  litera- 
ture by  an  ample  patronage  of  learned  studies.  He  re- 
stored to  its  former  splenoour  the  Roman  gymnasium  or 
university,  which  he  effected  by  new  grants  of  its  revenues 
and  privileges,  and  by  filling  its  professorships  with  eminent 
men  invited  from  all  quarters.  The  study  of  the  Greek 
language  was  a  very  particular  object  of  his  encourage- 
ment. Under  the  direction  of  Lascaris  a  college  of  noble 
Grecian  youths  was  founded  at  Rome  for  the  purpose  of 
editing  Greek  authors ;  and  a  Greek  press  was  established 
in  that  city.  Public  notice  was  circulated  throughout  Eu- 
rope, that  all  persons  who  possessed  MSS.  of  ancient  au- 
thors wb'uld  be  liberally  rewarded  on  bringing  or  sending 
theea'to  the  pope.  Leo  founded  the  first  professorship  in 
Italy  bf  the  Syriac  andChaldaic  languages  in  the  university 
of  Bdlo^na.  With  regard  to  the  politics  of  the  times,  the 
pope  had  two  leading  objects  in  view,  viz.  the  maintenance 
of  that  balance  of  power  which  might  protect  Italy  from 
thi6"  over-bearing  influence  of  any  foreign  potentate ;  and 
the  aggrandizement  of  thie  house  of  Medici.  When  Fran- 
cis I.  ^cceeded  to  the  throne  of  France,  it  was  soon  ap- 
parent that  there  would  necessarily  be  a  new  war  in  the 
ntNTth  of'  Italy,    Leo  attempted  to  remain  neuter,  which 


176  LEO. 

beingr  found  to  be  impracticacbley  he  joined  ttre  empetof, 
the  Swisd,  and  othef  sovereigns  agaiiAst  the  French  Uti^ 
and  rbe  state  of  Venice.  The  rapid  successes  of  the  French 
artns  s6on  brought  him  to  hesitate,  and  after  the  Swisi 
army  had  been  defeated,  the  pope  thought  it  expedient  to 
abandon  his  allied,  and  form  ail  unioit  with  the  king  ot 
France,  These  two  sovereigns^  in  the  close  of  1 5 1 5^  had 
an  interview  at  Bologna,  when  the  famous  Pragmatic 
Sanction  was  abolished,  and  a  concordat  established  in  its 
stead.  The  death  of  Leo's  brother  left  his  nephew  Ld« 
rensio  the  principal  object  of  that  passion  for  aggrandizing 
his  family,  which  this  pontiff  fell  full  as  strongly  as  aiw 
one  of  his  predecessors,  and  to  gratify  which  he  scrupled 
no  acts  of  injustice  and  tyranny.  In  1516  he  issued  a  knd- 
tiitory  against  the  duke  of  Urbino,  and  upon  his  non»ap- 
peairance,  an  excommunication,  and  then  seized  his  whole 
territory,  with  which,  together  with  the  ducal  title,  he 
irivested  his  nephew.  In  the  same  year  a  general  pacifica* 
tion  took  place,  though  all  the  efforts  of  the  pope  were 
tnad^  to  prevent  it.  In  1517  the  expelled  duke  of  Urbinp 
collepted  an  army,  and,  by  rapid  movements,  completely 
regained  his  capital  and  dominions.  Leo,  excessive! j.char- 
grined  at  this  event,  would  gladly  have  engaged  a  crusade 
of  all  Christian  princes  against  nim.  By  an  application^ 
which  nothing  could  justify,  of  the  treasures  of  the  church* 
he  raised  a  considerable  army,  under  the  command  of  his 
Nephew,  and  compelled  the  duke  to  resign  his  dominion^ 
Upon  what  were  callea  honourable  terms.  The"  violation  of 
the  safe  conduct,  granted  by  Lorenzo  to  the  duke's  secre- 
tary, who  was  seized  at  Roitte,  and  put  to  torture,  in  order 
to  oblige  him  to  reveal  his  master's  secrets,  imprints  on  the 
memOty  of  Leo  X.  an  indelible  staiti.  In  the  same  year 
his  life  was  endangered  by  a  conspiracy  fortned  against 
him,  in  which  the  chief  actor  was  cardinal  Petrucci.     The 

filan  failed,  and  the  cardinal,  being,  decoyed  to  Rome^ 
roiA  whence  he  had  escaped,  was  put  to  death ;  and  hia 
agents,  as  many  as  were  discovered,  were  executed  with 
horrid  tortures.  The  conduct  of  Leo  on  this  occasion  was 
little  honourable  to  his  fortitude  or  clemency,  and  it  waA 
believed  that  several  persons  suffered  as  guilty  who  were 
wholijr  innocent  of  the  crimes  laid  to  their  charge.  To 
secure  himself  for  the  future,  the  pope,  by  a  great  stretch 
of  his  high  authority,  Created  in  one  day  thirty-one  new 
Cardinals,  many  of  them  his  relations  and  friends,  who  had 
not  even  risen  in  the  church  t^  thei  dignity  of  the  episcopal 


/ 


L  K  0.  177 

office ;  but  many  persons  also,  who,  from  their  taletitt  and 
▼iittiiEWy  were  well  worthy  of  bis  choice.  He  bestow^ 
upon  them  rich  benefices  and  preferments,  as  well  in  the 
remote  parts  of  Christendom^  as  in  Italy,  and  thus  formed 
a  numerous  and  splendid  court  attached  to  his  person,  and 
adding  to  the  p6mp  and  grandeur  of  the  capital.  During 
the  pontificate  of  Leo  X.  the  reformation  under  Luther 
took  its  rise,  humanly  speaking,  from  the  following  circuni- 
stances.  The  unbounded  profusion  of  this  pope  had  red* 
dered  it  necessary  to  devise^  means  for  replenishing  his  ei^ 
faausted  treasury ;  and  one  of  those  which  occurred  was  the 
sale  of  indulgences,    which  were  sold  in  Germany  with 

:SUch  ridiculous  parade  of  their  efficacy,  as  to  rouse  the 

'  spirit  of  Luther,  who  warmly  protested  against  this  abuse 
in  his  discourses,  and  in  a  letter  addressed  to  the  elector 
of  Mentz.  He  likewise  published  a  set  of  propositions,  in 
which  he  called  in  question  the  authority  of  the  pope  to 
remit  sins,  and  made  some  very  severe  strictures  on  this 
method  of  raising  money.  His  remonstrances  produced 
considerable  effect,  and  several  of  his  cloth  undertook  to 
refute  him.  Leo  probably  regarded  theological  quarrels 
with  contempt,  and  from  his  pontifical  tl  rone  looked  down 

.  upon  the  efforts  of  a  German  doctor  with  scorn ;  even 
when  his  interference  was  deemed  necessary,  he  was  in- 
clined to  lenient  measures.  At  length,  at  the  express  de- 
sire of  the  emperor  Maximilian,  be  summoned  Luther  to 
appear  before  the  court  of  Rome.     Permission  was,  how-« 

.  ever,  granted  for  the  cardinal  of  Gseta  to  hear  his  defence  at 
.Augsburg.  Nothing  satisfactory  was  determined,  and  the 
pope,  in  1518,  published  a  bull,  asserting  his  authority  to 
grant  indulgences,  which  would  avail  both  the  living,  and 
the  dead  in  purgatory.  Upon  this,  the  reformer  appealed 
to  a  general  council,  and  thus  open  war  was  declared,  in 
which  the  abettors  of  Luther  appeared  with  a  strength 
litUe  calculated  upon  by  the  court  of  Rome.  The  senti- 
ments of  the  Christian  world  were  not  at  all  favourable  to 
that  court.  ^'The  scandal,^*  says  the  biographer,  ^<  in- 
curred by  the  infamy  of  Alexander  VI.,  and  the  violence 

^of  Julius  Jl.f  was  not  much  alleviated  in  the  reign  of  a 
pontiff  who  was  characterized  by  an  inordinate  love  of 
pomp  and  pleasure,  and  wliose  classical  taste  even  caused 
him  to  be  regarded  by  many  as  more'  of  a  heiathen  than  a 
Christian. ^^ 
The  warlike  disposition  of  Selim,  the  reigning  Turkish 
Vol.  XX.  N 


»T8  LEO. 

enaperof,  excited  great  alarms  in  Europe,  and  giave  ocea« 
sion  to  Leo  to  attempt  a  revival  of  the  aocient  crusades,  by 
means  of  an  alliance  between  all  Christian  princes ;  he  pro- 
bably hoped,  by  this  show  of  zeal  for  the  Christian  cause, 
^  that  he  should  recover  some  of  his  lost  credit  as  head  of 
the  church.  He  had,  likewise,  another  object  iii  view, 
viz.  tha^t  of  recruiting  his  finances,  by  the  contributions 
.  which  his  emissaries  levied  upon  the  devotees  in  different 
.countries.  By  the  death  of  Maximilian  in  1519,  a  compe- 
.  tition  for  the  imperial  crown  between  Charles  V.  and  Fran^ 
.  cis  I*  took  place.  Leo  was  decidedly  against  the  claims  of 
both  the  rival  candidates,  and  attempted  to  raise  a  com- 
petitor in  one  of  the  German  princes,  but  he  was  unable 
to  resist  the  fortune  of  Charles.  At  this  period  he  incurt^d 
a  very  severe  domestic  misfortune  in  the  death  of  his  ne- 
phew Lorenzo,  who  left  an  infant  daughter,  afterwards  the 
celebrated  Catherine  de  Medicis^  the  queen  and  regent  of 
France.  The  death  of  Lorenzo  led  to  the  immediate  an- 
nexation of  the  duchy  of  Urbino,  with  its  dependencies, 
to  the  Roman  see,  and  to  the  appointment  of  Julius,  Leo^s 
cousin,  to  the  supreme  direction  of  the  state.of  Floretice. 
The  issue  of  his  contest  with  Luther  will  occur  hereafter 
in  our  account  of  that  reformer.  It  may  here,  however, 
be  noticed  that  Leo  conferred  on  Henry  V HL  of  finglaiid, 
the  title  ot  "  Defender  of  the  Faith,'*  for  his  appearance  pn 
the  side  of  the  church  as  a  controversial  writer.  The  tran- 
quir  state  of  Italy,  at  this  period,  allowed  the  pope  to 
indulge  his  taste  for  magnificence  in  shows  and  spectacles. 
.  His  private  hours  were  chiefly  devoted  to  indolence,  or  to 
amusements,  frequently  of  a  kind  little  suited  to  the  dig-* 
nity  of  his  high  station.  He  was  not,  however,  so  much 
absorbed  in  them  as  to  neglect  the  aggrandizement  of  bis 
family  and  see.  Several  cities  and  districts  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  papal  territories,  and  to  which  the  church  had 
claims,  had  been  seized  by  powerful  citizens,  or  military 
.  adventurers ;  some  of  these  the  pope  summoned  to  his 
court  to  answer  for  their  conduct ;  which  not  being  abl«  to 
do,  be  caused  them  to  be  put  to  death.  Having  next  set 
his  heart  an  the  possession  of  the  territory  of  Ferrara,  he 
had  recourse  to  treachery,  and  is  thought  to  have  even 
meditated  the  assassination  of  the  duke,^  but  his  plot  being 
discovered  by  the  treachery  of  dne  whom  he  had  bribed, 
-  he  was  disappointed  in  his  plans.  Another  of  bis  designs 
was  thei  expiilsion  of  the  French  from  Italy,  and  be  bad 


LEO.  17» 

inflid^  some  progress  in  this  when  he  was  seized  with  an 
iUness  which  put  an  end  to  his  life  in  a  few  days.  He  died 
Dec.  ly  1521,  in  the  forty-sixth  year  of  his  aige. 

From  the  preceding  circumstances,  gleaned  fromMr.Ros*- 
coe*s  elaborate  account  of  Leo,  a  judgment  may  be  formed 
of  his  character,  in  which,  although  some  things  may  have 
been  exaggerated  by  the  enemies  of  the  Romish  cburcbji 
enough  remains  uncontested  to  prove  that  he  had  many  of 
the  worst  vices,  and,  when  it  became  necessary  to  his  ag<^ 
grandizement,  practised  the  worst  crimes  of  his  prede-, 
cessors.     His  biographer,  by  embodying  the  history  of  li- 
terature and  the  arts  in  the  life  of  Leo,  one  of  the  most 
pleasing  and  truly  valuable  parts  of  the  work,  has,  we 
think,  failed,  in  attributing  much  of  their  advancement  to 
Leo.     And  indeed  it  has  been  too  much  a  fashion  to  speak 
of  the  **  age  of  Leo"  as  of  a  glorious  period  which  his 
patronage  created.    Too  much  stress,    perhaps,  is  fre- 
quently laid  on  patronage ;  and  we  ought  to  hesitate  in 
declaring  bow  much  it  has  produced,  when  we  consider 
how  m.uch  in  all  ages  has  been  produced  without  it.     But 
Leo^s  patronage  was  not  general,  for  it  excluded  Ariosto 
and  Erasmus,  two  of  the  greatest  men  of  the  age ;  nor  was 
it  judicious  in  selection,  for  he  bestowed  it  on  such  worth- 
less characters  as  Aretin  and  Niso,  not  to  speak  of  a  num- 
ber of  less  known  characters,  whose  merit  rises  no  higher 
tiian  that  of  being  able  to  write  amorous  Italiaa  sonnets, 
and  panegyrical  Latin  verses.     With  respect  to  the  arts,  it 
has  been  justly  remarked,  that  when  he  ascended  the  throne 
they  were  at  their  meridian.    He  found  greater  talents  thaa 
be  employed,  and  greater  works  commenced  than  he  com- 
pleted.    Leonard  Da  Vinci,  Michael  Angelo,  and  Raf- 
faello,  performed  their  greatest  works  before  the  accession 
of  Leo  X.;  Bramante,  the  architect  of  St.  Peter's,  died  in 
the  second  year  of  his  pontificate ;  and  Da  Vinci  and  Mi- 
chael Angelo  shared  none  of  his  favours.     It  is  fi^om  his 
attachment  to  RafFaello  that  he  derives  his  strongest  claims 
8^  a  patron  of  art ;  yet  a  part  of  his  conduct  to  this  grea.t 
artist  makes  us  question  whether  Leo  had  a  refined  taster 
Haflaello  made  thirteen  cartoons  of  religious  subjects  to 
complete  the  decoration  of  the  hall  of  Constantine,  and 
had  sent  them  into  Flanders,  to  be  returned  in  worsted 
bopies,  without  any  care  to  preserve  the  originals,  nor  any 
itiquiry  made  Concerning  them  after  the  subjects  were  ma- 
nufactured into  tapestry.    By  accident|  seten  of  the&e  are 

■  \  N  2  ' 


180 


L  E  O. 


yet  to  be  s^eh  in  this  country,  and.  may  enable  us  to  est^ 
.mate  the  taste  of  the  pontiff  who  could  so  easily  forget 
them.  Yet  Leo  must  not  be  deprived  of  the  merit  that 
justly  belongs  to  him.  He  drew  together  the  learned  men, 
of  his  time,  and  formed  eminent  schools,  and  he  did  much 
in  promoting  the  art  of  printing,  then  of  incalculable  im- 
portance to  literature.  In  these  respects,  and  upon  ac- 
count of  the  share  he  had  in  precipitating  the  reformation^ 
his  short  pontificate  of  eight  years  and  eight  mpnths  must 
be  allowed  to  form  one  of  the  most  interesting  periods  iu 
papal  history,  and  worthy  of  the  illustration  it  has  received.^ 

LEO  VL  emperor  of  the  East,  surnamed  The  Wise,  and 
the  Philosopher,  succeeded  his  father  Basilius  the  Mace- 
donian, March  1,  886.  He  drove  Photius  from  the  see  of 
Constantinople,  fought  with  success  against  the  Hunga- 
rians and  Bulgarians,  and  died  June  11^  911,  leaving  one 
son,  Constantine  Porphyrogeneta.  This  emperor  was  sur« 
named  The  Philosopher,  from  his  attachment  to  learnings 
and  not  from  his  manners,  which  were  very  irregular.  He 
was  fond  of  writing  sermons,  and  there  are  several  of  his 
composing  in  the  library  of  the  fathers.  The  following  works 
are  also  attributed  to  him ;  a  treatise  on  Tactics,  a  useful 
work  for  those  who  would  acquire  a  knowledge  of  the  lower 
empire ;  it  was  printed  in  German  by  Bourscheid,  at  Vi* 
enna,  and  in  French  by  M.  de  Maiseroi,  1770,  2  vols,  8vo ; 
•*  Novellae  Constitutiones,"  in  which  several  of  the  novels 
introduced  by  Justinian  are  abolished;'  ^.^  Opus  Basilicon,*' 
where  all  the  laws  contained  in  Justinian's  works  are  ne^ 
jnodelled.  This  system  of  law  was  adopted  by  the  Greeks 
afterwards.  In  Constantine  Manasses,  printed  at  the  Louvre^ 
may  be  found  *'  Leonis  sapientis  oracula."  ' 

LEO  (John),  a  skilful  geographer,  born  at  Grenada, 
retired  into  Africa  when  his  natiy^  place  was  taken  in  1492, 
whence  he  had  the  surname  of  Africanus.  After  having 
travelled  a  considerable  time  in  Europe,  Asia,  and  Afric;^ 
he  was  taken-  at  sea  by  some  pirates,  and  abjured  the  Ma- 
hometan religion  under  pope  Leo  X.  He  died  about  1526. 
He  wrote  a  "  Description  of  Africa,'*  in  Arabic,  which  he 
afterwards  translated  into  Italian.  Marmot  has  translated 
ttiis.work,  almost  entirely,  without  mentioning  it.  There 
is  a  Latin  translation  by  John  Florian,  not  very  accurate, 

^  1  Roeeocfs  life.—- Abridgement  in  Bees't  Qfclopsdia.*— Duppa'i  Life  of  Mh 

chael  Angelo,  p.  60  et  seqq. 
•  Diet,  Hist— Universal  Hist. 


LEO.-  isi 

and  a  French  one  by  John  TemporaV  Lyons,  1556,  folJ 
John  Leo  also  left  the  <'  Lives  of  the  Arabian  Philoso* 
phers/*  which  was  printed  by  Hettinger  in  Latin,  at  Zurich, 
J  664,  and  is  in  torn.  13  of  the  Bibliotheca  of  Fabricius, 
from  a  copy  which  Cavalcanti  sent  from  Florence. ' 

LEO  D'ORVIETTO,  or  LEO  URBEVETANUS,  a 
native  of  that  city,  is  satid  by  some  to  have  been  a  Francis<» 
can,  and  by  others  a  Dominican.  He  left  a  "  Chronicle^* 
of  the  popes,  which  ends  in  1314,  and  one  of  the  <*  Em-* 
perors,"  ending  1308,  published  by  father  Lamy,  at  Flo-* 
rence,  1737,  2  vols.  8vo.  Hiese  chronicles  are  useful  for 
the  history  of  those  times,  to  those  who  can  distinguish  the 
fabulous  parts. ' 

LEO  of  MODENA,  whose  proper  name  was  R.  Jehu« 
dab  Arie,  was  bom  at  Modena  about  1574  %  was  for  a  con- 
siderable time  chief  of  the  synagogue,  and  esteemed  a 
good  poet  both  in  Hebrew  and  Italian.  He  was  author  of 
a  valuable  vjrork  oji  the  ceremonies  and  customs  of  the 
Jews,  which  is  held  in  estimation  by  the  learned  of  all 
nations.  It  is  entitled  '^  Istoria  de  Riti  Hebra'ici  vita  et 
Osservanze  de  gti  HebreK  di  questi  Tempi ;"  the  best  edition 
of  which  is  that  of  Venice,  1638.  It  was  translated  into  the 
French  language  in  1674,  by  Richard  Simon,  with  supple* 
ments  relating  to  the  sects  of  the  Karaites  and  Samaritans. 
{le  intended  to  faa<re  given  an  Italian  translation  of  the  Old 
Testament,  but  the  inquisition  laid  its  commands  on  him 
jto  desist..  His  Hebrew  and  Italian  dictionary,  entitled 
f '  The  Mouth  of  the  Lion,''  was  published  at  Venice  in 
1612,  and  was  afterwards  reprinted  in  fin  enlarged  form  at 
Padua,  \xt  164'0.     Leo  died  at  Venice  in  1654.' 

L^O  DE  St.  JOHN,  a  French  monk,  was  bom  at  Rennes 
in  the  year  1600.  Before  be  entered  into  tlje  religious  pro* 
fesston  his  name  was  John  Mace.  He  was  nominated  to 
^11  the  honourable  and  confidential  posts  of  bis  order,  an4 
for  his  eloquence  had  the  honour  of  preaching  before 
JLouisTCIII.  and  Louis  XI V^  His  early  patrontijwere  popes 
Xeo  XI.  and  Alexander  VIII. ;  and  in  France  .cardinal 
Richelieu  was  his  friend.  He  died  in  1671,  leaving  behind 
Jbim  numerous  works,  the  principal  of  which  are,  *^  Stu* 
dium  Sapientise  Universalis,"  3  vols.  fol. ;  A  <V  History  of 
ihe  Carmelites ;"  ^^  Lives  of  different  Romish  Saints;"'  and 

"-  I  Moreri.— Diet  Hwt Saxii  Onomast.  »  Moreri,— Diet.  Hiat. 

.   «  Mar(!xi.--Di£t.  But. 


"f 

4 


182  LEONARD. 

^*  Joum^  of  Wbtt  took  place  during  the  last  Sickness,  and 
at  the  Death  of  cardinal  llichelieu/' ' 

LEONARD  of  Pisa,  an  Italian  mathematician,  whofldu- 
rished  at  the  commencement  of  the  thirteenth  century,  wa& 
the  first  person  who  brought  into  Europe  the  knowledge  of 
the  Arabic  cyphers  and  algebra^  He  travelled  into  the 
East  for  instruction,  and  being  at  Bugia,  a  town  in  Africa, 
was  taught  the  Arabic  method  of  keeping  accounts,  and 
finding  it  more  convenient  and  preferable  to  the  European 
method,  he  drew  up  a  treatise  for  the  purpose  of  intro- 
ducing it.  into  Italy,  where  it  was  cultivated  with  success', 
and  became  speedily  known  to  all  mathematicians.  From 
Italy  the  knowledge  of  the  Arabic  cyphers  and  algebra  was 
afterwards  communicated  to  the  other  countries  of  Europe. 
He  was  author  of  a  treatise  on  surveying,  preserved  in  the 
Magliabecchi  library  at  Florence.  *      . 

LEONARDO  (Leo),  principal  organist  of  the  chapel 
royal  at  Naples,  was  not  only  admired  and  respected  by 
his  contemporaries,  but  his  memory  still  continues  to  be ' 
held  in  reverence  by  every  professor  that  is  acquainted 
with  his  works.     He  was  born  in  1689.     The  first  opera  of 
ia»  composition  is  thought  to  be  "  Sofonisba,"  which  was 
performed  in  Naples  in  1718,  and  the  last,  "  Siface,"  in 
Bologna,  1737.     Between  these  he  produced  three  operas 
for   Venice,  and   four  for  Rome.     Leo  likewise  set  the 
•*  Olimpiade*'  of  Metastasio.    "  Dirti  ben  mio  vovice"  was 
in  extreme  high  favour,  as  set  by  Leo,  about  the  middle 
of  the  last  century,  in  England,  where  it  was  sure  to  be 
heard  at  every  musical  performance,  both  public  and  pri- 
vate.    Leo  likewise  set  Metastasio*s  oratorio  of  *^  Sl  Elen» 
ftl  Calvario,'*  in  which  there  are  some  very  fine  airs.     His 
celebrated  *•  Miserere,"  in  eight  real  parts,  though  imper- 
fectly performed  in  London  at  the  Pantheon,  for  Ansani*s 
benefit,  1781,  convinced  real  judges  that  it  was  of  the 
highest  class  of  choral  compositions. 

The  puiity  of  his  harmony,  and  elegant  simplicity  of  bis 
melody,  are  no  less  remarkable  in  such  of  these  dramas  as 
Dr.  Burney  examined,  than  the  judicious  arrangement  of 
the  parts.  But  the  masses  and  motets,  which  are  carefully 
preserved  by  the  curious,  and  still  performed  in  the 
churches  at  Naples,  have  all  the  choral  learning  of  the 
sixteenth  century.  There  are  likewise  extant,  trios,  for 
two  violins  and  a  base,  superior  in  correctness  of  counter* 

I  Diet  Hist,  •  JDlct.  HUt.— Thomton's  Hi»tory  of  the  Itoyal  Socief  j. 


t  E  O  N  A  R  D  O.  »8^3 

point  and  elegance  of  design  to  any  similar  prodactions  of 
the  $ame  period.  This  complete  musician  is  equally  cele- 
brated as  an  instructor  and  composer ;  and  the  '^  Solfeggi/* 
i^hicb  he  composed  for  the  use  of  the  vocal  students,  in  the 
conservatorio  over  Which  he  presided  at  Naples,  are  still 
eagerly  sought  aiul  studied,  not  only  in  Italy,  butin  every 
part  of  Europe,  where  singing  is  regularly  taught,  Thia 
great  musician  died  about  1742^  His  death  was  unhappily 
precipitated  by  an  accident  which  at  first  was  thought 
trivial;  fgr,  having  a  tumour,  commonly  called  a  bur,  on 
bis  right  cheek,  which  growing,  in  process  of  time,  to  a 
considerable  magnitude,  he  was  advised  to  have  it  taken 
pff ;  but  whett^er  from  the  unskvlfulness  of  the  operator,  or 
a  bad  habit  of  body,  a  mortification  ensiied,  which  cost  him 
bis  life. ' 

LEONICENUS  (Nicholas),  an  eminent  Italian  phy-» 
$ician,  was  born  in  one  of  the  Venetian  states  in  1428.    He 
was   professor  of  medicine  at  Ferrara  during  upwards  of 
sixty  years,  a«d  was  the  first  person  who  un(Jertook  ta 
translate  the  works  of  Galen  into  Latin.     His  attachment 
to  literary  pursuits  alienated  him  from  practice ;  and  in 
(excuse  he  used  to  say,  ''  I  do  more  service  to  the  public 
than  if  I  visited  the  sick,  by  instructing  those  who  are 
to  cure  them*''     Extending  his  attention  also  to  the  belles 
lettres,  he  wrote  some  poetry,  and  translated  into  Italian 
the  history  of  Dion  Cassius,  and  the  dialogues  of  Lucian» 
Until  the  age  of  thirty,  Leonicenus  was  tormented-  with 
.frequent  attacks  of  epilepsy,  vrhicji  reduced  him  at  times 
.  to  melancholy  and  despair.     This  disease,  however,   after- 
wards left  him,  and,  by  means  of  great  regularity  and  tem« 
perance,  he  attained  the  age  of  ninety-six  years,  and  died 
in  1524,  possessed  of  all  his  faculties.     To  one  who  in- 
quired, with  astonishment,  by  what  secret  he  had  preserved 
this  entire  possession  of  his  faculties,  together  with  an  erect 
body  and  vigorous  health,  at  so  great  an  age,  he  replied, 
.  that  it  was  the  effect  of  innocence  of  manners,  tranquillity 
of  mind,  and  frugality  in  diet     The  duke  and  senate  of 
Ferrara  erected  a  monument  to  his  memory.     He  left  se* 
.  yeral  works,  most  jof  which  have  been  several^  times  re- 
.  printed,  but  are  not  now  in  request,  except  perhaps  his 
exaniination  of  the  errors  of  Pliny,  &c.  **  Plinii  et  aliorum 
.  plurimum   auctorum   qui   de    simplicibus  medicaminiljus 

V. 

I  Bumey^i  Hist,  of  Music/  vol.  IV. — and  the  same  In  Reei*s  Cyclopedia. 


184  L  E  O  N  I  C  E  N  U  S. 

•eripseniot,  errores  notati/'  Budei  1 532,  folio,  which  iit- 
Toked   him   ia  a  controversy,    sustained  with  his  usual 
tranquillity  ;  and  his  ^*  Liber  de  Epidemia  quam  Itali  mor- 
Ibum  Gallicuni  vocant/'  Venice,  1497,  4to,  a  book  of  great 
rarity.     He  was  the  first  in  Italy  who  treated  of  this' dis- 
order.   There  is  an  edition  of  fill  his  works,  printed  at 
Bale,  1533,  foU 
LEONICO.     SeeTOMEO. 
LEONTIUS  PILATUS.     See  PILATUS. 
LEOWITZ  (Cyprian),  a  celebrated  astronomer  in  the 
sixteenth  century,  was  born  in  Bohemia,  and  was  ap{>ointed 
mathematician  to  Otho  Henry,  elector  palatine.     He  ac- 
quired a  high  reputation  by  his  astronomical  productions, 
of  which  the  principal  were,  ''  Ephemerides  ab  anno  1556 
ad  ann..  1606;"  *^  Expedita  Ratio  constituendi  Thematis 
coelestis ;"  >' Loca  stellarum  fixarum  ab  anno  Dom.  1549 
usque  in  ann.  2029  ;'*  and  <*  De  Eclipsibus  Liber.'*    Ty- 
cho  Brahe  paid  him  a  visit  in  1569,  when  they  had  several 
conversatipns  on  their  favourite  subjects.     Notwithstanding 
thegreat  learning  of  Leowitz,  he  was  weak  enough  to  be- 
come the  dupe  of  judicial  astrology.     He  died  in  Swabia 
1574.     He  had  predicted  that  the  world  would  come  to  an 
end   in  1584;    and  of  this   prophecy  many  priests   and 
preachers  took  .advantage  as  the  important  period   ap- 
proached, and  enriched  themselves  at  the  expence  of  the 
fears  of  their  people.* 
LE  POIS.     See  POIS. 
LEQUIEN.     SeeQUIEN. 

LERMONT  (Thomas),  a  poet  of  Scotland,  who  flou- 
rished in  the  thirteenth  century,  is  familiarly  known  by 
the  name  of  Thomas  the  Rhymer.  The  history  of  his  life 
is  involved  in  much  obscurity.  What  has  been  unravelled 
nuiy  be  seen  in  our  authority.  He  was  a  prophet  as  well 
as  a  poet.  His  merit  in  the  former  character  may  be  dis- 
puted, but  of  his  poetical  talents,  Mr.  Walter  Scott  has 
enabled  the  public  to  judge,  by  giving  an^  excellent  edition 
pf  his  metrical  romance  of  '^  Sir  Tristrem,^'  published  in 
1804,  and  very  ably  illustrated  with  notes,  &c.  by  Mr. 
Scott,  who  has  in  this  work  shown  that  the  most  arduous 
labours  of  the  antiquary  are  not  incompatible  with  the 
genius  and  spirit  of  the  poet.^ 

•  ^ 

1  Gen.  Diet.— Moreri^vReef's  Cyclopsdia. — Sazii  OoomasU 
9  Moreri,— *Geii.  DicU  '  Mr,  Soott'f  edUioiu 


LE  SB  ON  AX.  185 

.  LKROY.    See  ROY. 

LESBONAX,  a  native  of  Mitylenei  who  (loumlied  in 
the  grst  century  of  the  Christian  sera,  was  a  disciple  of 
Timo^crates,  afterwards  became  a  teacher  of  philosophy 
in  his  native  city,  and  obtained  a  great  number  of  scho- 
lars. He  was  author  of  many  books  of  philosophy,  and 
Photius  says  he  had  read  sixteen  orations  written  by 
him.  Two  of  these  were  first  published  by  Aldus,  in 
bis  edition  of  the  ancient  orators,  in  1513  ;  afterwards 
by  Henry  Stephens,  with  the  orations  of  ^schines,  Lysias, 
and  others  2  and  in  1619,  by  Gruter.  Lesbonax  is  said 
to  have  been  the  author  of  a  treatise  *^  De  Figuris 
Grammaticis/'  printed  with  Ammonius,  Leyden,  1739, 
4to.  He  left  a  son  named  Potamon,  an  eminent  rhe- 
torician at  Rome,  in  the  reign  of  the. emperor  Tiberius. 
So  sensible  were  the  magistrates  of  Mitylene  of  his 
merits^  and  of  the  utility  of  his  labours,  that  they  caused 
a  medal  to  be  struck  in  his  honour:  one  of  which  was 
discovered  in  the  south  of  France  about  1740,'  and  an 
engraving  of  it,  with  a  learned  dissertation, .  published  in 
the  year  1744,  by  M.  Cary,  of  the  Academy  of  Marseilles, 
but  there  seems  some  reason  to  think  that  Lesbonax  the 
philosopher,  and  Lesbonax  the  grammarian,  were  different 
persons.' 

LESCAILLE  (James),  a  celebrated  Dutch  printer,  was 
born  in  1610  of  an  illustrious  family  at  Geneva,  which  re- 
moved to  Holland,  where  his  press  became  famous  for  the 
Dumber  of  beautiful  and  accurate  editions  which  issued 
from  it.  He  was  also  esteemed  an  excellent  poet ;  and  his 
daughter,  Catherine  Lescaille,  who  died  June  8,  17)1,  was 
so  much  admired  for  her  poetical  talents,  as  to  be  called 
the  Dutch  Sappho,  and  the  tenth  Muse.  A  collection  of 
her  Poems  was  printed  in  17^8,  with  the  following  trage- 
dies: Genscric,  Wenceslaus,  Herod  and  Mariamne,  Her- 
cules *and  Deianira,  Nicomedes,  Ariadne,  Cassandra,  &c. 
which,  although  they  are  not  written  according  to  the  or- 
dinary rules  of  the  drama,  frequently  discover  marks  of 
superior  genius.  James  Lescaille* was  honoured ,  with  the 
poetic  crown  by  the  emperor  Leopold  in  1663,  and  died 
in  1677.' 

LESCHASSIER   (James),  an  able  lawyer,  and  cele^ 
brated  advocate  of  the  parliament  of  Paris,  was  born  ia 

1  Jtf~oreri.«-Saxu  Onomait.  <  Moreri.-«»Dict.  Hiit, 


lU  LE8CHASSIER. 

thfti  city  in  )  550,  of  a  reputable  family.  When  Henry  IV. 
to  Mpkom  he  bad  remained  faithful  during  the  fury  of  the! 
League,  wanted  .to  support  the  annuities  charged  on  the- 
H6tel  de  Ville,  Leschassier  had  influence  enough  to  dis* 
suade  him  from  bis  design  by  two  very  able  petitions.  He 
was  consulted  by  the  Venetian  republic,  in  1605,  respect- 
ing their  disputes  with  pope  Paul  V.  and  replied  by^  his 
<'  Consultatio  Parisini  cujusdam,'*  printed  in  1606,  4tOy 
which  proves  him  to  have  been  a  learned  and  judicious 
canonist.  He  died  April  28,  1625,  at  Paris,  aged  seventy- 
five.  The.  most  complete  edition  of  his  works  is  that  of 
Paris,  1652,  4to,  which  contains  several  curious  and  inte- 
resting  particulars  concerning  the  liberties  of  the  Gallican 
church,  and  other  affairs  of  great  importance.  ^     - 

LESDIGUIERES  (Francis  de  Bonne,  duke  DE),.pecr, 
marecbal,  and  constable  of  France,  governor  of  Dauphiny, 
and  one  of  the  greatest  generals  of  his  age,  was  born  April 
I,  1543,  at  St.  Bonnet  de  Ciiamsaut,  in  Dauphiny,  off 
noble  and  ancient  family.  He  was  among  the  chiefs,  of  the 
protestants,  for  whom  he  took  several  places,  and  wheii 
Henry  iV.  ascended  the  throne,  received  fresh  marks  d( 
his  esteem,  being  appointed  lieutenant-general  of  his 
forces  in  Piedmont,  Savoy,  and  Dauphiny.  Lesdiguieres 
defeated  the  duke  of  Savoy  at  the  battle  of  Esparon,  April 
15,  1,591,  and  in  several  other  engagements;  and  wheu 
the  king  blamed  him  for  having  suffered  that  prince  to  build 
Fort  Barreaux,  he  replied,  <*  Let  the  duke  of  Savoy  be  at 
that  expence ;  your  majesty  wants  a  fortress  opposite  t6 
Montmelian,  and  when  it  is  built  and  stored,  we  will  take 
it,"  He  kept  his  word,  and  conquered  Savoy.  This  brave 
man  received  the  marechal's  staff  in  1607,  and  his  estate 
of  Lesdiguieres  was  made  a  dukedom,  as  a  reward  for  his 
services.  At  length  he  abjured  protestantism  at  Qrenoble, 
and  was  afterwards  presented  by  his  son-in-law,  the  mare-* 
chal  de  CnSqui,  with  letters,  in  which  the  king  appointed 
him  constable^  July  24,  1622.  <  He  commanded  the  troops 
in  Italy  in  1625,  and  died  at  Valence  it)  Dai^phiny,  Sept. 
518,  1626,  aged  eighty-four.  His  secretary,  Lewis  Vide), 
has  written  his  life,  or  rather  his  eulogy,  1638,  folio.  There 
were,  however,  many  defects  in  his  moral  character^  and 
^is  apostacy  is  said  to  have  been  founded  in  avarice.* 

*  Moreri. — ^Nic^ron,  vol.  XXXIIf.-^Saiiii  Ooomasticoiu 

*  Moreri.-— Diet.  Hist. 


I 

t 


LESLEY.  187 

« 

LESLEY  (John),  the  celebrated  bishop  of  Ross  in  Scot- 
land, was  descended  from  a  very  ancient  family,  and  bom 
ill  1527.     He  had  bis  education  in  the  university  of  Aber- 
deen ;  and,  in   1547,  was  oiade  canon  of  the  cathedral* 
church  of  Aberdeen  and  Murray.     After  this,  he  travelled 
into  France  ;  and  pursued  his  studies  in  the  universities  of 
Thoulouse,  Poictiers,  and  Paris,  at  which  place  he  took  the 
degree  of  doctor  of  laws.     He  continued  abroad  till  1554, 
when  he  was  commanded  home  by  the  queen-regent,  and 
made  official  and  vicar-general  of  the  diocese  of  Aberdeen ; 
ind,  eoteringr  into  the  priesthood,  became  parson  of  Une, 
or  Oyne.    About  this  time  the  doctrines  of  the  reformation 
having  reached  Scotland,  were  zealously  opposed  by  our 
author ;  and,  a  solemn  dispute  being  held  between  the  pro- 
testants  and  papists  in  1560,  at  Edinburgh,   Lesley  was  a 
principal  champion  on  the  side  of  the  latter,  and  bad  Knox 
for  one  of  his  antagonists.     This,  however,  was  so  far  from 
|)utting  an  end  to  the  divisions,  that  they  daily  increased  ; 
whi(^.h  occasioning  many  disturbances  and  commotions,  both 
parties  agreed  to  send  deputations,    inviting  home  the 
queen,  who  was  then  absent  in  France.     It  was  a  matter  of 
importance  to  be  expeditious  in  this  race  of  politic  cour« 
lesy ;  and  Lesley,  who  was  employed  by  the  Roman  catho- 
lics, made  such  dispatch,  that  he  arrived  several  days  be- 
fore lord  James  Stuart,  who  was  sent  by  the  protestaiUs,  to 
Vitri,  where  queen  Mary  was  then  lamenting  the  death  of 
ber  husband,  the  king  of  France.     Having  delivered  to  her 
bis  credentials,  he  told  her  majesty  of  lord  James  Stuart's 
(who  was  ber  natural  brother)  coming  from  the  protestants 
ia  Scotland,  and  of  his  designs  against  the  Roman  catholic 
religion ;  and  advised  her  to  detain  him  in  France  by  some 
honourable  employment  till  she  could  settle  her  affairs  at 
liome ;  thus  infusin^g  suspicions  of  her  protestant  subjects 
into  the  queen's  mind,  with  a  xnew  that  she  should  throw' 
lierself  entirely  into  the  hands  of  those  who  were  of  her  own 
religion.     The  queen,  however,  not  at  all  distrusting  the 
nobility,  who  had  sent  lord  James,  desired  Lesley  to  wait^ 
till  she  could  consult  with  her  friends  upon  the  methods 
most  proper  for  her  to  take.     At  first,  the  court  of  France 
4^pposed  her  return  home ;  but,  finding  her  much  inclined 
to  it,  tbey  ordered  a  fleet  to  attend  her;  and  Lesley  em^ 
barked  with  her  at  Calais  for  Scotland,  Aug.  19,  1561. 

Soon  after  his  arrival,  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  se« 
nators  of  the  college  of  justice^  and  sworn  into  the  privy* 


W«  LESLEY. 

I 

council.  In  1564,  the  abbey  of  Lundores  was  conferred 
iipon  him ;  and,  upon  the  death  of  Sinclair  bishop  of  Ross, 
he  was  promoted  to  that  see.  This  advancement  was  no 
more  than  he  merited  from  the  head  of  the  Roman  church 
in  Scotland,  in  whose  defence  he  was  always  an  active  and 
a{)le  disputant  with  the  reformed  party.  His  learning  was 
not  inferior  to  his  other  attainments ;  nor  was  his  attention 
so  entirely  absorbed  in  ecclesiastical  matters,  as  to  prevent. 
his  introducing  some  important  improvements  in  the  civil 
state  of  the  kingdom.  To  this  end,  having  observed  that 
all  the  ancient  laws  were  growing  obsolete,  for  want  of 
beipg  collected  into  a  body,  he  represented  this  matter  to 
the  queen,  and  prevailed  with  her  majesty  to  appoint 
proper  persons  for  the  work.  Accordingly,  a  commission 
was  made  out,  granting  to  Lesley,  and  fifteen  others,  privy- 
counsellors  and  advocates  in  the  law,  authority  to  print  the 
same.  Thus  it  is  to  the  care  principally  of  the  bishop  of 
Ross,  that  the  Scots  owe  the  first  impression  of  their  laws 
at  £dinburgh,  in  1 566y  commonly  called  the  black  acts  of 
parliament,  from  their  being  printed  in  the  black  Saxon 
character.  Upon  the  queen^s  flying  into  England  from  her 
protestant  subjects,  who  had  taken  lip  arms  against  her, 
queen  Elizabeth  appointed  commissioners  at  York  to  .exa« 
mine  the  case  between  her  and  them,  and  bishop  Lesley 
was  one  pf  those  chosen  by  Mary,  in  1568,  to  defend  her 
cause,  which  he  did  with  great  vigour  and  strength  of  rea- 
soning ;  and,  when  this  method  proved  ineffectual,  appeared 
afterwards  in  the  character  of  an^bassador  at  the  English 
court,  to  complain  of  the  injustice  done  to  his  queen. 
Finding  no  notice  taken  of  his  public  solicitations,  he  be- 
gan to  form  schemes  to  procure  ber  escape  privately,  and 
at  the  same  time  seems  to  have  been  concerned  with  fo- 
reign courts  in  conspiracies  against  queen  Elizabeth.  With 
a  view,  however,  to  serve  queen  Mary,  he  hit  upon  the 
unfortunate  expedient  of  negotiating  her  marriage  with  the 
duke  of  Norfolk ;  which  being  discovered,  the  duke  was 
convicted  of  treason,  and  executed.  Lesley  being  exa- 
mined upon  it,  pFeaded  the  privileges  of  an  ambassador; 
alleging,  that  he  had  done  nothing  but  what  his  place  and 
duty  demanded  for  procuring  the  liberty  of  his  princess; 
and  that  he  came  into  England  with  sufficient  warrant;  and 
authority,  which  be  had  produced,  and  which  had  been 
admitted.    It  was  answered^  that  the  privileges  of  amhas^ 


L  E  S  L  E  Yrf  180 

tadors  conld  not  protect  those  wbo  offended  against  the 
majesty  of  the  princes  to  whom  they  were  sent ;  and  that 
they  were  to  be  considered  in  no  other  light  than  as  ener 
inies  who  practised  rebellion  against  the  state.     To  this 
our  prelate  replied,  that  he  had  ndther  raised,  nor  prac- 
tised rebellion ;  but,  peroeivinj;  the  adversaries  of  queen 
Mary  countenanced,  and  her  deprived  of  all  hope  of  liberty, 
he  could  not  abandon  his  sovereign  in  her  afflictions,  but 
do  his  best  to  procure  her  freedom ;  and  that  Jt  would 
never  be  found  that  the  privileges  of  ambassadors  were 
violated,  tm  jurisy  by  course  of  law,  but  only  via  facti^ 
by  way  of  fact,  which  seldom  had  good  success. 
.    At  length,  ^  after  several  debates,  five  civilians,  Lewis, 
Dale,  Drury,  Aubry,  and  Jones,  were  appointed  to  exa^. 
mine  the  bishop  of  Ross's  case,  and  to  give  in  answers  to 
the  following  queries.     1.  Whether  an  ambassador^  who 
raises  rebellion  against  the  prince  to  whom  he  is  sent, 
should  enjoy  the  privileges  of  an  ambassador,  and  not  ra-* 
tber  be  liable  to  punishment  as  an  enemy  ?  To  this  it  was 
answered,  that  such  an  ambassador,  by  the  laws  of  nations, 
and  the  civil  law  of  th(S  Romans,  has  forfeited  the  privi- 
leges of  an  ambassador,  and  is  liable  to  punishment.     2. 
Whether  the  minister  or  agent  of  a  prince  deposed  from 
his  public  authority,  and  in  whose  stead  another  is  substi- 
tuted, may  enjoy  the  privileges  of  an  ambassador  ?  To  this 
it  was  answered,  if  such  a  prince  be  lawfully  deposed,  hfs 
agent  cannot  challenge  the  privileges  of  an  ambassador, 
since  none  but  absolute  prinqes,  and  such  as  enjoy  a  royal 
prerogative,   can  constitute  ambassadors.      3.  Whether  a 
prince,  who  comes  into  another  prince's  country,  and  is 
there  kept  prisoner,  can  have  his  agent,  and  whether  thac 
agent  can  be  reputed  an  ambassador  ?   To  this  it  was  an« 
swered,  if  such  a  prince  have  not  lost  his  sovereignty^  he 
may  have  an  agent;  but  whether  that  agent  maybe  re- 
puted an  ambassador,  dependeth  upoit  the  authority  of  his 
commission.     4.  Whether  if  a  prince  declare  to  such  an 
agent,  and  his  prince  in  custody,  that  he  shall  no  longer 
be  reputed  au  ambassador,  that  agent  may,  by  law,  chaF^ 
lenge  the  privileges  of  an  ambassador?    To  this  it  was  an- 
swered, that  a  prince  may  forbid  an  ambassador  to'  enter 
into  his  kingdom^  and  may  command  him  to  depart  thie 
kingdom^  if  he  keep  himself  not  within  the  bounds  pre- 
scribed to  an  ambassador ;  yet  in  the  mean  while  he  is  to 
enjoy  the  privileges  of  art.ambassador 


MO  LESLEY. 

,  Queen  Elifzabeth  and  ber  counsel  being  sattsiied  w^th 
these  answers  of  tbe  civilians,  sent  bishop  Lesley  prisoner 
to  the  isle  of  Ely,  and  afterwards  to  the  Tower  of  London  ; 
but  at  length  he  was  set  at  liberty  in  1573,  and  being  ba« 
oisbed  England,  be  retired  to  the  Netherlands.  Tbe  two 
following  years  he  employed  in  soliciting  the  kings  -of 
France  and  Spain^  and  all  the  German  princes,  to  interest 
themselves  in  the  deliverance  of  his  mistress.  Finding  them 
tardy  in  their  proceedings,  be  went  to  Rome,  tosolicit  the 
pope's  interference  with  them,  but  all  his  efforts  being 
fruitless,  he  had  recourse  to  his  pen,  and  published  several 
pieces  to  promote  the  same  design.  In  1579,  he  was 
made  suffragan  and  vicar-general  of  the  archbishopric  of 
Bouen  in  Normandy,  and,  in  bis  visitation  of  that  diocese, 
was  apprehended  and  thrown  into  prison,  and  obliged  to 
pay  three  thousand  pistoles  for  his  ransom,  to  prevent  his 
being  given  up  to  queen  Elizabeth.  He  then  remained 
pnmoiested  under  the  protection  of  Henry  III.  of  France ; 
but,  upon  the  accession  of  Henry  IV,  a  protestant,  wlio 
was  supported  in  his  claim  to  that  crown  by  queen  Eliza* 
beth,  be  wa^  apprehended,  in  his  visitation  through  his 
diocese,  in  1590  ;  and,  being  thrown  into  prison,  was  again 
obliged  to  pay  three  thousand  pistoles,  to  save  himself  from 
being  given  up  to  Elizabeth*  In  1593,  he  was  declared 
bishop  of  Constance,  with  licence  to  hold  the  bishopric  of 
Ross,  till  he  should  obtain  peaceable  possession  of  the 
church  of  Constance  and  its  revenues.  Some  time  after 
this,  he  went  and  resided  at  Brussels ;  and  when  no  hopes 
remained  of  his  returning  to  his  bishopric  of  Koss,  by  th^ 
establishment  of  the  reformation  under  king  James,  he  re- 
tired into  a  monastery  at  Guirtenburg,  about  two  miles 
from  Brussels,  where  he  passed  the  remainder  of  his  days, 
died  May  31,  1596,  and  lies  buried  there  under  a  mo- 
Dument  erected  tobia  memory  by  his  nephew  and  heir, 
J[ofan  Lesley. 

His  character  is  represented  much  to  his  advantage,  by^ 
iMveral  writers,  both  at  home  and  abroad  ;  and  all  parties 
agree  ia  speaking  of  him  as  a  man  of  great  learning,  an 
able  statesman,  and  a  zealous  churchman.  His  fidelity  to  his 
queen  was  certainly  honourable  in  its  motive^  althougfaf  it 
\s  impossible  to  defend  all  his  proceedings.  Dodd  informs 
lis  that  when  at  Paris  he  laid  the  foundation  of  three  col- 
leges for  the  education  of  popish  missionaries ;  one.  Cor.iiis 
couotiymen  at  Paris^  which  was  completed ;  another  at 


L  E  S  L  X  Y.  \n 

Momef  which  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Jesuits  ;  and  a  third 
,at  Do  way,  the  superior  of  which,  for  some  yearji,  was  a 
Scotch  Jesuit. 

.    Bishop  Lesley^s  writings  are,  1.  ^*  Afflicti  Animi  Conso- 
Utiones,  &  tranquilli  Animi  Conservation*  Paris,  1574,  8to. 
il.  *^  De  Origine,  Moribus,  &  Rebus  gestis  IScotorum,** 
HomsB,  1578^  4to.    It  consists  of  ten  books,  of  which  the 
three  last,  making  half  the  volume,  are  dedicated  to  queen 
Mary  ;  to  whom  they  had  been  presented  in  English,  seven 
years  before  the  first  publication  in  Latin.     There  are  se- 
parate copies  of  them  in  several  libraries.     See  Catalog. 
MSS.  Oxott.    This  valuable  history  is  carried  down  to  the 
queen's  return  from  France  in  156 1.     He  seems  unwilling 
to  divulge  what  he  knew  of  some  transactions  after  that 
period.     '^  Some  things,''  says  he,  ^'  savoumd  so  much  of 
ingratitude  and  perfidy,  that,  although  it  were  very  proper 
they  should  be  known,  yet  it  were  improper  for  me  to  re- 
;cord  them,  because  often,  with  the  danger  of  my  life^  I 
endeavoured  to  put  a  stop  to  them ;  and  I  ought  to  do  all 
that  is  in  me,  not  to  let  them  be  known  unto  strangers.** 
With  this  work  are  published,  3.  ^'Parsenesisad  Nobilitatem 
Populumque  Scotorum :''  and,  4.  ^^  Regionum  &  Insularum 
.  Scotiss  D'escriptio."     5/  *^  Defence  of  the  Honour  of  Mary 
Queen  of  Scotland ;  with  a  Declaration  of  her  right,  title, 
.and  interest,  to  the  crown  of  England,'*  Liege,  1571,  8vo, 
which  was  immediately  suppressed.  6.  ^'  A  Treatise,  shew- 
ing, that  the  Regimen  of  Women  is  conformable  to  the 
Law  of  God  and  Nature.*'   These  two  laat  are  ascribed,  by 
Parsons  the  Jesuit,  to  Morgan  Philips,  but  Camden  asserts 
them  to  be  our  author's,  Annal.  Eliz.  sub.  ann.  1569.     7. 
^  De  Titulo  &  Jure  Marise  Scotorum  Reginae,  quo  Angliss 
Successionem  Jure  sibi  vindicat,"  Rbeims,  1580,  4to.     8. 
•There  is  a  MS.  upon  the  same  subject  in  French,  entitled 
**  Remonstrance  au  Pape,"  &c.  Cotton  library,  Titus,  cxii. 
1,  and  E.  3.  14.     9.  '<  An  Account  of  his  Embassage  in 
England,  from  1568  to  1572,"  MS.  in  the  advocates'  li- 
brary in  Scotland.  Catal.  of  Oxfoi^d  MSS.     10.  ^  An  Apo- 
logy for  the  Bishop  of  Ross,  as  to  what  is  laid  to  his  Chaise 
concerning  ihe  Duke  of  Norfolk,*'  MS.  in  the  libtary  of 
the  lord  Longueville.     li.  *^  Several  Letters  in  the  bands 
.#f  Dr.  George  Mackenete,"  who  wrote  his  life.^    ' 

^  Life    by  Mackenzie,  toI.  1!.— -Spotswood's  and   Robertsoo^s  H'ntory.— 
'•  Hiftory.-oDodd't  Ch«rch  Hitt^ry.— >Strjpe't  Lift  of  Oriidal,  p.  150;. 


IM  LESLIE. 

LESLIE  (Dr.  John)»  bishop  of  Ologher  in  Ireland^ 
^deseended  froia  an  ancient  famiij,  and  born  at  Balquhainre, 
in  the  north  of  Scotland.     The  first  part  of  his  education 
was  at  Aberdeen,  whence  be  removed  t6  Oxford.     After- 
wards he  travelled  into  Spain,  Italy,  Gercnany,  and  Franca : 
he  spoke  French,  Spanish,  and  Italian,  with  the  same  {>ro- 
.priety  and  fluency  as  the  natives ;  and  was  so  gteat  a  mas- 
ter of  th6  Latin,  that  it  was  said  of  him,  when  in  Spain, 
Si>lm  LesUius  Latine  loquitur.     He  continueB  twenty-two 
.^ears  abroad ;  and,  during  that  time,  was  at  the  siege  of 
.Rochelle,  and  the  expedition  to  the  isle  of  Rheei  with  the 
duke  of  Buckingham.      He  was  all  along  conversant  in 
courts,  and  at  home  was  happy  in  that  of  Charles  I.  who 
admitted  him  into  his  privy-council  both  in  Scotland  and 
Ireland ;  in  which  stations  he  was  continued  by  Charles  IL 
after  the  restoration.     His  chief  preferment  in  (he  church 
.of  Scotland  was  the  bishopric  of  the  Orkneys,  whence  he 
was  translated  to  Raphoe  in  Ireland,  in  .1633;  and,  the 
same  year,  sworn  a  privy'*counsellor  in  that  kingdom.    He 
built  a  stately  palace  in  his  diocese,  in  the  form  and  strength 
of  a  castle,  one  of  the  finest  episcopal  palaces  in  Ireland, 
and  proved  to  be  useful  afterwards  in  the  rebellion  of  1641, 
^by  prj^erving  a  good  part  of  that  country.    The  good 
bishop  exerted  himself,  as  much  as  be  could,  in  defence 
of  the  royal  cause,  and  endured^a  siege  in  bis  castle  of 
Raphoe,  before  he -would  surrender  it  to  Oliver  Cromwell, 
being  the  last  which  held  out  in  that  country.     He  then 
retired  to  Dublin,  where  he  always  used  the  liturgy  of  the 
cl[urch  of  Ireland  in  his  family,  and  even  had  frequent 
confirmations  and  ordinations.     After  the  restoration,  he 
came  over  to- England;  and,  in  1661,  was -translated  to 
the  see  of  Clogher.     He  died  in  167V,  aged  above  100 
years,  having  been  above  50  years  a  bishbp  ;  and  was  then 
consequently  the  oldest  bishop  in  the  world.^ 

LESLIE  (CiiARtEs),  the  second  son  of  the  preceding, 
.and  a  very  distinguished  writer,  was  born  in  Ireland,  we 
.know  not  in  what  year  ^  and  admitted  a  fellow-commoner 
in  Dublin  college  in  1664,  where  be  continued  till  be 
commenced  M.  A.  In  1671,  on  the  death  of  his  father, 
he  came  to  England  and  entered  bimself  in  the  Temple 
at  Lcmdon,  *where  be  studied  the  law  for  some  years ;  but 

I  fcarrit's  edition  of  Ware.^Atb.  Ox.— Biog.  BriU 


L  fi  8  L  I  E#  191 

Ufttrraris  t eltoqakhMl  it,  and  applied  bimsttf  lo  divinliy. 
In  leso  he  was  adtnitted  into  holy  orden ;  and  in  l^S't 
beeaqus  diatic^llor  of  the  cajdiedt-aUcbttroh  or  diocese  ef 
GddffOT*  About  ^itt  lime  be  loeDdered  hitmuAf  paiticuleriy 
<rt>tioxid^os  to  the  P(>t>ie)h  party  iti  Ireland,  by  bis  isealona 
opposition  to  them,  Mliich  was  thus  called  /brtb*  Rog&t 
Boyle,  bifrbep  of  Clogher,  dying  in  16^7,  f^atriok  Tyrrel 
Wtts  tmidf$  litulttr  popish  bisbopy  and  had  the  revenue*  bf 
the  Me  Msigtied  him  by  kibg  James.  He  set  tip  a  eeoveift 
tof  fWurs  in  Monaghan ;  and,  fixing  his  habitation  tbere^ 
beld  a  puMi^  visitation  of  his  cleigy  with  great  Solemnity ; 
mrbei),  boflie  eubtle  logicians  attending  him,  be  ventuted 
te>ehylenge  ttie  pyotescant  clergy  to  a  public  disputatioHw 
LeMe  WiMpt^  the  challenge,  and  disputed  to  the  etttis* 
Atetfon  of  Ibe  protesi'Mts;  though  it  happened,  a«  it  gMe^ 
tiMy  4t)^  sit  such  eoYitests,  tbift  both  tftdes  clainied  the  i4e«- 
«ery.  He  afterMtds  beld  another  publie  disputation  wiA 
twd  eel^rated  pefyish  divines  in  the  church  of  Tynan,  in 
the  dioee^  of  Armagh,  before  a  very  numerous  assembly, 
^  piM^oto  of  bdh  religions ;  «be  issue  of  ^ich  mA,  ihiSt 
Mf.  John  Siewan,  a  popish  gentleman,  solemnly  renounced 
the  eivoYs  of  the  ck<dr<yh  of  Rome. 

As  the  papists  had  got  possession  of  na  episeopal  see^ 
tfaey  engrossed  otiber  olkeii  too ;  and  a  popish  bigh-eberiff 
«ivas  appoifited  for  the  county  of  Monaghae.  This  pi«o^ 
t^eediug  alarmed  the  gentlemen  in  that  eotmtry ;  who,  de>- 
pending  much  on  Leslie^s  knov^ledge  as  a  jtistiee  of  peaee^ 
)^^i«»ed  to  him,  then  cotift^d  by  the  goat  to  bis  hoerse. 
ile  told  tbefn,  that  it  would  be  as  illegal  in  them  to  per^ 
Mrt  the  sheriff  to  act,  as  it  would  be  in  bie^  to  attempt  it 

B\it  they,  itisisted  that  himself  should  appear  i^  person  en 
Ihe  bench,  at  the  approaching  {juartet^aeMionty  and  "all 
{rtrdtnised  to  act  as  he  did ',  so  he  was  earried  vbere  wr^ 
s»odh  difficuky,  and  in  gredt  paiTi.  tJpbn  tbe  question^ 
wb«tt!her  the  sheriff  was  legally  ^Ualiiied,  tbe  latter  fOplied, 
^  Itiat  he  was  of  the  king^a  own  religiori,  and  it  was  Mft 
Majesty's  will  that  he  should  be  sheriff.^  LesUe  then  oIk 
served,  <*  IPbat  they  were  not  inquiriTrg  into  his  majesty** 
N^gidn,  but  t^bether  be  (tbe  pretended  sheriff)  had  ^a*. 
lifted  Irimseif  according  to  taw,  for  aeting  as  a  proper  ofi^ 
Mr ;  that  the  law  was  the  king's  will,  and  nothing  «li^ 
to  be  deemed  nuch ;  that  bis  sulijects  had  no  other  wajf  ^ 
knowing  "bts  wi41  but  a^  it  is  revealed  to  them  in  liis'lMni; 
and  i^  mfust  always  be  ibeugbt  to  continue  so,  tin  tbe  o«&« 
Voi^XX,  O 


194  L  £  S  L  I  t. 


If 


trary  is  notified  to  them  in  the  same  authentic  mamief. 
This  argument  was  so  convincing,  that  the  bench  unanir 
mously  agreed  to  commit  the  sheriff  for  his  intrusion  and 
arrogant  contempt  of  the  court  Leslie  also  committed 
some  officers  of  that  tumultuous  army  which  the  lord  Tyr* 
connel  raised,  for  robbing  the  country.  » 

.In  this  spirited  conduct  Leslie  acted  like  a  sound  diving 
and  an  upright  magistrate;  but,  while  he  thought  himself 
authorized  to  resist  the  illegal  mandates  of  his  sovereign, 
he  never  approved  of  carrying  these  principles. of  resists 
ance  so  far  as  to  deprive  the  king  of  the  supreme  power ; 
and  persevering  steadily  in  that  opinion,  be  cootiuued, 
after  the  revolution,  in  allegiance  to  king  James.  In  cour 
seqj^ence,  refusing  to  take  the  new  oaths  appointed  upoa 
that  change,  he  lost  all  his  preferments  ^  and  in  1689^ 
when  the  troubles  began  to  arise  in  Ireland,  withdrew,  with 
his  family,  into  England.  Here  he  employed  his  time  ia 
writing  a  great  many  political  pieces  in  support  of  the  cause 
he  had  embraced  ;  and  being  confessedly  a  person 'of  ex-* 
traordinary  wit  and  learning,,  he  became  a  very  formidable 
champion  of  the  nonjurors.  His  first  piece  in  this. cause 
was  an  answer  to  Abp.  King's  ^^  State  of  the  Protestants  i^ 
Ireland,  under  the  late  King  James's  Government,"  in 
which  he  shewed  himself  as  averse  from  the  principles  and 
practices  of  the  Irish  and  other  Papists,  as  he  was  from 
those  of  the  author  whom  he  refuted.  Neither  did  his 
sufferings  make  him  forget  bis  duty  to  the  church  of  Eng- 
land ;  in  defence  of  which  he  shewed  himself  a  strenuous 
champion  against  the  quakers,  many  of  whom  were  con- 
verted by  him.  But^  as  these,  converts  were  desirous  oi 
returning  to  presbytery,  whence  they  had  last  sprung,  he 
was  obliged  to  treat  the  subject  of  church  government  in 
defence  of  episcopacy.  He  likewise  employed  his  pen  in 
the  general  cause  of  the  Christian  religion,  against  Jews^ 
Deists,  and  Socinians.  In  the  mean  time,  however,  these 
writings,  and  his  frequent  visits  to  the  courts  of  St.  Ger*- 
inain's  and  Bar  le  Due,  rendered  him  obnoxious  to  the 
government;  but  he  became  more  so  upon  the  publica- 
tion of  the  *^  Hereditary  Right  of  the  Crown  of  England 
asserted ;"  of  which  he  was  the  reputed  author.  Finding 
himself,  on  this  account,  under  a  necessity  of  leaving  the 
kingdom,  he  repaired  to  the  Pretender  at  Bar  le  Duc^ 
where  he  was  allowed  to  officiate,  in  a  private  chapel,  after 
the  rites  of  the  Church  of  England  s  aod  it  is  said  be  took 


t  £  fe  L  1  le. 


195 


tnntb  pains  to  convert  the  Pretender  to  the  Protestant  re- 
ligion, but  in. vain*.  However,  to  promote  the  said  Preten- 
d«r^s  interest,  when  some  hopes  of  his  Restoration  were 
/entertained  by  his  party  in  England,  he  wrote  a  letter  from 
Bar  le  Due,  dated  April  23,  1714,  which  was  printed  and 
dispersed  among  his  adherents,  in  which,  after  giving  a 
flattering  description  of  the  Pretender^s  person  and  cha- 
racter, his  graceful  mien,  magnanimity  of  spirit,  devotion 
frefe  from  bigotry,  application  to  business,  ready  appre- 
hension, sound  judgment,  and  afTability,  so  that  none  con- 
versed with  him  without  being  charmed  with  his  good 
sense  and  temper;  he  concludes  with  a  proposal,  *^  on 
condition  of  his  being  restored  to  his  crown,  that,  for  the 
security  of  the  church  of  England  as  by  law  established^ 
he  would  so  far  wave  his  prerogative,  ii#  the  nomination  of 
bishops,  deans,  and  all  other  ecclesiastical  preferments  in 
the  gift  of  the  crown,  that  five  bishops  should  be  appointed, 
of  which  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury  for  the  time  being 
always  to  be  one,  who,  upon  any  vacancy,  might  name 
three  persons  to  him,  from  whom  he  would  chuse."  Many 
other  proposals  of  the  like  nature  were  made  soon  after, 
and  several  projects  were  concerted  not  only  in  England, 
but  an  actual  insurrection  begun  in  Scotland  by  his  party, 
in  171 S,  aU  which  ended  in  the  crushing  and  dispersing 


*  These  l«st  posUioos  have  been 
contested  in  some  respects  by  an  able 
writer,  who  thas  expresses  bis  opihion  : 
**  Tbaf  he  (Leslie)  repaired  to  Bar  le 
Dae,  and  endeaToured  to  convertjo  the 
churchof  England  bimwhom  be  consider- 
ed at  the  rightful  sovereign  of  England, 
i»  indeed  true;  but  we  have  reason  to 
believe  that  this  was  not  in  consequence 
of  his  being  obliged  to  leave  the  king- 
dom. There,  is,  in  the  first  place, 
some  grounds  to  believe,  that  '  The 
Hereditary  Right  of  the  Crown  of  Eng- 
land asserted'  was  not  written  by  him; 
and  there  is  still  in'existence  pndoubt- 
ed  evidence,  that  in  consequence  of 
bis  great  fame'  as  a  polemic,  he  waa 
seat  to  Bar  la  0ao  for  the  express  pur- 
pose of  endeavouring^  to  convert  the 
son  of  James  ll.  by  some  gentlemen 
of  fortmie  in  Englapd^ .  n^o; .  wished  to 
sea  that  prince  on  tbe  tjiione  of  his  an- 
cestors. '  Th6  writielf  pPthis  articje  had 
the  honour  sixtees/  or  seventeen  years 
kjg(h  10  bo  iwQwa  to  the  gruid-d«ngh« 


ter  of  one  of  those  gentlemen,  a  lady 
of  the  strictest  veraeity  ;  and  from  her 
be  received  many  anecdotes  of  Leslie 
and  his  associates,  which,  as  he  did. 
not  then  foresee  that  he  should  have  the 
present  occasion  for  them,  he  has  suf-^ 
fered  to  slip  from  his  memory.    That 
lady  is  still  alive,  and  we  have  reason 
to  believe  is  in  possession  of  many  let- 
ters by  Leslie,  written  in  cunfidence' 
to  her  grandfather,  both  irom  Bar  le 
Due,  and  from  St.  Germain's ;  and  By 
the  account  which  she  gave  of  these 
letters,  Leslie  appVars  to  have  con- 
sidered his  prince  as  a  weak  and  in* 
corrigible  bigot,  though  in  every  thing 
but  religion  an  amiable  and  accom- 
plished man."     Dr.   Gleig's  Supple*' 
ment  to  the  Encyclopsedia  Britannica* 
To  this  we  may  add,  that  the  real  au- 
thor of  the  «*  Hereditary  Right,"  &c.- 
wastheRev.Mr.  Harbin,  also  a  noqjtiror,? 
according  to  a  MS  note  of  the  late  Mr, 
Whiston's  in  his  copy  of  the  first  edi- 
tion of  tbia  X^ictionary, 


19^  L  £  8  L  i  B. 

of  the  rebeH  ^and  in  the  PAt«ader*«  being  obliged  te 
leav€  the  French  doaunion«. 

In  this  exigence  be  withdrew  to  Italj^  whither  jLe^fi^ 
attended  him^  notwithstanding  the  tU-ngage  he  met  with 
at  that  Qourtm  The  Pretieoder  bad  given  him  a  premie 
that  he  shoukl  celebrate  the  chnrch  of  England  derviee  in 
bis&m9y ;  and  that  he  wonfal  bear  ^at  he  ebonld  tepre* 
aent  to  faira  on  the  enhjeet  of  religion.  Bnt  the  Chev-aiier 
was  for  from  keeping  the  word  be  had  given,  iind  on  the 
faith  of  which  oar  divine  had  come  over  $  for^  thoo^  he 
allowed  hiai^  for  form's  sake,  te  celebrate  the  ehuh^  of 
England  service  in  bis  faimrly,  yet  he  oevar  was  present 
there;  and  not  only  refused  to  bear  Leslie  himsdi^  but 
sheltered  the  ignorance  q(  his  priests,  or  the  badness  of 
his  cause^  or  both)  behind  his  authoril^^  «ftd  absolutely 
forbad  all  discourse  concerning  religion.  However,  Leslie 
put  up  with  every  things  in  dutiful  sabmiilsita  to  bib 
avowed  sovereign^  till  I721»  when  be  fetnrned  tO  £ng* 
land,  revolving)  whatever  the  con9e<|«enoe6  might  be^  tb 
die  in  his  own  country.  Some  of  his  friends,  ac^piainting 
lord  Sunderlatid  with  his  purposei  implored  bis  peateetkia 
for  the  good  old  man,  whieh  his  lordship  teadily  and  ge« 
xierously  promised ;  and  when  a  member  of  the  House  of 
commons  officiously  waited  on  Idrd  Sunderland  with,  the 
news  that  Mr.  Leslie  bad  arrived,  he  met  with  such  a  re- 
oi^tfon  fr&m  hi)  tordship  ^%  bis  lAib^ral  ekrund  d^iterve'd. 
Our  authot  then  went  over  to  Ireland,  where  be  died 
April  13,  1722>  at  his  d^wn  boose  dt  Gfeshmg^,  in  thie 
e&titity  of  Motidghati. 

As  to  bis  character^  fiayle  styles  him  '^  a  miin  of  merit 
and  t!e«A*nin^,'*  atid  telts  ui^,  that  he  xtus  the  Brst  wht>  wr<yte 
in  Great  Britain  against  the  errors  of  madeira  BourignoOi 
His  booka,  adds  be>  are  (ii^icb  eneeiAed,  a^d  especiaHy 
Ms  trtatiuie  t)f  •*  The  ShAe  in  the  Orass.*^  Salmon  ob- 
serves^ that  hii  works  must  transnbit  him  to  posterity  -as  a 
man  thit>fmi|;hly  I«a;mtd  and  ttuly  pidtis.  IVtf.  H^mrh^ 
the  cOhtinualor  of  Ware,  informs  us  t^t  Les^  made  se<> 

vetol  toiivtfefts  from  popery ;  and  ^snys,  that  ftotwfthistMiding 

his  ltttstak6n  opiniOlis  about  government,  and  a  few  other 
matters^  he  desertes  the  hi>^est  piisase  fer  ^d^fetidinig  th* 
Cteritttiah  Teli|;rdn  against  D^istft,  Jews,  Qjirakt^ts,  ^Wd  test 
admirably  well  suppoitlng  the  dootrines  of  the  ehufeb  of 
England  against  th^t  «f  Jtxftne.  The  -atilhtMr t)f  ¥be  ^  Free» 
holder's  Journal^**  immediately  after  the  death  of  Mr. 


LESLIE.  157 

Leslie,  abserred,  that  when  tbe  popish  emiMaries  w«pe. 
nost  active  in  poiaoiung  the  miiujs  of  tba  people,  Mv* 
Leslie  was  equaHy  vigilant  in  exposing,  borii  in  publia 
^ndl  private,  the  errors  and  absurdities  e4F  the.  ]loiiush  d(M>« 
trines.  Yet,  upon  the  abdieation  ol  king  Jaioe^  be  i|e^ 
ftigned  bis  livings,  foUawed  bi»  fovtonee,  and  adbereck 
^rmty  ta  his  ifiteFests  ;  an4»  t^fter  bia  demise^  «a  tbose-  oit 
the  Pretender.  Notwithstanding  hia  well-koown  attaeli<^ 
naei^t  to  jbbe  Jacpbite  interest,  and,  bis  frequent  viMts  to 
tbe  court  of  St.  Germain's,  he  was  not  nuKb  ipolested  by 
the  government  ti)l  a  little  before  Sacbeverett^s  t^ial,  wliei* 
be  attacked  Bp.  Burnet  rather  warmly,  in  a  pani|Aie# 
eailed  ^*  Tbe  good  Old  Cause,  or  Lycng  in  IVntb,*^  io 
which  be  endeavoured  to  prove,  from  th^  bishop's  formev 
work^  the  truth  of  that  doctrine  for  which  the  dootov  wae 
prosecuted  by  tbe  Commons,  and  violently  iRvei^hectagainet 
the  h^sbop  himself. 

Besides' tbe  political  tracts  which  be  scattered,  Mr.  Leslie 
left  two  volumes,  in  folio,  of  theologieal  works,  in  which 
be  has  discussed  nearly  aU  tbe  oontroverMes  which  now 
fjist'uvb  tbe  peace  of  the  Christian  church.  Consummate 
karqing)  i^ttended  by  the  lowest  humihty,  the  strictest 
piety  without  the  least  tincture  of  morosene^,  a  convey* 
•ation  to 'the  last  degree  lively  and  s{Mrited,  and  yet' to  tbe 
last  degree  innocent,  9iade  bini  the  delight  of  mankind^ 
and  leaves  wha4;  Dr.  Hiokes  says  of  hiei  unquestionable^ 
that  he  made  more  converts  to  the  church  of  Eb^and 
than  any  other  roan  of  our  times. 

*^  A  charge,  however,^'  says  tbe  writer  whom  we  have 
already  quoted  in  the  preceding  note,  ^'  has  been-  lately 
brought  against  him  of  such  a  nature,  as,  if  well  foi^nded^ 
must  detract,  not  only  from  his  literary  fame^  but  also 
from  bis  integrity.  '  The  short  and  easy'Metbod  with  tbe 
Deifts'  is  unqueetionably  bis  most  valuable^  and^  appa- 
rently, bis  most  cM^iginal  work ;  yet  this  traot  ia  published 
ia  Fi-ench  among  the  works  ef  the  abb6  St  R&tj^  wbp  dfied 
in  led^ ;  and  therefore  it  has  b^en  said,  that  unless  it  was 
publiabec}.  in  English  prior  to  that  period,  Charles  LesHf 
muslt  be  oonsidered  as  a  shameless  plagiary.*^ 

]n  answer  to  this  Dr^  Gleig  observes^  that  <<  Tbe  Eng* 
lisb  wqrk  was  certainly  not  puUisbed  pHp^  to  th^  death  of 
tbeabb6  St.  R6al ;  for  the  first  edkion  bears  date  J^kly  VfiJk^ 
l^iT^;  and  yet  nifmy  reasons  conspire  to  convince  us^  ,tbet 
ow  countryman  waa  uo  plagiary.  There  ia,  indeed*,  a 
striking  similarity  between  die  English  and  tbe  French  works; 


I9ar 


LESLIE. 


■^ 


but  this  is  no  complete  proof  that  the  one  was  copied  from 
the  other.'*  Dr.  Gleig,  after  stating  some  remarkable  in- 
stances of  a  similar  coincidence,  asks,  ^^  After  these  in^ 
stances  of  apparent  plagiarism,  whsch  we  know  to  be  only 
apparent,  has  any  man  a  right  to  say  that  Charles  Leslie 
and  the  abb6  St.  R^al  might  not  have  treated  their  sub- 
ject in  the  way  that  they  have  done,  without  either  borrowing 
from  the  other  ?"     And  adds  : 

^^  But  this  is  not  all  that  we  have  to  urge  on  the  subject. 
If  thiere  be  plagiarism  in  the  case,  and  the  identity  of  titles 
looks  very  like  it,  it  is  infinitely  more  probable  that  the 
editor  of  St.  B^aPs  works  stole  from  Leslie,  than  that 
Leslie  stole  from  St.  R^al,  unless  it  can  be  proved  that  the 
works  of  the  abb6,  and  this  work  in  particular,  were  pub- 
lished before  1697.  At  that  period  the  English  language 
was  very  little  read  or  understood  on  the  continent;  whilst 
in  Britain  the  French  language  was  by  scholars  as  gene- 
rally understood  as  at  the  present.  Hence  it  is,  that  so 
many  Frenchmen,  and  indeed  foreigners  of  different  nations^ 
thought  themselves  safe  in  pilfering  science  from  the 
British  philosophers ;  whilst  there  is  not,  that  we  know, 
one  well-authenticated  instance  of  a  British  philosopher 
appropriating  to  himself  the  discoveries  of  a  foreigner. 
If,  then,  such  men  as  Leibnitz,  John  Bernouilli,  and  Des 
Cartes,  trusting  to  the  improbability  of  detection,  conde- 
scended to  pilfer  the  discoveries  of  Hooke,  Newton,  and 
Harriot,  is  it  improbable  that  the  editor  of  the  works  of 
St.  Real  should  claim  to  his  friend  a  celebrated  tract,  of 
which  he  knew  the  real  author  to  be  obnoxious  to  the  go- 
vernment of  his-  own  country,  and  therefore  not  likely  to 
have  powerful  friends  to  maintain  his  right? 

<*  But  farther,  Burnet  bishop  of  Sarum  was  an  excel- 
lent scholar,  and  well-read,  as  every  one  knows,  in  the 
works  of  foreign  divines.  Is  it  conceivable,  that  this  pre- 
late, when  smarting  under  the  lash  of  Leslie,  would  have 
let  slip  so  good  an  opportunity  of  covering  with  disgrace 
his  most  formidable  antagonist,  had  he  known  that  anu- 
gonist  to  be  guilty  of  plagiarism  from  the  writings  of  the 
abb6  St.  R6al  ?  Let  it  be  granted,  however,  that  Burnet 
was  a  stranger  to  these  writings  and  to  this  plagiarism  ;  it 
can  hardly  be  supposed  that  Le  Clerc  was  a  Sttranger  to 
them  likewise.  Yet!  this  author,  when,  for  reasons  best 
known  to  himself,  he  chose  (1706)  to  depreciate  the  ai^u- 
nent  of  the  <^  Short  Method/'  and  to  traduce  its^  author 


LESLIE.  199 

as  ignorant  of  aqcient  history,  and  as  having  brought  for- 
ward his  four  marks  for  no  other  purpose  than  to  put  the 
deceitful  traditions  of  popery  on  the  same  footing  with  the* 
most  authentic^  doctrines  of  the  gospel,  does  not  so  mucd  ' 
as  insinuate  that  he  borrowed  these  marks  from  a  popish 
s^b6,.  though  such  a  charge,  could  he  have  established  it, 
would  have  served  his  purpose  more  than  all  his  rude , 
railings  and  invective.  But  there  was  no  room  for  such  ^ 
charge.  In  the  second  volume  of  the  works  of  St.  R6al, 
published  in  1757,  there  is  indeed  a  tract  entitled  ^<  M£- 
thode  courte  et  aisee  pour  combattre  les  D6istes,"  and 
there  can  be  little  doubt  but  that  the  publisher  wished  it  to  be 
considered  as  the  work  of  his  countryman.  Unfortunately, 
however,  for  his  design,  a  catalogue  of  the  abba's  works 
is  given  in  the  first  volume ;  and  ill  that  catalogue  the 
^  M6thode  courte  et  ais^e'  is  not  mentioned.^' 

.  His  works  may  be  divided  into  political  and  theological. 
Of , the  former,  be  wrote,  1.  **  An^er  to  the  State  of  the 
Protestants  of  Ireland,''  &c.  already  mentioned.  2.  <<  Cas- 
sandra, concerning  the  new  Associations,"  &c.  1703,  4to. 
3.  ^f  B^hearsals ;"  at  first  a  weekly  paper,  published  after- 
wards twice  a  week  in  a  half-sheet,  by  way  of  dialogue  on 
the  affairs  of  the  times  ;  begun  in  1704,  and  continued  for 
six  or  seven  years.  4.  "The  Wolf  stripped  of  his  Shepherd's 
Cloathing,  in  answer  to  f  Moderation  a  Virtue,' "  1704,  4to. 
The  pamphlet  it  answers  was  written  by  James  Owen.  5. 
**  The  Bishop  of  Sarum's  [Burnet's]  proper  Defence,  from 
a  Speech  said  to  be  spoken  by  him  against  occasional  Con- 
formity," 1704,  4to.  6.  "  The  new  Association  of  those 
called  Moderate  Churchmen,"  &c.  occasioned  by  a 
pamphlet  entitled  "  The  Danger  of  Priestcraft,"  1705, 
4to.  7.  "The  new  Association,"  part  II.  1705,  4to.  8. 
**  The  principles  of  Dissenters  concerning  Toleration 
and  occasional  Conformity,"  1 70.5,  4to.  9.  "  A  Warning 
for  the  Church  of  England,"  1706,  4to.  Some  have 
doubted  whether  these  two  pieces  were  his.  10.  "The 
good  Old  Cause,  or  lying  in  truth  ;  being  a  second  Defence 
of  the  bishop  of  Sarum  from  a  second  Speech,"  &c.  1710. 
I^or  this  a  warrant  was  issued  out  against  Leslie.  11.."  A 
Letter  to  the  Bishop  of  Sarum,  ^  in  answer  to  his  Sermon 
after  the  Queen's  Death,  in  Defence  of  the  Revolution," 
1715.  12.  "Salt  for  the  Leech."  13.  "The  Anatomy 
of  n  Jacobite."  14.  "  Gallienus  redivivus."  15.  <*  De*, 
le^da  Carthago."     16,  <^  A  Letter  to  Mr.  William  Moly^ 


/ 


too  L  I  S  L  I  E. 

neuxi  on  hit  Case  of  Ireland's  being  bonftd  by  the  ISflg* 
liab  Aois  of  Parliament."  17*  ^^  A  Letter  to  Julian  Jeha« 
son.''  la.  Several  Tracts  again9t  Dr.  Higden  and  Mv, 
Hoadly. 

His  theological  tracts  are,  first,  against  the  Quakers  | 
n»y  1.  <^  The  Snake  in  the  Grags/'  &c.  1697,  8vo.  2.  *^  A 
-Discourse  proving  the  Diving  Institution  of  Water  Bap^ 
tism/'  &c.  ibid.  4to.  3.  **  Some  seasonable  Refiectioiia 
upon  the  Quakers*  solemn  Protestation  against  &^rge 
Keith/*  ko.  1697.  4«  **  Satan  disrobed  from  his  EUsguk^ 
of  Light/'  1608,  4to.  5.  ^^  A  Defence  of  a  book  entitlei) 
<The  Snake  in  the  Grass/  1700/'  8vo.  6.  ^^  A  Reply 
to  a  book  entitled  '^  Anguis  flagellatus,  or  a  Switch  fbjp 
the  Snake — being  the  last  part  of  the  Snake  in  the  Gimss,'^ 
1702,  9yo.  7.  ^^  Primitive  Hepesy  revived  in  the  Faith  and 
Practice  of  the  Quakers/'  li98,  4to.  8.  <^  The  praseat 
State  of  Quakerism  in  England/'  1701.  9.  *^  Essay  oan-^ 
corning  the  Divine  Right  of  Tythes/*  1700,  8vo. 

II.  Against  the  Presbyterians :  10.  <^  A  Discourse,  8he«r«« 
ing  who  they  are  that  are  now  qualified  to  administer  Bap^ 
ttsm/*  fco.  11.  <*Th0  History  of  Sin  and  Heresy/^  &o. 
1698,  8vo. 

in.  Against  the  Deists  i  12.  '^  A  short  and  easy  Method 
with  the  Deisto,*'  &c.  1694,  8vo.  18.  ''A  Vindication  of  the 
short  and  easy  Method.'*  14.  <<  The  Truth  of  Christianity 
demonstrated,  in  a  Diidogue  between  a  Christian  wd  a 
Deist,?*  1711,  8vo. 

IV.  Against  the  Jews :  IB.  <^  A  short  and  easy  Method 
with  the  Jews.^'  This  is  dated  at  the  end,  ^^  Good-Friday/* 
1689  ;  and  the  fourth  edition  was  published  in  1715. 

V.  Against  the  Socinians:  16.  ^^  The  Socinian  CotitrO'^ 
versy  discussed,"  &o.  l|08.  17.  '^  An  Answer  to  Remai»ka 
on  the  first  Dialogue  against  the  Socinians.'*  18.  A  Roply 
to  the  Vindication  of  the  Remarks."  19.  <<  An  Answev  to 
the  Examination  of  the  last  Dialogue/'  &c.  20.  *^  A  Sup-^ 
plement  in  answer  to  Mr.  C|endon-s  *  Tractatus  philoso* 
pbieo-theologicus  4e  Persona','-  &e.  21.  <^  The  Cfaavgi 
of  Socinianism  against  Dr.  Tiliotson  considered.  Ice.  by 
a  true  Son  of  the  Cbuvcb."^ 

VI.  Against  the  Papists }  22.  <<  Of  private  Judgaseat 
and  Authority  in  Matters  of  Faith.''  29.  <«  The  Case  stated 
between  the  Ohurch  of  Rome  and  the  ChuiKsh  of  England/^ 
&e.  1718.  24.  <<  The  true  notion  of  the  Catholio  Ohufcni, 
in  answer  to  the  l^b<^  of  Meaux's  I^etter  to  Mf .  IIeUo0|^ 
&c. 


L  I  8  L  I  I,  WA 

Bdftldkes  these,  he  published  the  foar  Mletiiiig  tfaots» 
95.  ^«  A  8eniK>n  preaebed  iu  Cbafter,  againit  Marviagfet 
in  dilfevent  Coinmueions/'  ITM,  9vo.  This  eennon  oe^ 
easioned  Mr.  PodwelPs  disoourse  up6fi  the  saine  tubjed* 
9^.  <^  AxDissertation  eencerning  the  Use  and  Autboriiy  of 
Ecolesiastical  History.**  07.  ^^  The  Case  pf  the  Regal  and 
tbe  Pontificate.''  28.  <^  A  Supplement^  in  answer  to  a 
beok  entitled  *  The  regal  Supremacy  In  Ecclesiastical 
AiiUi»  ass^rted'^^'  k^o.  These  two  last  pieces  were  occa- 
sioned by  the  dispute  about  the  rights  of  convocation,  be«* 
Iween  Wake,  &c.  on  one  side,  and  Atterbury  and  his 
fpiends,  among  whom  was  Leslie,  on  the  other.  All  hie 
Idieological  pieces,  except  that  against  Titletson,  were 
ooUeoted  and  published  by  himself  in  two  vols.  fok.  179 1,^ 

LEASING  (GoTTHOLP  Efhraim),  a  distinguished  Geiw 
Duin  writer,  was  born  at  Kamenz,  in  Poeierania,  in  (799* 
His  linther,  who  was  a  man  of  tsalents  and  tear^ning,  bad 
destined  himself  to  an  acade'aiical  life^  but  was  called  to 
taj^e  charge  of  a  congregation  at  Kamene,  the  place  of  bia 
nativity.  Here  he  was  in  correspondence  with  the  most 
Isanous  preachers  of  his  time^  published  some  worhs  of  bia 
own,  and  translated  several  treatises  ef  Abp.  Tllletson.  He 
also  left  behind  him  a  manuscript  refutation  of  some  preju-* 
dtces  against  the  reformation.  There  can  be  no  doubt  but 
the  ei^ample  and  cares  of  so  learned  and  thoughtful  a 
father  had  no  inconsiderable  influence  €>n  the  early  turn 
Mfhiqh  Leasing  shewed  for  literature.  When,  in  bis  sixth 
year,  his  father  chose  to  have  his  picture  drawn,  in  which 
he  was  te  be  represented  sitting  under  a  tree  playing  with 
a  bird,  young  Lessing  shewed  his  utter  dislike  to  the  plaH> 
and  said,  <<  if  I  am  to  be  painted,  let  me  be  drawn  with  a 
great  heap  ef  books  about  me,  otherwise  I  had  rather .  not 
be  painted  at  all  ;'^  which  was  accordingly  done.  He 
l^asfed  five  entire  years  at  the  high-school  at  Meissen,  to 
M^iich,  by  his  own  account,  he  was  indebted  for  whatever 
learning  and  solidity  of  thinking  he  possessed.  Though 
the  Latin  p&etry  belongs  to  the  qficiis  perfeciis  of  a,  ^cholwt 
in  this  academy,  and  the  German  poetry  to  the  imperfeeHs^ 
yet  he  pursued  the  latter  mueh  mere  than  the  fbrm  ;,  and 
celebrated  the  battle  of  Kesseldorf  in  German  verse,  at 
die  request  of  his  father.  Prpfessor  Kiemm  particularly 
Meeuraged  him  to  the  study  ef  mathematies  and  philoao* 

I  4i0S.  Brit.T»Bof«tesQMri»TbMt.'i*BiMli'»TUIoiMii.«-Wartfs  Irdand  If 
Qarrit<«^oiiei'9  Life  of  bishop  Home^p.  69«««Eiicy«lop.  Brit.  Supplement* 


102  L  E  S  S  I  N  G. 

pby ;  while  Grabner,  the  rector  of  the  academy,  wrote  t9 
\k\s  father  concerniog  them :  "  He  is  a  colt  that  requires  a 
double  allowance  of  provender.     The   lessons  that  are 
found  too  difficult  for  others,  are  but  child's  pUy  to  him. — 
We  shall  hardly  be  sufficient  for  him  much  longer.-''    Being 
removed  to  Leipsic,  he  soon  .displayed  bis  inclination  to 
\vrite  for  the  stag^,  and  likewise  made  great  proficiency  in 
the  bodily  exercises  of  horsemanship,  fencing,  dancing, 
and  leaping.     Mr.  Wei$se  was  his  first  and  principal  friend  at 
this  place  ^  and  their  friendship  was  only  dissolved  by 
death.   .  Lessing  frequented  the  college-exercises  but  little, 
and  that  irregularly :  none  of  the  professors  gave  him  satis- 
faction, excepting  Ernesti,  whose  lectures  he  sometimea 
attended ;  but  he  was  himself  an  extensive  reader,  and 
was  especially  partial  to  the  writings  of  Wolff  in  German* 
He  kept,  up  a  great  intimacy  with  Naumann,  the  author  of 
^'  Nimrod,"  on.  account  of  his  possessing  many  singular 
qualities,  which  were  always  more  agreeable  to  Lessing^ 
than  the  common  dull  monotony  of  character,  even  thougjji 
mingled  with  some  weaknesses  and  defects.     Under  Kast« 
Xier  be  exercised  himself  in  disputation ;  and  here  began 
his  close  connection  with  Mylius,  whose  works  he  after« 
warfls  published.     His  intercourse  with  this  free-thinker, 
and  with  the  con^pany  of  comedians,  however,  gave  great 
uneasiness  to  his  parents.    .  His  first  literary  productiooa 
appeared  in  a  Hamburgh  newspaper.     In  company  with 
M.  Weisse,  be  translated  ^^  Hannibal/'  the  only  tragedy 
of  Marivaux,  into  rhyming  Alexandrines.     His  comedy  of 
the  ^*  Young  Scholar,^'  which  he  had  b6gun  while  a  school^ 
boy,  was  finished  at  Leipsic,  from  an  actual  event  that 
happened  to  a  young  scholar  disappointed  in  his  hopes  of 
the  prize  from  the  acadenny  at  Berlin.     His  father  about 
this  time  thought  proper  to  recall  him  home  for  a  time,  in 
order  to  wean  him  from  the  bad  company  he  was  thought 
to  frequent.     In  this  interval,  he  composed  a  number  of 
Anacreontics  on  love  and  wine.     One  day,  his  pious  sister 
coming  into  his  room,  in  his  absence,  saw  these  sonnets, 
read  them  over,  and,  not  a  little  angry  that  her  brother 
coul4  $10  employ  his  time,  threw  them  into  the  fire.     A 
trifling  burst  of  resentnient  was  all  he  felt  on  the  occasion. 
He  took  a  handful  of  snow,  and  threw  it  into  her  bosom, 
in  order  to  cooLher  zeal.-7-I(e  now  went  back  to  Leipzig^ 
which  place  he  soon  after  quitted,  going  by  Wittenberg  to 
Serlio.    This  gave  his  father  fresh  uneasiness;  and  pro^ 


r 


L  E  S  S  I  N  G^.  20S 

duced  those  justificatory  letters  of  his  son,  which  at  least 
display  the  frankness  of  his  character.  ,  At  Berlin,  in  con- 
junction with  Mylius,  he  compiled  the  celebrated  <^  Sketch 
of  the  History  and  Progress  of  the  Drama/'     The  father  of 
a  writer  who  had  been  sharply  criticised  in  this  work,  made 
complaint  of  it  to  Lessing's  father.     To  this  person  he  wrote 
in  answer  :  **  Th^ critique  is  mine,  and  I  only  lament  that 
I  did  not  make  it  more  severe.     Should  Gr.  complain  of 
the  injustice  of  my  judgment,  I  give  him  full  liberty  to  re- 
taliate as  he  pleases  on  my  works."     One  of  his  first  ac- 
quaintances in  Berlin  was  a  certain  Richier  de  Louvain, 
who,  in  1750,  from  a  French  teacher,  was  become  secretary 
to  Voltaire,  with  whom  he  brought  our  author  acquainted. 
—From  Berlin  he  went  to  Wittenberg,  where  he  plied  his 
studies  with  great  diligence,  and  took  the  degree  of  master, 
but  remained  only  one  year,  and  then  returned  to  Berlin. 
At  Berlin  be  undertook  the  literary  article  for  the  periodi- 
cal publication  of  Voss,  in  which  employment  be  .both 
wrote  and  translated  a  great  variety  of  pieces,  and  tbrmed 
several  plans  which  were  never  executed.     Among  others, 
he  agreed  with  Mendelsohn  to  write  a  journal,  under  the 
title  of  **  The-best  from  bad  Books  :"  with  the  motto  taken 
from  St.  Ambrose,  " Legirous  aliqua  ne  legantur.'*     "We 
read  some  books  to  save  others  the  trouble.''     In  1755,  be 
went  back  to  Leipzic,  and  thence  set  out  upon  a  journey,  in 
company  with  a  young  man  of  the  name  of  Winkler :  but 
this  was  soon  interrupted,  and  broifght  on  a  law-suit,  in 
which  Lessing  came  off  conqueror.     He  now,  in  order  to 
please  his  sister,  translated  '^  Law's  serious  Call,"  which 
was  finished  and  published  by  Mr.  Weisse.     At  the  begin- 
ning of  1759,  Lessing  went  again  to  Berlin,  where  he  very 
much  addicted  himself  to  gaming.     This  has  been  attri- 
buted to  his  situation  at  Breslaw,  where  he  was  in  the 
seven  years  war  for  ■  some  time  in  quality  of  secretary  to 
general  Tauenzien.'    E^en  the  care  for  his  health  was  con- 
ducive to  it.     **  Were  I  able  to  play  calmly,"  said  he,  "  I 
would  now  play  at  all;  but  it  is  not  without  reason  that  I 
play  with  eagerness.     The  vehenient  agitation   sets  my 
clogged  machine  in  motion,  by  forcing  the  fluids  into  cir- 
culation ;  it  frees  me  from  a  bodily  torment,  to  which  I 
am  often  subject"     His  intimate  friedds  among  the  learned 
at  Breslaw  were  Arletius  and  Klose.     Here  he  was  attacked 
by  a  violent  feven     Though  he  suffered  much  from  the 
disease,  yet  he  declared  that  his  greatest  torment  arose 


flQ4  LESSINa 

fi^m  the  conTeroatiQbfl  of  his  phygioaD,  old  IIN^  Mofgeik« 
bes&^Vy  whiob  he  couM  acar^ely  eadii^re  when  he  was  w^iL 
Wb^B  the  figver  was  afc  iu  height,  be  lay  perfectly  qai«^^ 
•with  great  significance  in  his  loeks.  This  sa  rouch  struck 
his  friend  sianding  by  the  bee),  that  he  familiaviy  a^ed 
him  what  be  was  thinking  of?  '^  I  am  eurious  to  l^novi^ 
what  wili  pass  in  my  miod  wh^a  I  ^m  in  the  act  of  dying.'^ 
Being  told  that  was  impossible^  he  abruptly  replied  :  ^'  Yoa 
want  to  cheat  me.'^  On  the  day  of  hi^  reception  into  the 
order  of  free-masons  at  Hamhurgb,  one  of  bis  friemis,  a 
jealous  free-mason,  took  him  aside  into  an  adjoining  ic^oom, 
and  asked  him,  ^^  Is  it  not  true,  now,  that  you  fi^d  no* 
thing  an)ong  us  against  the  goTernmeat,  religion,  or  mo- 
rals r*  *^  Yes,*'  answered  Lessing,  with  great  vivacity, 
*^  would  to  heaven  I  bad !  I  should  then  at  le^t  have  found 
SOffiethiBg !''  The  extent  of  his  genius  must  be  gathei^' 
from  his  numerous  writings,  Mendelsohn  said  of  him  ink 
a  letter  to  his  brother,  shortly  after  his  death,  that  bo 
was  advanced  at  le^t  a  century  before  the  age  in  which 
he  lived, 

In  1782,  he  accompanied  his  ^neral  to  the  siege  of 
Schweidnits ;  but  after  the  peace,  be  was  intreduoed  to 
the  king  of  Prussia,  and  then  resunled  his  literayy  eociipa<» 
tions  at  Bevlin.  Though  he  produced  many  worics,  ye% 
they  were  pot  th^  source  of  much  profit,  ^nd,  in  I7#9,  bis 
oircumstanoed  were  so  narrow,  that  he  was  oUigect  to  sell 
his  library  for  support  At  this  critical  junoture  be  melF 
with  a  generous  patron  in  Leopold,  heir-appai«nt  to  the 
duke  of  Brunswick,  through  whos^  means  be  was  appointed 
librarian  at  Wolfenbuttle.  One  of  the  fruits  of  this  very 
desirable  situation  was  a  periodical  publication,  entttleNEl 
*^  Contributions  to  Literary  History,''  containing  notices 
and  extracts  of  the  most  remarkable  MSS.  The  '<  Contri- 
butions*' were  made  the  vehicle  of  ^*  Fragments  of  an 
anonymous  Writer  discovered  ia  the  Library  at,  WoUen^i 
buttle,''  which  consisted  of  direct  attacks  upon  the  Christian 
revelation.  They  occasioned  a  great  commotion  among 
the  German  theologians,  and  would  not  have  been  printeck 
but  for  the  interference  of  prince  Leopold  with  the  Hc^i* 
sees  of  the  press.  In  1778  they  were  suppressed.  Lessing^ 
ftom  his  risipg  fame,  and  connection  with  prince  l^eopo)d» 
with  whom  be  went  on  a  tour  to  Ital^,  was  so  distinguished 
among  the  German  hterati,  that  several  potentates  of  thal^ 
Qoun^ry  made  him  o%rs  of  an  advantageous  8ettleBi6Bt» 


1  E  S  S  t  N  &  <0« 

Notbing,  bowievefy  could  lead  him  to  break  his  ooowctlMl 
with  bis  liberal  patron  the  prinoe  of  Brunswicki  wbo^  by 
bis  accession  ia  I'JSO  to  tbe  sovereignty,  was  enabled  to 
augment  his  favours  cowards  bioi*  His  latter  publications 
were  ^^  Nathan  the  Wise  (*'  a  secoud  pari  of  the  same 
drama)  entitled  *<  The  Monk  of  Lebanon  ;*'  and  **  A  Dis* 
sertation  on  tbe  Education  of  the  Human  Race.''  He  died 
at  Hamburgh  in  tbe  month  of  February,  1781.  Lessitig 
had  more  genius  than  leaiming,  and  his  fame,  therefore^ 
even  in  his  own  country,  rests  on  his  plays^  fables^  songs^ 
and  epigrams.  His  life  was  pi|blisbed  at  Berlin  in  179^^ 
and  18  otore  replete  with  anecdote  than  instruction^  as  may 
be  gathered  from  the  few  circumstances  we  have  detailed^ 
He  ^as  a  decided  deist^  and  his  morals  corresponded. ' 

L'£STHANGE  (Sir  Roger),  was  descended  from  aa 
ancuent  lund  reputaMe  family,  seated  at  Ilunstontoli-h^li^ 
Norfolk!  where  he  was  born  Dec^  17,  16 1€.  He  was  th« 
youngest  son  of  sir  Hamond  L'fistrange^  knt  a  zealous 
royal^  during  tbe  dUputes  between  king  Charles  and  his 
j^liament^  \^o>  having  his  estate  sequestered,  retired  to 
l^yfHit  of  which  town  be  was  made  governor*  The  son  had 
a  Mberal  ^ucratioi^  wl^i<^h  was  oompieti^d  probably  at  Cam* 
bridge 5  atid  adoptfed  his  father's  ptinviples  with  uncooi- 
mon  £eat^  and  in  1639,  when  about  two-^and* twenty,  at** 
tended  kin^  Charles  upon  bis  expedition  to  Scotland,  his 
arttaehment  to  whom  some,  years  after  nearly  cost  bim  his 
life*  In  )644,  ftOoti  after  the  earl  of  Manchester  h^d  re- 
duced the  town  t>f  Lynn  in  Norfolk,  Mr.  L'Estkange, 
thinking  he  had  somb  interest  in  the  place^  as  his  father 
had  been  gOirevBor  of  it,  formed  a  plan  for  surprizing  it, 
and  redaived  a  commission  from  the  king^  constituting  him 
governor  of  tbe  town  in  cAse  of  success:  but,  being  seized^ 
in  consequence  of  the  treachery  of  two  of  his  associates^ 
Leman  and  tlager^  and  his  miiajesty's  commission  found 
upon  bimi  he  v^s  oa^ried  first  to  Lyan^  itbenCe  to  London^ 
and  there  transmitted  to  the  city  court-martial  for  his  trial  ; 
wbere^  after  Mfferiilg  all  manner  of  indignities^  be  was^  as 
WhitloOke  wys,  condemned  %o  die  as  a  )ipy,  coaming  from 
tbe  kiligU  quarters  without  dr^un,  trumpet,  or  ptos* 

Hts  sen^nce*  being  passed^  be  was  oas^t  into  Newgate  ; 
whence  he  dispatched  a  petitionary  appeal  to  the  lords, 
tbe  thn^  Appointed  for  his  i&xetution  beii)g  the  lliursday 

1  I^  «s  Above,— *Dict.  Hiit. 


206  L'£  S  T  R  A  N  fe  E. 


¥ 


following ;  but  with  great  diflSculty  he  got  a  reprieve  for 
fourteen  days,  and,  after  that,  a  prolongation  for  a  farther 
hearing.  In  this  condition  be  lay  almost  four  years  a 
prisoner,  in  continual  fear  of  being  executed,  Hepub^ 
lished  in  the  mean  time,  *^  An  Appeal  from  the  Court* 
martial  to  th<&  Parliament :''  and  about  the  time  of  the 
Kentish  insurrection,  in  1648,  he  escaped  out  of  the 
prison,  with  the  keeper^s  privity,  and  went  into  Kent.  He 
retired  into  the  hotise  of  Mr.  Hales,  a  young  gentleman, 
heir  to  a  great  estate  in  that  county,  and  spirited  him  to 
undertake  an  insurrection;  which  miscarrying,  UEstrange 
with  much  di^iculty  was  enabled  to  reach  the  continent^ 
where  he  continued  till  1653.  Upon  the  long  parliament's; 
being  dissolved  by  Cromwell,  be  returned  into  England, 
and  immediately  dispatched  a  paper  to  the  council  at  ' 
Whitehall  to  this  effect ;  <<  that,  finding  himself  within  the 
act  of  indemnity,  he  thought  it  convenient  to  give  them 
notice  of  his  return."  On  his  being  summoned  to  that, 
board,  he'was  told  by  one  of  the  commissioners,  that  hi» 
case  was  not  comprehended  in  the  act.  of  indemnity,  and 
he  therefore  formed  the  bold  resTolution  of  applying  in 
person  to  Cromwell  himself,  which  he  effected  in  th& 
Cockpit  * ;  and,  shortly  after,  received  his  discharge  by 
the  following  order,  dated  October  31,  1653:  "Ordered, 
that  Mr.  Roger  UEstrange  be  dismissed  from  his  farther 
attendance  upon  the  council,  he  giving  in  two  thousand 
pounds  security  to  appear  when  he  shall  be  summoned 
so  to  do,  and  to  act  nothing  prejudicial  to  the  common- 
wealth.    Ex.  John  Thurloe,  secretary;" 

This  appearance  at  the  court  of  Cromwell  was  much 
censured,  after  the  restoration,  by  some  of  the  royal  party, 
who  also  objected  to  him,  that  he  had  once  been  heard 
playing  in  a  concert  where  the  usurper  was  present,  and, 
therefore,  they  nick-named  him  ^^  Oliver's  Fidler."  He 
was  charged  also  with  having  bribed  some  of  the  protector'ji 
people,  but  he  positively  disavows  it ;  averr4ng,  he  never 
spoke  to  Thurloe  but  once  in  his  life  about  his  discharge ; 
and  that,  though  during  the  dependency  of  that  affair  he 
might  well  be  seen  at  Whitehall,  yet  he  never  ipoke  to 
Cromwell  on  any  other  business,  or  had  the  least  com« 

*  Cromwell  then  talked  to  him  of  peaceable   intentions ;"    and   addiog» 

the  resUessness  of  «bis  party :  telling  that  **  rigour  waB  not  at  all  his  inclina- 

him,  "  that  they  would  do  well  to  give  tion,  but  that  he  was  but  one  man,  and 

fome   testimony  «f  their  quiet  and  could  do  little  by  bimseU^'' 


L '  fi  S  T  R  A  N  G  E. 


207 


tnetetof  any  kind  with  him*.  From  this  to  xlte  time  of 
the  restoration,  he  seems  to  have  lived  free  from  any  dig* 
turbance  firom  the  then  governing  powers;  and  perhaps 
the  obscurity  into  which  he  had  fallen  made  him  be  over-* 
looked  by  Charles  II.  and  his  ministry,  on  that  prince's 
recovering  his*  throne.  He  did  not,  however,  so  under- 
value his  own  sufferings  and  merits,  as  to  put  up  quietly 
with  this  usage,  and  therefore  addressed  a  ^arm  expostu- 
laticip  to  the  earl  of  Clarendon,  in' the  dedication  to  that 
minister  of  his  *^  Memento,"  published  in  1662;  where 
he  joins  himself  with  other  neglected  cavaliers,  who  had 
suffered  for  their  attachment  to  the  royal  family  during  the 
civil  wars  and  the  succeeding  usurpation,  at  the  same  time 
acknowledging  the  personal  obligations  he  had  received  from 
Clarendon.  For.  some  time  his  remonstrances  appear  to 
have  produced  little  effect^  but  at  length  he  was  made 
licenser  of  the  press,  a  profitable  post,  which  he  enjoyed 
till  the  eve  of  the  revolution.  This,  however,  was  all  the 
recompence  he  ever  received,  except  being  in  the  com- 
mission of  the  peaces  after  more  than  twenty  years,  as  be 
says,  spent  in  serving  the  royal  cause,  near  six  of  them  in 
gaolff,'  and  almost  four  under  a  sentence  of  death  in  New- 
gate. It  is  true,  he  hints  at  greater  things  promised  him  ; 
andj  in  these  hopes,  exerted  his  talents,  on  behalf  of  the 
crown,  in  publishing  several  pieces.  *  In  1663,  for  a  far- 
ther support,  he  set  up  a  paper,  called  ."  The  Public  In- 
telligencer, and  the  News  ;V  the  first  of  which  came  out 
the  1st  of  August,  and  continued  to  be  published  twice  a 
weekj  till  January  19,  1665;  when  he  laid  it  down,  on 
the  design  then  concerted  of  publishing  the  ^^  London  Ga- 
zette,'' the  first  of  which  papers  made  its  appearance  on 
Saturday  Feb.  4.  f 


^  As  to  the  affair  of  the  concert, 
which  seems  to  have  been  thought  an 
a&ir  of  greater  importance  than  it  de< 
genres;  he  infcsrms  us  that,  while  the 
question  of  his  indemnity  was  depend- 
ing, being  one  day  in  St.  James's  park, 
he  heard  an  qrgan  touched  m  a  low 
room  belonging  to  one  Mr.  Hinckson ; 
that  he  went  in,  and  found  a  private 
company  of  five  or  six  persons,  who 
desired  him  to  take  up  a  viol  and  bear 
a  part,  that  he  did  so,  not  much,  as 
he  alkrws,  tothe  reputation  of  his  skill ; 
that  by  and  by,  "  without  the  least 
«olottr  iff  a  design  or  expectation,  in 


comes  Cromfrolly  who  found  them  play- 
ing," and  as  far  as  sir  Roger  remem- 
bered, left  them  so. — Sir  Roger's  family, 
according  to  Dr.  Burney,  were  always 
great  patrons  of  music  and  musicians  ( 
and  Cromwell  we^  know  would  some- 
times forgive  a  royalist,  if  be  was  % 
good  performer;  and  robbed  Magdatedi 
college  of  its  organ  from  pure  love  of 
the  art. 

-  f  This  paper  succeeded  "  The  Par- 
liamentary Intelligencer"  and  "  Met- 
curius  Publioas,"  published  in  defeneo 
of  the  government,  against  the  "  Mer- 
curins  Politicus."    L'fistlnnge  desisV 


310  VEJST  RANGE. 

tion  to  bis  xnemory.  He  was  author  of  many  politicd  tracts^ 
aod  translated  several  works  from  the  Greek,  Latin,  and 
Spanish.    Among  his  political  effusions  are,  'VHoger  UEs* 
tarange^s  Apology ;"  "  Truth  ?ind  Loyalty  vindicated/'  &c* 
*^  The  Memento  ;'*  "  The   Reformed  Catholic ;"    *<  The 
free<>born  Subject;"  "Answer  to  the  Appeal,"  &c.;  **Sea^ 
nooable  Memorial;"  "  Cit  and  Bumpkin,"  in  two  parts; 
**  Farther  Discovery ;"  "  Case  put  ;*'  "  Narrative  of  the 
Plot ;"  «  Holy  Cheat ;"  « Toleration  discussed ;"  «  Dis- 
<:overy  ,  on    Discovery;"    "L'Estrange's    Appeal,"   &c. ; 
'^Collections  in  defence  of  the  King;"  '^  Relapsed  Apod*- 
tate ;"  "  Apology  for  Protestants ;"  "  Richard  against  Bax- 
ter ;"  **  Tyranny  and  Popery ;"  *^  Growth  of  Knavery  ;" 
^*  L' Estrange  no  Papist,"  &c. ;  '^The  Shammer  shammed ;" 
"  Account   cleared  ;"    '*  RefornAation  reformed  ;"  "  Dis- 
senters  Sayings,"  two  parts ;    "  Notes  on   College,  u  e. 
Stephen  College;"  the  "  Protestant  Joiner;"  "Zekiel  and 
Ephraim;"    "  Papist  in   Masquerade;"   ^*  Answer  to  the 
Second  Character  of  a  Popish  Successor ;"  "  Considera- 
tions on  lord  Russel's  Speech."     All  these  were  printed  in 
4to.     f*  History  of  the  Plot  ;"•  "  Caveat  to  the  Cavaliew;" 
'^  Plea  for  the  Caveat  and  its  Author."  These  were  in  folio. 
—•"His  translations  were,  ^^Josephus*s  Works,"    his  best 
performance :    "  Cicero's  Offices ;"    "  Seneca's   Morals  ;'* 
"  Erasmus's  Colloquies  v"  "  ^sop's  Fables ;"  "  Quevedo's 
Visions;"  "  Bona's  Guide  to  Eternity;"  and  "Five  Let- 
ters from  a  Nun  to  a  Cavalier."     Besides  these,  he  wrate 
several  news*papers,  and  occasional  pieces. 

Mr.  Granger  has  very  justly  remarked  that  L'  Estrange 
was  one  of  the  great  corruptors  of  the  English  langpage^ 
and  he  might  have  added,  exhibits  one  of  the  worst  models 
.  of  political  controversy.  He  had,  however,  often  to  con- 
tend with  men  whose  language  was  equally  vulgar  and  in- 
temperate ;  and  having  at  all  times  more  zeal  than  judg- 
ment, we  can  but  just  discover  real  talents  in  a  vast  mass 
of  declamation,  which  few  will  now  have  patience  to  exL- 
;  amine.  His  newspapers,  and  some  of  his  political  pieces, 
may  yet  be  consulted  with  advantage  for  the  information 
they  contain,  and  the  many  traits  of  characters  and  man- 
ners Which  they  exhibit ;  but  a  cautious  reader  will  find  it 
often  necessary  to  verify  his  reports  by  contemporary  evi- 
dence. Coarse,  virulent,  and  abusive  writers  have  some- 
times been  thought  necessary  to  the  support  of  political 
parties,  and  the  present  age  is  not  without  them ;  but  sucb 


L'E  STRANGE.  211 

tai^tt  l^ea^e  no  itnpre$sion  of  respect  on  the  minds  even  of 
those  who  employ  them,  and  are  genemlly' condemned  as 
the  4Dercenarj  tools  of  a  party,  {n  the  character  of  sir 
Roger  L*£strange  we  see  not  much  to  distinguish  him  from 
this  class  of  writers,  except  that  he  sometimes  discovers  a 
portion  of  ease,  elegance,  and  perspicuity,  and  might 
probably  have  displayed  these  qualities  more  frequently 
bad  be  not  written  more  from  passion  than  reflection.  It 
may  be  added  too,  that  he  was  more  coni^istent  than  some 
of  his  successors  ;  and  being  the  first  who  regularly  **  en- 
listed himself  under  the  bamiers  of  a  party  for  pay,  he 
fought  for  the  cause  through  right  and  wrong  for  upwards 
of  forty  campaigns."  This  intrepidity  gained  him  the 
esteem  of  Cromwell  himself,  and  the  papers  which  he  wrote 
even  just  before  the  revolution,  with  almost  a  rope  abou( 
bis  neck,  have  the  same  character  of  perseverance. 

He  bad  a  brother,  Hammond  UEstkanojp,  who  wrote  a 
learned  work  entitled  "  The  Alliance  of  Divine  Offices," 
and  a  <<  Life  of  Charles  I."  Of  him  we  find  no  memoirs 
worth  tran$cribing. — In  1760  sir  Henry  L' Estrange,  bart. 
•f  Hunstanton,  died,  and  with  him  the  title,  becami^extinct.^ 

LETHIEULLIER  (Sma^it,  esq.)  gentleman-commoner 
of  Trinity  college,  Oxford,  was  the  second  son  of  John 
Lethieullier,  esq.  of  Aldersbrook,  in  Essex, , where  he  bad 
a  noble  collection  of  MSS.  choice  books,  medals,  and  nar 
tural  curiosities,  which  he  had  collected  in  his  travels 
through  France,  Italy,  and  Germany.  His  father  dying 
Jan.  1,  1736-7,  and  his  elder  brother  being  dead  before^ 
be  became  heir  to  the  paternal  estates,  which  were  very 
considerable.  He  was  elected  F.  S,  A.  in  July  1724.  He 
married,  Feb;  6,  1725-6,  Margaret, .  daughter  of  Willtam 
Sloper,  esq.  of  Woodhay,  in  Berkshire;  but- died  Aug. 
27,  1760,  aged  fifty-nine,  .without  issue.  He  was  sue* 
ceeded  in  his  estates,  to  which  he  had  added  the:  manor 
of  Birch-ball  in  Theydon  Bois,  by  Mary,  only  daughter 
of  his  next  brother  Charles  Lethieullier,  LL.D.  feilow  of 
All  Souls  college,  F,  A.  S.  and  counsellor  at  law,{  who  died 
the  year  before  him.  He  was  an  excellent  scholar,  a 
polite  gentleman,  and  universally  esteemed  by  all  tbe^ 
learned  men  of  his  time.  Some  papers  of:  his  are  printed 
iq  Phil.  Trans.. No.  497,  and  Archseologia,  I.  p.  26,  57,  73, 
75;  11.291.     His  library  was.  sold  by  auction,  1760^ 

I  Biog.  Brit — Gen.   Diet.— Gibber's  LiTes.— Nicbots'f   Bowyer.<— Nicboh'y 
Potm8.~«GraDger.— Ecbard't  Hiit.  of  Englandr-^Littrftry  M«f  ^ini  ftr  1758* 

P  2 


flS  L  ET  rtl  E  V  L  L  1  K  K 

The  foAowing  «loge  was  written  by  the  late  Mr.  CcXlirt* 
•on  immediately  after  thedeath  of  Mr.  Lethieallier :  *<  He 
was  de^ceaded  from  an  ancient  family  from  France  in  time 
irf  persecution,  and  a  gentleman  every  way  eminent  for  hi» 
excellent  endowments.  His  desire  to  improre  in  the  civil 
and  nfitiiral  history  of  bis  country  led  him  to  visit  all  parts 
ef  it;  the  itineraries  in  his  library,  and  the  discoveries  he 
made  relating  to  its  antiquities,  with  drawings  of  every 
iUng  remarkable,  are  evidences  of  his  great  application  to 
resctie  so  many  ancient  remains  from  mouldering  into  obli- 
vion. His  bftppy  turn  of  mind  was  not  confined  solely  to 
antiquities,  but  in  these  journeys  he  was  indefatigable  in 
eollecttng  all  the  variety  of  En^tsh  fossils,  with  a  view  to 
investigate  their  origin  :  this  great  collection,  which  exceU 
inost  othei^,  is  deposited  in  two  large  cabinets,  disposed 
under  their  proper  classes.  The  most  rare  are  elegantly 
drawn,  and  described  in  a  folio  book,  with  his  observations 
on  them.  As  the  variety  of  ancient  marbles  had  engaged 
his  attention,  and  he  found  so  little  ^aid  of  them  with  re** 
ipect  to  their  natural  history,  it  was  one  of  hb  motives,  in 
visiting  Italy,  to  furnish  himself  with  such  materials  as  he 
was  able  to  procure  froin  books,  and  learned  men,  relating 
to  them.  He  collected  specimens  of  the  most  curious,  and 
had  drawings,  finely  painted,  of  the  most  remarkable  mo- 
miments  of  the  ancient  marbles;  they  are  bound  up  in  a 
folio  vohime,  with  all  the  observations  he  could  gather  re-^ 
lating  to  their  natural  history  and  antiquity.  His  cabinet 
of  medals,  his  ooUection  of  antiquities  of  various  kinds, 
and  most  elegant  books  of  the  finest  engravings,  are  in«- 
stances  of  the  fine  taste  with  which  he  has  enriched  bis 
library  and  cabinet  with  the  spoils  of  Italy.  This  short  but 
imperfect  memoir  is  candidly  offered  as  a  tribute  due  to  a 
long  finendsbip.  It  is  wished  it  may  excite  an  abler  pen 
to  do  more  justice  to  the  memory  of  this  great  and  good 
man.  But  it  is  humbly  hoped  that  these  hints  will  be  ae- 
cepted  not  only  as  a  testimony  of  respect,  but  may  alsa 
inform  an  inquisitive  genius  in  these  brafaches  of  science 
jwhere  hemray  be  assisted  with  snob  valuable  materials  for 
the  prosecution  of  his  future  studies.^' 

His  cousin^  Colonel  William  Letrieullier,  who  was 

.  ^p  F.  A..S.  travelled  into  Egypt,  and  brought  over  a  very 

r.  perfectiQiiimmy)  now.in  tbe  British  museum,  with  most  of 

the  coloners  collections,    the  rest  having  been  in  Mr. 

Smart  Letbieullier^a  haDd&    A  committee  of  the  trasteea 


L£THIEULLIER.  2IS 

mated  dii  the  eokintra  wecttt(ir%  Feb.  99/ 1 756,  tor«« 
t«rn  thanlus  for  the  feluable  legacy  of  a  fine  mnnraiy,  and 
a  curious  collection  of  Engli^  antiquities.  Oil  this  occa- 
sioB  Pitt  LeCfaieulHer,  esq.  nepbew  to  the  colonel,  pre- 
sented them  with  sereral  antiquities^  which  he  hiaaself  had 
collected  during  bis  residence  at  Grand  Cairo. ' 

LETI  (GREGoar),  a  Toluminoua  writer  of  hi^ory,  was 
bom  at  Milan,  May  29, 1630,  of  a  family  once  of  consider- 
abLe  distinction  at  Bdogna.     lie  was  intended  for  tbe 
church,  but  was  induced  to  make  open  profession  of  tbe 
protestafit  religion  at  Lausanne  in  1€S7.    This  so  pleased 
Guerin,  an  eminent  physician,  with  whom  he  lodged,  thkt 
he  gave  him  his  daughter  for  a  wife ;  and  Leti,  settling  at 
Geneva  in  1 660,  passed  nearly  twenty  years  in  that  citjr 
employed  on  many  of  his  publications.     In  1674,  the  free- 
dom cf  the  city  was  presented  to  htm,  which  had  never 
before  been  granted  to  any  stranger,    five  years  after  he 
went  to  France^  and  in  1680,  to  England,  where  he  was 
very  graciously  received  by  Charles  11. ;  received  a  large 
present  in  money,  and  was  pvomised  ^  place  of  histt)*- 
riograpfaer.     On  this  he  wrote  bis  ^Teatro  Britannico,^'  a 
history  of  England ;  but,  this  work  displeasing  the  cowt, 
he  was  order^  to  quit  the  kingdom.     Leti  then  went  to, 
Amsterdam,  had  the  offi(5e  of  historiographer  in  that  city, 
and  died  suddenly  June  9,  1701,  aged  seventy-one.     He 
was  an  indefatigable  writer,  and  tells  us  in  his  f'  Belgic 
Theatre,"  that  three  days  in  the  week  he  spent  twelve  hours 
in  writing,  and  six  hours  the  other  three  days ;  whence  the 
number  .of  his  works  is  prodigious.    Tbe  greatest  part  are 
written  in  Italian ;  among  whidi  are,  "  The  Nepotism  of 
Home,''  2  vols.  1 2 mo;  ^<  The  Universal  Monarchy  of  Louis 
XIV."  2  vols.  l2mo;  ^*  The  Life  of  Pipe  Sixtus  V."  im 
Italian,  Amsterdam,  17£l,  3  vols.  12mo,  plates;  in  Freocfa, 
4to,  or  2  vols.  12mo ;  and  in  English  by  Fame  worth.   *^  The 
Life  of  Philip  II.  king  of  Spain,"  6  vols.  12mo;  ''Of  Charles 
V."  Amsterdam,  17 SO,  4  vols.  12mo;  ''Of  Queen  Eliza* 
beth,"  Amsterdam,  1741,  2  vols.  12mo,  plates;  "  Hi^^ry 
of  Cromwell,^'  1703,  2  vols.  12mo,  plates ;  '*  Life  of  Cit- 
ron, duke d'Ossone,"  3  vols.  12mo ;  "The  French Tfaeatue," 
7  vols.  4to,  a  bad  work ;  "  Tbe  Belgic  Theatre,"  2  vols* 
4to,  equally  bad ;  "  The  British  Theatre,,  or  Histojy  of 

}  Nichols'i  Bowyer.-i^LyiOBs'i  EnTirottSy  toI.  IV. 


214  XETI.       : 

-England,*^  Amsterdam,  1684,  5  vols.  12mo  ;  in  which  th^re 
is. a- capital  portrait  of  queen  Elizabeth.  It  was  fortiiis 
work  that  he  was  sent  out  of  England.  **  L'ltalia  regnante,^ 
4to18.  12mo;  "History  of  the  Roman  Empire  in  Germany,'* 
4  vols.  4to;  "The  Cardinalism  of  the  Holy  Church,"  3 
vols.  12mo,  a  violent  satire ;  **  History  of  Geneva,**  5  vols. 
Idmo;  "The  just  balance  in  which  are  weighed  all' the 
maxims  of  Rome,  and  the  actions  of  the  living  cardinals,** 
4  Vols.  12mo ;  **  The  Historical  Ceremonial,**  6  vols.  12ma; 
^'  Political  Dialogues  on  the  means  used  by  the  Italian  Re- 
publics for  their  pireservation,"  2  vols,  l^mo ;  **  An  Abridg- 
ment of  Patriotic  virtues,'-  2  vols.  8vo ;  **  Fame  jealous  of 
Fortune;  a  panegyric  on  Louis  XIV.**  4to;  "A  Poem  oh 
the  enterprize  of  the  Prince  of  Orange  in  England,**  1695, 
folio ;  "  An  Eulogy  on  Hunting,"  l2mo ;  "  Letters,**  i  vol. 
12mo;  "The  Itinerary  of  the  Court  of  Rome,*'  3  vols. 
Svo;  "History  of  the  House  of  Saxony,*'  4  vols.  4 to; 
^  History  of  the  House  of  Brandenburg,**  4  vols.  4to ;  **The 
itlaughter  of  the  Innocent  reformed,*'  4to  ;  "  The  Ruins  of 
the  Apostolical  See,**  1672, 12mo,  &c.  Although  M.leClerc,, 
his  son-in-law,  has  mentioned  him  with  high  encomiums,^ 
we  know  few  writers  of  history  who  are  less  to  be  depended 
on,  having  debased  all  his  productions  with  fable.  It  is 
impossible  to  give  credit  to  him  unless  his  facts  can  be  sup- 
ported by  other  authority.  He,  on,  some  occasions,  assumes 
all  the  dignity  of  conceited  ignorance,  and  relates  his  fic- 
tions with  aJl  the  confidence  of  a  vain  man,  who  thinks  he 
cannot  be  contradicted.  His  aim  indeed  was  to  please  ra- 
ther than  instruct,  and  he  has,  with  his  anecdotes,  fre- 
quently amused  and  misled  his  readers.  We  know  few 
more  amusing  works  than  his  ^^  Life  of  pope  Sixtus  V."*** 
Granger,  whose  character  of  him  we  have  partly  adopted, 
relates  that  Let!  being  one  day  at  Charles  il.*s  levee,  thd 
king  said  to  him,  "  Lett,  I  hear  you  are  writing  the  history 
of  the  court  of  England.**  "  Sir,"  said  he,  "  I  have  been 
for  some  time  preparing  materials  for  such  a  history.** 
*^Take  care,"  said  the  king,  *'  that  your  work  give  "no  of- 
fence.'* "  Str,'*  replied  Leti,  *'  I  will  do  what  I  can  ;  but 
if  a  man  were  as  wise  as  Solomon,  he  would  scarce  be  able 
to  avoid  giving  some  offence.**  '^  Why  then,**  rejoined  the 
king,  ^<  be  as  wise  as  Solomon,  write  proverbs,  not  \fi$n^ 
tones.*** 

9  'Morefi«^Nioei«D»  rolt.  ILaad  X.«-!Oen.  Diet— -Grang^er,  vol*  IV* 


L  E  U  C  I  P  P  U  S.  215 

LEUCIPPUS,  a  philosopher  of  considerable  eminence 
in  the  fifih  century  B.  C.  the  first  propagator'  of  the  sys- 
tem of  atoms,  is  said  by  Diogenes  Laertius,  who  has  writ- 
ten his  life,  to  have  been  a  native  of  Elea.  He  wan  a  dis- 
ciple of  Zeno  the  Eleatic  philosopher.  Dissatisfied  witb 
the  attempts  of  former  philosophers  to  account  for  the  na^ 
tur^e  and  origin  of  the  universe  metaphysically,  Leucippus^ 
and  his  follower  Democritus,  determined  to  restore  tho 
alliance  between  reason  and  the  senses,  which  metaphy^ 
.sical  subtleties  had  dissolved,  by  introducing  the  doctrine 
of  indivisible  atoms,  possessing  within  themselves  a  prin- 
ciple of  motion  ;  and  although  several  other  philosophers^ 
before  their  time,  had  considered  matter  as  divisible  into 
indefinitely  small  particles,  Leucippus  and  Democritus 
were  the  first  who  taught,  that  these  particles  were  origi- 
nally destitute  of  all  qualities  except  figure  and  motion,  and 
therefore  may  justly  be  reckoned  the  authors  of  the  atomic 
System  of  philosophy.  They  looked  upon  the  qualities, 
which  preceding  philosophers  had  ascribed  to  mattei*,  as 
the  mere  creatures  of  abstraction  ; .  and  they  determined  to 
admit  nothing  into  their  system,  which  they  could  not  esta^r 
blish  upon  the  sure  testimony  of  the  senses.  They  were 
also  of  opinion,  that  both  the  Eleatic  philosofihers,  and 
those  of  other  secb,  had  unnecessarily  encumbered  their 
respective  systems,  by  assigning  some  external  or  internal 
cause  of  motion,  of  a  nature  not  to  be  discovered  by  the 
senses*  They  therefore  resolved  to  reject  all  metaphysical 
principles,  and,  in  their  explanation  of  the  phenomena  of 
nature,  to  proceed  upon  no  other  ground  than  the  sensi- 
ble and  mechanical  properties  of  bodies.  By  the  help  of 
the  internal  principle  of  motion,  which  they  attributed  to 
the  indivisible  particles  of  matter,  they  made  a  feeble  and 
fanciful  effort  to  account  for  the  production  of  all  natural 
bodies  from  plify^ical  causes,  without  the  intervention  of 
Deity.  But,  whether  they  meant  entirely  to  discard  the 
notion  of  a  divine  nature  from  the  universe,  is  uncertain. 
This  first  idea  of  the  atomic  system  was  improved  by  De« 
mocritus,  and  afterwards  carried  to  all  the  perfection  which 
a  system  so  fundamentally  defective  would  admit  of,  by 
£picurus.  The  following  sumuiary  of  the  doctrine  of  Leu- 
cipp.as  will  exhibit  the  infantstate  of  the  atomic  philosophy,* 
^nd  at  the  smne  time  sufficiently  expose  its  absurdity. 

The  universe,  which  is  infinite,  is  in  part  a  plenum^  and 
in  part  a  vacuum.    The  plenum  contains  innumerable  cor* 


$lt  I  E  U  C  1  f  P  U  S. 

Ipuieles  or  atoms,  of  various  figures,  which  falling  into  the 
^acuuftif  struck  against  each  other;  and  hence  arose  a 
variety  of  curvilinear  motions,  which  continued  till,  at 
length,  atoms  of  similar  forms  met  together,  and  bodies 
were  produced.  The  primary  atoms  bfeing  specifically  of 
€qual  weight,  and  not  being  able,  on  account  of  dieir  mul- 
titude, to  move  in  circles,  the  smaller  rose  to  the  exterior 
parts  of  the  vacuum,  whilst  the  larger,  entangling  them* 
selves,  formed  a  spherical  shell,  which  revolved  about  its 
centre,  and  which  included  within  itself  all  kinds  of  bodies^ 
This  central  mass  was  gradually  increased  by  a  perpetual 
liccession  of  particles  from  the  surrounding  shell,  till  at 
last  the  earth  was  formed.  In  the  mean  time,  the  spheri- 
cal shell  was  continually  supplied  with  new  bodies,  which, 
in  its  revolution,  is  gathered  up  from  without.  Of  the 
particles  thus  collected  in  the  spherical  shell,  some  in  their 
combination  formed  humid  masses,  which,  by  their  circular 
motion,  gradually  became  dry,  and  were  at  length  ignitedj 
and  became  stars.  The  sun  was  formed  in  the  same  man- 
ner, in  the  exterior  surface  of  the  shell ;  and  the  moon,  in 
its  interior  surface.  In  this  manner  the  world  was  formed  ; 
and  by  an  inversion  of  the  process,  it  will  at  length  be 
dissolved.^ 

LEUNCLAVIUS,  or  LEONCLAVIUS  (John),  a  na- 
tive of  Amelbrun  in  Westphalia,  descended  from  a  noble 
family,  was  born  about  1533.  He  visited  almost  all  the 
European  courts,  and,  during  his  stay  in  Turkey,  collected 
such  excellent  materials  for  an  Ottoman  history,  that  the 
public  are  indebted  to  him  for  their  best  iuformation  re- 
specting that  empire.  His  knowledge  of  law,  as  well  as  of 
the  learned,  languages,  enabled  him  also  to  succeed  in 
translating  the  *' Abridgment  of  the  Basilica,'*  1596,  S 
vols  folio.  He  was  indeed  one  of  the  most  celebrated 
translators  which  Germany  has  produced;  He  died  June 
1593,  at  Vienna,  aged  sixty.  His  works  are,  ^^  The  Mus- 
sulman History,*'  1591,  folio,  Latin  ;  *^  Annals  of  the  Otto- 
Hian  Saltans,"  folio^  which  he  translated  into  Latin,  from 
the  translation  made  of  it,  by  John  Gaudier,  otherwise 
Spiegel,  horn  Tttrkisb  into  German.  The  supplement  to 
these  Annals  be  continued  to  1588,  under  the  title  of 
^^  Pandectae  Turcicse."  These  two  works  may  be  foond  at 
the  end  of  Cbaleondyles,  printed  at  theXouvre.   He  wrote 

1  ()lo|^.  Lscrtiiis,— Stanley '«  HUt^Erucker.— Gea.  Diet, 


L  E  U  N  C  L  A  V  1  U  S.  «A 

mko  ^  Commentatio  de  Mosconim  bellts  aMhr«rsfis  finitimot 
gestis/*  in  the  oollection  of  Polish  hUtoriatift  by  Plsloriof, 
Baftil,  \BBif  3  vols,  folio;  and  Latin  translations  of  Xeno^ 
phon,  Zozimos,  Constantino  Manasses,  Micba^  <7lycafl^ 
Ac* 

LEITSDEN  (John),  an  eminent  orientid  and  clitssieal 
•cholar,  was  born  at  Utrecht,  April  26,  1624,  of  reputable 
parents,  who  died  when  he  was  very  yonng.  He  studied 
at  the  schools  and  university  of  Utrecht,  and  toc^E  his  dd^ 
g#ee  of  master  of  arts  in  1647.  To  his  philosophical  course, 
he  then  added  the  study  of  theology,  and  particularly  the 
oriental  languages,  in  which  he  made  great  proficiency^ 
in  1649,  he  was  admitted  among  the  number  of  candidates 
for  the  ministry,  and  (hen  went  to  Amsterdam  to  acquire 
a  more  perfect  knowledge  of  the  Hebrew,  atid  of  the 
Jewish  customs,  availing  himself  of  the  instructions  of  two 
learned  Jews,  one  of  whom,  being  an  Arabian,  gav^  htm  'a 
favourable  opportunity  of  adding  that  language  to  his -stock* 
On  his  return  to  Utrecht  in  January  1650,  h6  was  licensed- 
to  teach  the  oriental  languages,  an  honour  which  induced 
htm  to  return  once  more  to  Amsterdam,  to  study  the  Tal- 
iiiad  and  the  Rabbins.  In  July  of  the  same  year,  the  cu- 
rators of  the  university  of  Utrecht  appointed'  him  professor 
extraordinary  of  Hebrew.  He  wa^  required  to  give  only 
two  lectures  p^week,  which,  however,  be  iifcr^ased  to 
three,  and  included  the  oriental  lar-^'uages  and  theology; 
and  when  he  received  a  call  to  a  congregation  in  Flanders, 
the  curators  of  the  university,  unwilling  to  part  with  a  man 
of  such  ability,  promoted  him  to  the  chair  of  professor  in 
ordinary,  which  he  filled  with  great  reputation.  In  1658 
he  travelled  through  the  Palatinate  and  the  neighbourhood, 
and  afterwards  visited  France  and  England.  On  his  return 
he  married,  and  had  a  numerous  family.  Three  of  his 
sons  attained  considerable  eminence,  Rodolph  as  a  phy*^ 
sician,  John  WiUtam  as  a  counsellor  and  burgomaster,  and 
James  as  a  divine.  After  long  ertjoying  a  good  state  of 
health,  the  result  of  temperance  and  exercise,  be  was  at-* 
tacked  by  the  nephritic  colic,  which,  after  torilienting  him 
fbr  some  weeks,  occasioned  his  death,  Sept.  30j  1699,  in 
his  seventy-fifth  year.  He  was  a  man  of  a  frahk^  liberal 
temper,  and  benevolent ;  he  was  very  kind  to  foreign 

>  Niccron,  rol.  XXVI«— Diet.  lliaL — Saxii  Ononuuticon.— Baillet  Ju^ement 


«l<  '       L  E  U  S  D  E  N. 

studenl9,  particularly  those  from  Hangnry,  and  used  to  be 
called  the  Father  of  the  Hungarians.  His  manner  of  teach* 
log  was  clear  and  methodical ;  and  by  that,  and  a  strict,  dis- 
cipline, he -produced  many  eminent  scholars. 

Leusden,  as  far  as  we  know,  published  veiy  little  that 
was  original ;  but  as  a  critical  editor,  he  is  eutiiled  to  high 
commendation  for  skill  and  accuracy,  and  many  of  hit 
publications  are  well  known  in  this  country.  Among  these 
we  may  notice,.  1.  "  Philologus  Hebrsus,"  Utrecht,  1652, 
4tQj  twice  reprinted.  2.  *^  Jonas  illustratus  Heb.  Chal. 
et  Latin.".  &c.  ibid.  1656,  1692,  Svo.  3.  "  Joel  ex» 
plicatuB  per  paraphrasim  Cbaldaicam,''  ibid.  1657,  Svp. 
The  book  of  Obadiah  is  added  to  this.  4^.  /'  Philologus 
Hebrsso-mixtos,  una  cum  spicilegio  Philologico,"  con« 
taining  various  critical  dissertations,  ibid.  1663,  Leyden, 
1632,  and  1699,  4ta*  S.  <^  Onomasticum  Sacrum,''  an 
explanation  of  all  the  names  in  the  Old  and  New  Testa* 
menty  ibid.  i665^  and  1684,  8vo.  Crenius  notices  a  sin* 
g^ar  mistime  of  his,  making  Bernice  the  name  of  a  man. 
6.  <^  Psalterium  Hebrseum,"  Amst.  1666,  8vo.  7.  ^^  Biblia 
Hebr^a,^'  Amst,  1667,  2  vols.  8vo.  8.  ^^  Clavis  Qrapca 
Nov.  Test.'*  1672,  .8vo.  9.  «  Nov.  Test.  Gr^cum," 
Utrecht,  1675,  12mo,  repeatedly  printed,  and  well  known 
in  this  country.  10.  *^  Versio  Septut^inta  Interpretum/'' 
Amst  1683.  11.  <^  Lexicon  novum  Hebr«o-Latin^m,''  in 
the  manner  of  Sohrevelius,  Utrecht,  1^87,  8vo.  12,  An 
edition  of  ^^  Pool's  Synopsis,"  ibid.  5  \M$.  fol. ;  an  editioq 
of  Bochart's  works,  and  another  of.Lighttoot's.^ 

LEUWltlNHOEK  (ANTjaONv),  a  celebrated  Diitch  phi^ 
losoph^,  was  born  at  Delft,  in  1632  ;  and  acquired  a  greajt 
reputation  throughout  all  Europe,  by  bis  experiments  and 
discoveries  in  natural  history,  by  means  qf  the  microscc^e. 
He  particularly  excelled  in  making  glasses  for  microscopes 
and  spectacles ;  and  he  was  a  member  of  most  of  the  li- 
terary societies  of  Europe;  to  whom  he  sent  many  ipe-t 
moars.  Those  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions^  and  in 
the  Paris  Memoirs,  extend  through  many  volumes;;^  th^ 
former  were  extracted  and  published  at  Leydcn  in  1722. 
He  died  in  1723,  at  ninety-one  years  of  age.  His  Select 
Works  have  lately  been  translated  into  English  from  the 
Dutch  and  Latin  editions  published  by  the  author,  by  Mr. 
Samuel  Hoole,  1 798-— 1800,  3  parts  4to.* 

1  Bnnnan  Trajeck.  Enidit. — ^Chaufepie. — ^NicerOD,  ToL  2XIXi«— Ssxii  Ooeav 
5  Hailer  Bibl.  Med.-rliatton'8  Dictionary. 


LEVEE.  n$ 

■  LEVER  (Sir  Ashton),  the  founder  of  a  valuable  mn>^ 
.seuin,  was  the  son  of  sir  D'Arcy  Lever  of  Alkington^  near 
Manchester.  He  finished  bis  education  at  Corpus  Chiisti 
coUege,  Oxford ;  and  on  leaving  the  university  went  to 
reside  with  his  mother,  and  afterwards  settled  at  his  fa- 
niily*seat,  which  he  rendered  famous  by  the  best  aviary  in 
the  kingdom.  He  next  extended  his  views  to  ail  branches  of 
natural  history,,  and  became  at  length  possessed  of  one  of 
the  finest  museums  in  the  world,  sparing  no  expence  ia 
procuring  specimens  from  the  most  distant  regions.  This 
was  removed  to  London  about  1775,  and  opened  for  the 
public  in  Leicester-house,  Ldicester»square  ;  but  for  want 
of  suitable  patronage,  sir  Ashton  was  in  1785  obliged  to 
dispose  of  it  by  way  of  lottery,  to  his  very  great  loss.  It 
fell  to  the  lot  of  a  Mr.  Parkinson,  who  built  rooms  on  the 
Surrey  side  of  Black-friars  bridge  tor  its  reception,  and 
did  every  thing  in  his  power  to  render  it  interesting  to  the 
public,  but  after  some  years,  was  obliged  to.  dispose  of  it 
by  auction,  when  the  whole  of  the  articles  were  dispersecL 
Sir  Ashton  died  in  1788,  of  an  apoplectic  attack  while  sit? 
fihg  with  the  other  magistrates  at  Manchester.^ . 

LEVER  (Thomas),  a  celebrated  divine  of  the  sixteentb 
century,  was  born  at  Little  Lever,  in  Lancashire,  and 
icducated  at  Cambridge,  where- after  taking  his  degrees, 
he  was  chosen  fellow,  and  then  master  of  8t.  John's  coU 
lege.  He  was  ordained  both  deacon  and  priest  in  15S(>^ 
by  bishop  Ridley,  and  became  a  taost  eloquent  and  po^ 
pular  preacher  in  the  reign  of  king  Edward.  He  is,  iur 
deed,  on  his  monument  called  by  way  of  distinqtton, 
*^  preacher  to  king  Edward.'*  Under  his  mastership  St, 
John^s  college  greatly  flourished,  a^id  in  it  the  reforma* 
tion  gained  so  much  ground,  that  on  the  commencement 
of  the  Marian  persecution,  he  and  twenty-four  of  the  felr 
lows  resigned  their  preferments.  Mr.  Lever  went  abroad, 
afid  resided  with  the  other  exiles  for  religion  at  Francfort^ 
where  he  in  vain  endeavoured  to  compose  the  differences 
which. arose  among  them  respecting  chjurcb  disciplige  and 
the  habits.  He  resided  also  for  some  time  in  Switzerland, 
at  a  place  called  Arrow,  where  he  was  pastor  to  a  congre^ 
gation  of  English  exiles.  Here  he  became  so  much  a  fa* 
Tourer  of  Calvin's  opinions,  as  to  be  considered,  on  hi^ 
return  to  England,  as  one  of  the  chiefs  of  the  party  who 
ppposed  the  English  church-establishment.    The  indiscreet 

A  Oent.  and  Europ.  Mag.  for  HSS. 


220  LEV 

conduct  of  feme  of.  them  sooti  made  the  whole  obnc^oas 
to  government ;  and  uniformity  being  strictly  pressed,  Mr. 
Lever  suffered  among  others,  being  convened  before  the 
archbishop  of  York,  and  deprived  of  his  ecclesiastical  pre*- 
ferments.     Many  of  the  cooler  churchmen  thought  him 
iiardiy  dealt  with,  as  he  was  a  moderate  man,  and  ndt  for^ 
ward  in  opposing  the  received  opinions.     Bernard  Gilpin, 
his  intimate  friend,  was  among  those  who  pitied,  and  ex- 
pressed his  usiMl  regard  for  him.     His  prefermfents  were 
a  prebend  of  Durham,  and  the  mastership  of  Sherburn 
hospital ;  Strype  mentions  the  archdeaconry  of  Coventry, 
but  is  not  clear  in  his  account  of  the  matter.     He  appears 
to  have  been  allowed  to  retain  the  mastership  of  the  hos- 
pital, where  he  died  in  July  1577,  and  was  buried  in  its 
ehapel.     Baker  in  bis  MS  collectioiv^  gives  a  very  high 
character  of  him  as  a  preacher.     **  In  the  days  of  king 
Edward,  when  others  were  striving  for  preferment,  no  man 
was  more  vehement,  or  more  galling  in  his  sermons,  against 
4be  waste  of  church  revenues,  and  other  prevailing  cor- 
r^ptions  of  the  court;  which  occasioned  bishop  Ridley  to 
rs^nk  him  with  Latimer  and  Knox.     He  was  a  man  of  as 
much  natural  probity  and  blunt  native  honesty  as  his  coU 
lege  ever  bred ;  a  man  without  guile  and  artifice ;  who 
never  made  suit  to  any  patron,  or  for  any  preferment;  one 
that  had  the  spirit  of  Hugh  Latimer.     No  one  can  read 
his  sermons  without  imagining  he  has  something  before 
faiiti  of  Latimer  or  Luther.    Though  bis  sermons  are  bold 
and  daring,  and  full  of  rebuke,  it  was  his  preaching  that 
got  him  bis  preferment.     His  rebuking  the  courtiers  made 
them  afraid  of  him,  and  procured  him  reverence  from  the 
king.     He  was  one  of  the  best  masters  of  his  coHege,  as 
Weil  as  one  of  the  best  men  the  ccrfl^e  ever  bred.'^     He 
was  succeeded  io  the  mastership  of  his  hospital  by  his  bro- 
ther Ralph,  vrhom  some  rank  as  a  puritan,  altboogh  his 
title  seems  doubtful.     He  was  however,  of  less  reputation 
than  his  brother.     Mr.  Thomas  Lever's  printed  works  are 
a-  few  f*  Sermons,*'  which,  like  Latimer's,  contain  many  par- 
ticulars of  the  n^anners  of  tbe  times  ;  and  three  treatises 
**  The  right  way  foom  the  danger  of  sin  and  vengeance  in 
this  wicked  worid,**  1575 ;  a  ^'Commentary  on  the  LcMrd's 
Prayer ;"  and  "  The  Path-way  to  Christ."  * 

,  1  Stiype's  CmBmer,  p.  16S.  SSa-^  Parker,  911,  343,  QHS-^^-uad.  Oriiubl, 
170.--Gilpin'8  Life  of  Gilpin,  p.  142.— Fuller's  Wortljies.— Brook's  Lives  of 
the  Poritans.— Harwood't  AlooiDi  EtonenseSf  p.  1*73. 


LEYESQUB.  M21 

LEVESQUE  (Pjet£R  CHakles),  a  learned  French  wri- 
ter, wbo  spent  a  long  life  in  the  study  of  history  and  ge*- 
neral  literature,  was  born  at  Paris,  March  28,  173$.  Of 
his  private  life  we  have  no  account;  and  our  authority 
apologizes  iFor  this  by  assuring  us  that  it  contained  none  of 
those  incidents  that  are  interesting  in  biography,  and  that 
he  was  known  only  by  his  numerous  publications.  He 
was,  however,  in  the  course  of  his  life,  professor  of  moraia 
and  history  in  the  college  of  France^  a  ttiember  of  the  old 
academy  of  inscriptions  and  belles-lettres,  a  member  of  the 
institute  of  the  class  of  ancient  history^  and  a  knight  of  the 
legion  of  honour.  He  died  at  Paris,  March  12,  IS  12^ 
leaving  the  following  proofs  of  his  talents  and  industry* 
1.  ^'  Le  reves  d^Aristobule,  philosophe  Grec,  suivis  d^ua 
abreg)6  de  la  vie  de  Formose,  philosophe  Fran^ais,*'  Paris, 
1761,  12mo.  2.  *^  Choiz  de  poesies  de  Petrarque,"  trans<> 
lated  from  the  Italian,  1774,  8vo,  reprinted  in  1787,  2 
vols.  12mo.  This  translation  is  faithful,  but  wants  the 
spirit  and  graces  of  the  original.  3«  **  L^homme  moral,^ 
Amst  1775,  a  work  which  haf  been  ofteo  reprinted,  and  is 
said  to  have  been  written  at  Petersburgh,  for  the  use  of 
the  Russian  youth.  Its  objeet  seems  to  be  to  tak^a  sur- 
vey of  man  in  the  savage  and  social  state,  and  during  all 
the  modifications  of  the  latter ;  and  its  contents  are  a  se- 
ries of  remarks  on  all  subjects  connected  with  happiness, 
not  always  profound,  but  often  striking,  lively,  and  agree* 
able.  From  its  being  printed  oftener  in  Holland  than  in 
france,  it  is  probable  that  this  work,  as  well  as  the  follow- 
ing, was  written  with  more  freedom  of  sentiment  than  was 
then  agreeable.  4.  ^^  L'homme  pensant,  ou  Essai  sur 
Tbistoire  tie  Tesprit  humain,^'  Amst.  1779,  12mo.  5. 
'^Histoirede  Russie,''  Paris,  1785,  5  vols.  12mo.  This 
is  esteemed  a  very  accurate  sketch  of  Russian  history ; 
$iid  was  followed  by  a  sequel,  6.  **  Histoire  des  differens 
peuples  soumis  a  la  domination  des  Russes,"  2  vols.  Both 
were  reprinted  in  1800,.  with  a  continuation  to  the  et)d  -of 
the  reign  of  Catherine,  8  vols.  8vo.  In  this  last,  he  offers 
a  very  able  vindication  of  the  conduct  of  that  empress  in 
.the  early  part  of  her  reign.  7.  ^*  £loge  historique  de 
I'abb^  Mably,*^  Paris,  1787,  8vo.  This  obtained  the  prize 
of  the  academy  of  inscriptions  and  belles  lettres.  8.  *<  La 
France  sous  les  cinq  premier  Valois,''  Paris,  1788,  4  vols. 
12mo.  9.  *^  Dictionnaire  des  arts,  de  peinture,  sculpture, 
etgravure,'*  Paris,  1792,  5  vols.  Svo.     He  compiled  this 


est  LEVESQUE. 

dictionary  in  conjunction  with  Watelet,  to  wbom  oii^  &it^ 
tbority  attributes  the  principal  merit  of  it.  10,  A  trart^ 
Jation^  highly  praised^  of  "  Thucydides,*'  Paris,  1795,  4 
Tols.  4to.  .  Levesque  also  contributed  variousv^ssays  to  the 
jnemoirs  of 'the  institute,  and  wrote  many  of  the  articled  in 
that  collection  of  the  ancient  moralists  which  was  pobisflbed 
by  Didot  and  Debure. '  Not  long  before  bis  death  he  pofa- 
lisbed  <'  L'etude  de  Phistoire  de  la  Grece,^'  4  vols.  8va.; 
not,  as  is  said,  a  learned  work,  but  a  popular  introduction 
to  the  knowledge  of  Grecian  history.^ 

LEVI  (David),  a  learned  Jew,  and  zealous  defender 
of  the  opinions  of  that  people,  was  born  in  London  m 
1740,  and  after  a  regular  apprenticeship  to  a  dioemaker, 
settled  in  that  business ;  but,  not  succeeding  in  it,  com* 
menced  hat-dresser ;  and  in  this  4iew  profession,  though 
surrounded  with  domestic  cares,  still  finding  time^  for 
study^  produced  a  volume  on  the  ^^  Rites  and  Ceremonies 
of' the  Jews,'*  1783,  8vo.  He  next  published  ^'Lingua 
Sacra,''  3  vols.  Svo,  containing^  an  Hebrew  Grammar  with 
points,  clearly  explained  iu  English,  and  a  complete  He- 
breW'English  Dictionary,  which  came  out  in  numbers^ 
1785 — 1789.  This  performance,  though  by  no  means  the 
most  perfect  of  its  kind  that  might  be  produced,  is  a  great 
instance  of  industry  and  perseverance  in  a  person  who  was 
confined  all  the  time  to  a  mechanical  business  to  supply 
domestic  wants.  In  1787  he  published  his  first  ^^  Letters 
to  Dr.  Priestley,^'  in  answer  to  his  *^  Letters  addressed  to 
the  Jews,"  inviting  them  to  an  amicable  discussion  of  the 
evidences  of  Christianity ;  in  which  he  says,  *^  I  am  not 
ashamed  to  tell  you  that  I  am  a  Jew  by  choice,  and  not 
because  I  was  borii  a  Jew  ;  far  from  it ;  for  I  am  clearly  of 
opinion  that  every  person  endowed  with  ratiocination  ought 
to  have  a  clear  idea  of  the  truth  of  revelation,  and  a  jdit 
ground  of  his  faith,  as  .far  as  human  evidence  can  go/' 
In  1789  lie  published  his  second  ^'  Letters  to  Dr.  Priest- 
ley," and  also  "  Letters  to  Dr.  Cooper,  of  Great  Yar- 
mouth," in  answer  to  his  one  great  argument  in  favour  of 
Christianity  from  a  single  prophecy  ;  2.  to  Mr.  Bicheno ; 
3.  to  Dr.  Krauter ;  4.  to  Mr.  Swain  ;  5.  to  Anti-Socinus^ 
alias  Anselm  Bailey ;  Occasioned  by  their  Remarks  on  his 
first  Letters  to  Dr.  Priestley.  In  this  year  he  published  the 
^'  Pentateuch,  in  Hebrew  and  English,"  with  a  translation 

>  Diet  Hist  SoppleoieDt 


L^E  V  t  2B3! 

of  the  notes  of  Lion  Socsroaan,  ahd  the  613  precepts  con-* 
tained  in  the  la\y,  according  to  Maimonides.     At  the  end  < 
of  th6  fiame  year,  at  the  earnest  request  of  the .  most  con- 
siderable of  the  Portaguese  Jews,  Jbe  undertook  to  trans- 
late their  prayers  from  Hobrew  into  English;  which  he* 
accomplished  in  four  years  (though  confined  to  his  bed  by 
iilness  twenty«-seven  weeks),  the  last  of  six  volumes  ap- 
pearing in  1793.     The  first  volume  of  his  '^  Dissertations 
on  the  Prophecies^'  was*  also  published  in  1793;  and  in 
1794  his  Translation  of  the  Service  for  the  two  first  NightS' 
of  the  Passover,  as  observed  by  all  the  Jews  at  this  day, 
in  Hebrew  and  English.     In  1795  he  published  '<  Lettera 
to  Nathaniel  Brassey  Halhed,^  M.  P.  in  answer  to  his  Tes- 
timony of  the  Authenticity  of  the  Prophecies  of  Richard 
Brothers,  and  his  pretended  mission  to  recall  the  Jews7' 
A  second  volume  of  his  *^  Dissertations  on  the  Prophecies'* 
appeared  in  1796,  which  he  intended  to  complete  in  six 
volumes;  and  of  which,  in  May  1797,  more  than  half  of 
the  third  volume  was  printed.     In  the  beginning  of  1797 
be  published  a  ^'  Defence  of  the  Old  Testament,"  in  a  se- 
ries of  letters  addressed  to  Thomas  Paine,  in  answer  to 
his  Age  of  Reason,  part  IL     For  the  German  Jews  h& 
translated  their  Festival  Prayers,  as  he  bad  done  those  of 
the  Porl;uguese,  in  6  vols.  8vo ;  a  labour  of  four  years* 
By  all  the  synagogues  in  London  Mr.  Levi  was  regularly 
employed  to  translate  the  prayers  composed  on  any  par- 
ticular occasion,  as  those  used  during,  the  king's  iilness  in 
.  1788,  and  the  thanksgiving  in  178S;  with  various  others 
for.tbe  use  of  the  several  synagogues.     He  wrote  also  a 
sacred  ode  in  Hebrew,  1795,  on  the  king's  escape  froiQ 
assassination.     On  Nov.  14,  .1798,  he  had  a  violent  stroke 
of  the.  palsy,  which  nearly  deprived  him  of  the  use  of  his 
^'igbt  hand.     He  died  in  July  1799,  in  the  fifty-ninth  year 
of.  his  age,  and  was.  interred  in  .the.  Jews'  burial-ground 
near  Betfanal-green, .  with  a  Hebrew  .epitaph,  of  which  the 
following  i$  a  translation — ^^  And  David  reposed  with  j^is 
fathers,  and  was  buried.     Here  iieth  a  correct  and  proper 
person,  of  perfect  carriage,  who  served  the  Lord  all  ius 
daysj  turned  away  fropi  evil,  ap4  ^^  supported  by  his 
own  industry  all  the  days  of  his  life ;  Rabbi  David  the  son 
of  Mordecai  the  Levite,  of  blessed  memorjv  vi'ho  departed 
for  the  next  world  on  the  Sabbath  night,  3d  of  Ab.,  and 
was  buried  with  good  reputation  on  Monday  the  fourth ; 
the  days  of  bis  life  were  59  years.     May  hiii  soul  be  en- 


224  Ltvntr. 

ireloped  with  AbrBfaam,  Isaac»  and  Jacob.    Mayeot  tboil 
come  io  the  grave  at  full  age.*'  ^ 

LEVRET  (Ai/DREW),  an  eminent  Freoch  suigeon  and 
accoQcheur,  was  born  in  1703,  and  was  admitted  a  member 
of.  the  royal  academy  of  surgery  at  Paris  in  February  1742. 
He  obtained  a  high  and  extensive  reputation  in  bis  depart-  , 
ment  of  the  art  by  the  improvements  which  be  made  in 
some  of  the  instruments  necessary  to  be  employed  in  cer« 
tain  difficult  cases  (especially  the  forceps),  and  by  the  pro- 
digious number  of  pupils  whom  he  instructed.     He.  was 
employed  and  honoured  with  official  appointments  by  all 
the  female  branches  of  the  royal  family.     He  published 
several  work^,  which  underwent  various  editions  and  trans* 
lations*     1  •  ^^  Observations  sur  les  causes  et  les  accideua 
deplusieurs  accouchemens  laborieux/' Paris,  1747.  Tot}ie 
fourth  edition,  in  .1770,  were  added,  ^*  Observations  on  the 
lever  of  Roonhuysen."    2.  "  Observations  sur  la  cure  radi-. 
cale  de  plusieurs  polypes  de  la  matrice,  de  la  gorge,  et  du 
nez,  oper6e  par  de  nouveau:c  moyens,"  ibid.  174d,  &c« 
3.  ^^  Suite  des  observations  sur  les  causes  et  les  accidens 
de  plusieurs  accouchemens   laborieux,*'    ibid.  1751.     4* 
<^  Explication  de  plusieurs  figures  sur  le  m^chanisme  de  la 
grossesse,  et  de  Taccouchementy"  ibid.  1752.     5.  <^L'Art 
des  accouchemens  d^montr^  par  des  principes  de  physique 
et  de  mecbanique,"  ibid.  1753,  &c.     6.  <^  Essai  sur  Tabus 
des  regies  generales,  et  contre  les  pr6jug4s  qui  s'opposent 
aux  progres  de  Tart  des  accouchemens/'  ibid.  1766.  This 
author  died  Jan.  22,  1780.' 

LEWIS  (John),  a  learned  English  divine  and  antw 
quary,  was  the  eldest  son  of  John  Lewis,  wine-oooper,  io 
the  parish  of  St  Nicholas,  Bristol,  where  he  was  born^ 
Aug.  29,  1675.  His  father  dying  while  be  was  in  his  in-* 
fancy^  he  was  committed  to  the  care  of  his  maternal 
grandfather  John  Eyre,  merchant  of  Poole  in  Dorsetshire^ 
who  instilled  into  his  infant  mind  the  first  principles  of  re^ 
ligion.  Losing  this  relation,  however,  before  he. was  se-* 
ven  years  old,  he  was  taken  into  the  house  of  the  rev,  Sa-* 
muel  Conaat,  rector  of  LitchetMatravers  (an  intimate  ac* 
quaintance  of  his  grandfather  Eyre),  and  educated  along 
with  a  nephew  whom  Mr.  Conant  was  preparing  for  a.pub-» 

lio  school*     This  was  an  assistance  peculiarly  acceptable 

.■•'■. 

.  1  Europ.  Mag.  1799«-— Qent.  Muf.  186l.— -Lysoiiiff  6nTir9iit»  SappLvol* 
^  Dick.  Hist.-«ltMs'8  Cyclopaedia^  from  £loy. 


to  Mr.  Lewi^'ii  mother^  who  appears  to  faav^  bef  a  left  in 
ctrcumsts^uces  which  were  not  adequate  to  a  Uberai  educa- 
tion. After  renciaining  with  Mr.  Conaht  two  years,  he  wa4 
placed  under  the  instruction  of  the  learned  Mr.  John  Moyle, 
at  the  grammt^rrschool  of  Winborne,  in  1687,  upon  whosQ 
decease  the  year  following,  he  was  removed  fo  Poole,  but 
reaped  little  benefit  there,  until  he  was  put  under  tbe^are 
of  Mr.  John  Bussel,  who  was  encouraged  to  establish  a 
grammar-school  there.  Mr.  Russel,  finding  him  to  be  a 
youth  of  talents  and  industry,  employed  him  as  his  assis- 
tant :  and  after  his  removal  to  Wapping  in  London,  cpn- 
tin-ued  his  favours  to  him,  placing  him  at  the  free-school 
of  Ratcliife-cross,  belonging  to  the  Coopers^  company. 

Two  years  after,  when  he  was  about  sixteen  year$  old, 
Mr.  Daniel  Wigf^ll,  a  merchant,  took  him  into  his  family 
as  tutor  to  bis  sons,  and  after  continuing  here  until  1694, 
he  went  to  Oxford,  and  was  admitted  batteler  of  Exeterr 
College :  bpt  hU  scanty  fortune  not  allowing  him  to  reside 
constantjiy,  he  was  recommended  to  Mr.  William  Churchey, 
then  minister  at  Poqle,  tobe  assistant  in  the  free-school  of 
that  town.  By  thi9  gentleman^s  indulgence  in  allowing 
bim  to  beep  his  terms  in  the  university,  he  proceeded  A.  ^ 
in  1697,  when  he  returned  to  Mr.  Russel  at  Wapping, 
and  was  ordained  deacon  by  bishop  Compton  soon  after. 
In  April  following  be  took  upon  him  the  cure  of  Acryse  in 
Keiit,  and  lived  at  the  same  time  in  the  family  of  Philip 
Papillojp,  es(}.  to  whom  his  behaviour  rendered  him  so  ac- 
ceptable, that  although 'he  bad  left  the  parish,  and  was 
then  chaplain  to  Paul  Foley,  esq.  upon  the  recommenda- 
tion of  Dr.  Barton,  prebendary  of  Westminster,  yet,  upon 
the  death  of  the  incumbent,  he  procured  him  a  presenta* 
tion  from  the  Iqrd  chancellor  Somers,  upon  which  he  vfzs 
instituted  S.ept.  4,  1699.  He  now  applied  himself  to  re- 
pair a  dilapidated  parsonage*houfie,  as  well  as  to  discbarge 
his  pastoral  duties  with  all  diligence,  particularly  that  of 
catechising  the  young,  which  he  looked  upo.n  as  a  very  im- 
portant part  of  his  ministry^  While  here,  he^  soon  after 
met  ^ith  a  singular  instance  of  unfair  dealing.  Bdng  .^p- 
ppiqted  to  preach  at  the  archdeacon's  visitation  at  Canter- 
bury in  1701,  his  sermon  (on  2  Cor.  vi.  4.)  was  lent  to 
Willisitn  Brockman,  esq.  upon  his  earnest  request,  who 
printed  it. under  the  title  of  a  *' Summary ,^^  &c,  with  a 
preface  calculated  to  injure  him. 

Vol.  XX.  Q 


ae  L  £  w  I  ft 

He  found  a  kinder  friend,  however,  in  archbishop  Tenl^' 
son,  who  bad  heard  a  good  character  of  him,  and  granted 
him  the  sequestration  of  the  little  rectory  of  Hawkinge, 
near  Dover,  in  1702,  telling  him  at  the  same  time,  that 
he  hoped  he  should  live  to  consider  him  farther.  It  was  at 
that  time  his  acquaintance  began  with  Mr.  Johnson  of  Mar- 
gate, who  recommended  him  for  his  successor  in  that  la- 
borious  cure  ;  but  his  old  friend  and  patron  Mr.  Papillon 
being  unwilling  to  part  with  him,  he  excused  himself  to 
the  archbishop  at  that  time :  afterwards,  upon  Mr.  War- 
ren's resignation,  he  accepted  it  in  1705.  On  his-  be- 
coming a  member  of  the  society  for  promoting  Christians 
knowledge,  he  was  desired  to  draw  up  a  short  and  plaio* 
exposition  of  the  Church  Catechism,  fit  for  the  children 
educated  in  charity-schools ;  and  this,'  which  he  executed 
to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  the  society,  •  has  passed  through 
many  editions.  In  1706,  archbishop  Tenison  collated  him 
to  the  rectory  of  Saltwood  with  the  chapel  of  Hythe,  and 
the  desolate  rectory  of  Eastbridge ;  but,  being  here  dis- 
turbed by  a  dispute  with  a  neighbouring  'squire,  his  pa- 
tron removed  him  to  the  vicarage  of  Mynstre,  on  the  ces- 
sion of  Dr.  Green,  in  March  1708,  where  be  rebuilt  the 
bouse,  in  a  more  elegant  and  commodious  manner. 

In  his  "Apology  for  the  Clergy  of  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land," published  in  1711,  h^  attacked  the  veracity  of  the 
historian  of  the  nonconformists,  by  asserting,  "  that  Mr. 
Calamy  was  too  much  biassed  to  have  any  thing  he  said  con- 
cerning the  party  he  espoused  believed  on  bis  bare  word." 
This  harsh  opinion  naturally  provoked  Calamy  to  make 
sonoe  very  severe  reflections  on  him,,  both  in  the  preface 
to  the  second  edition  of  ^*  Baxter's  Life  abridged,'*  in 
1714,  and  in  his  "  Continuation,"  in  1727  ;  against  which 
Mr.  Lewis  had  drawn  up  a  vindication;  but,  Mr.  Calamy's 
death  intervening,  he  would  not  war  with  the  dead,  and  de- 
sisted from  publishing  it. 

In  May  1712,  he  was  appointed  to  preach  at  the  arch- 
bishop's visitation,  and  took  his  subject  from  Isa.  xi.  9, 
but  such  was  the  violence  of  party  spirit  at  that  time,  that 
both  he  and  his  sermon  were  roughly  treated  by  some  of 
the  audience.  It  was  this  year  that  he  commenced  M.  A. 
as  a  member  of  Corpus  Christi  college,  Cambridge.  Not 
long  after  he  incurred  the  displeasure  of  his  friend  Mt. 
Johnson  by  writing  against  his  ^'  Unbloody  Sacrifice/'  aii4 


1  E  W  1  S.  M7 

was  treated  by  him  with  more  contempt  than  he  deserved. 
Archbishop  Tenison,  however,  and  Dr.  Bradford  approved 
of  his  pamphlet,  and  Dr.  Waterland  considered  it  as  con- 
taining much  in  a  httle,  and  as  being  close,  clear,  and  ju« 
dicious*  His  sermon  preached  at  Canterbury  cathedral  on 
January  30, 1717,  being  severely  reflected  upon,  he  printed 
it  in  his  own  defence,  and  it  was  so  highly  approved  by^ 
archbishop  Wake  that  he  rewarded  him  with  the  master- 
ship of  Eastbridge- hospital  soon  after.  From  that  time  he 
was  continually  employed  on  his  various  publications  and 
correspondence,  with  the  literary  men  of  his  time.  He  died 
Jan.  16,  1746,  and,  at  his  own  desire,  was  buried  in  the 
chancel  of  his  church  at  Mynstre  (where  he  had  been  vicar 
upwards  of  thirty-seven  years),  under  a  plain  black  marble 
with  an  inscription. 

Archbishop  Wakens  charieu^ter  of  him  was  that  of  vir  so^ 
hriusj  et  bonus  pradicator :  and  a  considerable  dignitary  in 
the  church  used  to  say,  that  he  looked  upon  his  life  to  have 
been  spent  in  the  service  of  learning  and  virtue,  and  thought 
the  world  tq  be  more  concerned  for  its  continuance  than 
himself:  that  it  would  be  happy  for  us  if  there  were  many 
more  of  the  profession  like  him,  &c.  It  was  his  misfor- 
tune, however,  to  live  in  a  time  of  much  party  violence,  and 
being  a  moderate  man,  he  met  with  ill  usage  from  both 
parties,  particularly  from  the  clergy  of  his  own  diocese. 
His  only  object  was  the  security  of  our  church-establish- 
ment as  settled  at  the  Revolution.  He  was  so  diligent  a 
preacher,  that  we  are  told  he  composed  more  than  a  thou- 
sand sermons.  He  was  always  of  opinion  that  a  clergyman 
should  compose  his  own  sermons,  and  therefore  ordered 
bis  executor  to  destroy  his  stock,  lest  they  should  con- 
tribute to  the  indolence  of  others.  Having  no  family,  for 
his  wife  died  young  without  issue,  he  expended  a  great 
deal  of  money  on  his  library  and  the  repairs  of  his  dilapi- 
dated parsonage-houses ;  and  was,  at  the  s^me  time,  a  libe- 
ral benefactor  to  the  poor.  His  chief,  and  indeed  only^ 
failing  was  a  warmth  of  temper,  which  sometimes  hurried 
him  on  to  say  what  was  inconsistent  with  his  character  and 
interest,  and  to  resent  imaginary  injuries.  Of  all  this,  how- 
ever, he  was  sensible,  and  deeply  regretted  it.  Hearne 
and  Mr.  Lewis  were,  it  appears,  accustomed  to  speak 
disrespectfully  of  each  other^s  labours,  but  posterity  has 
done  justice  to  both.  The  polilical  prejudices  of  antiquaries 
Itfe  of  very  little  consequence. 

Q  -2 


??8  I.  E  W  I  S. 

Mr.  Lewi3's  works  are,  1.  <^  The  Church  Catechism  etr 
planed/'  already  ipieDtioned,  1700,   12ino.     2.  *^  A.  9bor^ 
Defence  of  Infant  Baptism/'  1700,  8vo.     3.  *' A  serious 
Address  to  the  Anabaptists,"  a  single  sheet,  1701,  with  a 
^ecoad  in  1702.     4.  ^^  A  Companion  for  the  afflicted,*' 
}706.     5.  ^^  Presbyters  not  always  an  authoritative  part  of 
provinpial  synods,"'  1710,  4to.     6.  **  An  apologetical  Vin- 
dication of  the  present  Bishops,"l7 1 1.   7.  "  The  Apology 
for  the  Church,  of  England,  in  an  examination  of  the  rights 
pf  the  Christian  church,''  published  about  this  time,  or 
perhaps  in  1714.     8.  ^^The  poor  Vicar's  plea  against  bia 
gleb^  being  assessed  to  the  Church,"  1712.    9.  ^'  A  Guide 
tp  yoving  Communicants/'  1713.     10.  ^' A  Vindics^tioD  of 
the  Bishop  of  Norwich"   (Trimnell),   1714.     11.  ^«  The 
.  agreement  of  the  Lutheran  churches  with  the  church  of 
Epglaqd,  and  an  answer  to  some  exceptions  to  it,^'  1715. 
12.  .^^Two  Letters  in  defence  of  the  English  liturgy  and 
reformation,"  17 IG.    13.  "  Bishop  Ferije's  Church  ol&ig- 
land  naan's  reasons  for  not  making  the  decisiops  of  ecQW^* 
siastical  synods  the  rule  of  his  fait]bi,"  1717,  8vo.    14.  <<' Aa 
Exposition  of  the  xxxivth  article  of  Religion,"    1717. 
15.  "  Short  Remarks  on  the  prolocutor's  answer,*&c,'*    16* 
"The  History,  &c.  of  John  Wiclifje,  D.  D."  1720,  8vo. 
17*  '^The  case  of  observing  such  Fasts  and  Festivals  as  are 
appointed  by  the  king's  authority,  considered,"  1721.     IS. 
"  A  Letter  of  t^hanks  to  the  earl  of  Nottingham,  &c.'*  1721. 
19.  ^^  The  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  Isle  of  Thaoet  in 
Kent,"  1723,  4to,  and  again,  with  additions^  in  1736.     20. 
**  A  Specimen  of  Errors  in  the  second  volume  of  Mr.  Col- 
lier's EciL'lesiastical  History,  being  a  Vindication  of  Buroet^B 
History  of  the  Reformation,"  1724,  8vo.     21,  **  History  and 
Antiquities  of'the  abbey  church  of  Faversham,  &c.^'  1727, 
4to.     22.  ^^  The  New  Testament,  &c.  translated  out  of  the 
Latin  vulgate  by  John  WickliBe ;  to  which  is  pre6xed,  an 
History  of  the  several  Translations  of  the  Holy  3ibli?,"  &c. 
1^31,  folio.     Of  this  only  160  copies  were  print/ed  by  sub- 
scription, and  the  copies  unsubscribed  for  were  advertified 
tl^e  same  year  at  \L  Is.  each.     Of  the  '^  New  TestameiUi'* 
the  cev.  H.  Baber,  of  the  British  Museum,  has  lately  printed 
an  edition,  with  valuable  preliminary  matter,  in  4to.     2S. 
^^  The  History  of  the  Translations,  &c.''  reprinted  sepa* . 
rately  in.  1739,  8vo.     24.*  «  The  Life  of  Caxton,"  1737, 
8x^0.     For  an  account  of  this  work  we  may  refer  to  J)ihdio's 
new  ^ition  of  Ames.    25.  ^*  A  brief  History  of  tha  Rise 


LEWIS.  229 

ind  Progress  of  Anabaptism,  to  which  is  prefixed  a  defence 
of  Dr.  Wicliffe  from  the  false  ciiarge  of  his  denying  In- 
fant-baptism," I7.'i8.  26.  "  A  Dissertation  on  the  anti- 
quity and  use  of  Seals  in  England,"  1740.  27.  *^  A  Vindi- 
cation of  the  ancient  Britons,  &c.  from  being  Anabaptists, 
with  a  letter  of  M.  Bucer  to  bishop  Hooper  on  ceremonies,'* 
1741.  28.  "  A  Defence  of  the  Commnnion  office  and  Ca- 
techism of  the  church  of  England  from  the  charge  of  fa- 
vouring transubstantiation,"  174?.  29.  "The  Life  of  Rey- 
nold Pecock,  bishop  of  St.  Asaph  and  Chichester,"  1744, 
8vo.  Mr.  Lewis  published  also  one  or  two  occasional  ser- 
mons, and  an  edition  of  Roper's  Life  of  sir  Thomas  More. 
After  his  death,  accordinsr  to  the  account  of  him  in  th^ 
Biog.  Britannica  (which  is  unpardonably  superficial,  as 
Masters's  History  of  Bene't  College  had  appeared  some 
years  before),  was  published  "  A  brief  discovery  of  some 
of  tlie  arts  of  the  popish  protestant  Missioners  in  England," 
1750,  8vo.  But  there  are  other  curious  tracts  which  Mr. 
Lewis  sent  for  publication  to  the  Gentleman's  Magazine, 
and  which,  for  reasons  stated  in  vol.  X.  of  that  work,  were 
printed  in  "  The  Miscellaneous  Correspondence,"  1742 — 
1748,  a  scarce  and  valuable  volume,  very  little  known  to 
the  possessors  of  the  Magazine,  no,  set  of  which  can  bfe 
complete  without  it.  Of  these  productions  of  Mr.  Lewis, 
we  can  ascertain,  on  the  authority  of  Mr.  Cave,  the  follow- 
ing :  an  account  of  William  Longbeard,  and  of  John  Smith, 
the  first  English  anabaptist ;  the  principles  of  Dr.  Hickes, 
and  Mr.  Johnson ;  and  an  account  of  the  oaths  exacted  by 
the  Popes.  Mr.  Lewis  left  a  great  many  manuscripts,  some 
of  which  are  still  in  public  or  private  libraries,  and  are 
spe^cified  in  our  authorities.' 

LEY,  or  LEIGH  (Sir  James),  an  eminent  lawyer  in 
the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century,. was  the  sixth 
and  youngest  son  of  Henry  Ley,  esq.  of  Tesfont  Evias,  in 
Wiltshire,  and  vy^s  born  about  1552.  In  1569  be  entered 
of  Brazen-nose  college,  Oxfprd,  whence  he  removed  to 
Lincoln's-inn,  studied  the  law,  and  was  appointed  Lent 
reader  in  1601,  after  which  his  learning  and  abilities  raised 
him  to  the  highest  rank  of  his  profession.  In  1 603,  he 
Was  made  serjeant  at  law,  and  the  year  following  chief  jus'^ 
tice  of  the  king's  bench  in  Ireland  ;  on  the  ancient  history 

I  Masters's  Hist  of  C.  C.  C.  C— Bi0ff.  Brit.— Dibdin'i  TypograpHica]  Adii* 
^uities,  vol.  I. — and  BibliomsMiia.-^Gent.  Mag.  vol.  I.  p.  259,  and  vol.  XVII, 
pp.  41,  47^— Restituta,  pp<  69,  73.-*Nichols's  Bowy«r, 


aJO  LEY. 

of  which  country  he  appears  to  have  bestowed  some  atteii* 
tiori,  and  coliected  with  a  view  to  publication,  ^^  The  An- 
nals of  John  Clynne,  a  Friar  Minor  of  Kilkenny,"  who  lived 
in  the  reign  of  Edward  III. ;  the  "  Annals  of  the  Priory  of 
St.  John  of  Kilkenny,"  and  the  '^  Annals  of  Multiferman, 
Rosse,  add  Clonmell."  All  these  he  had  caused  to  be  tra4is- 
cribed,  but  his  professional  engagements  prevented  his 
preparing  them  for  the  press.  They  afterwards  fell  into 
the  hands  of  Henry  earl  of  Bath.  Extracts  from  them  are 
in  Dublin  college  library. 

In  1609,  being  then  a  knight,  sir  James  was  made  the 
king's  attorney  in  the  court  of  wards.  In  1620  he  was 
created  a  baronet;  in  1621,  chief  justice  of  the  court  of 
king's  bench,  England ;  and  in  f  625,  lord  high  treasurer. 
From  this  office  he  was  removed,  under  pretence  of  his 
great  age,  to  make  room  for  sir  Richard  Weston.  Lord 
Clarendon  seems  to  intimate  that  his  disability  as  well  as 
age  might  be  the  cause,  and  that  upon  these  accounts 
there  was  little  reverence  shewn  towards  him.  This,  how- 
ever, is  scarcely  reconcileable  with  the  honours  bestowed 
on  him  immediately  afterwards,  for  he  was  not  only  created 
baron  Ley,  and  earl  of  Marlborough,  but  soon  after  made 
president  of  the  council.  Lloyd  says  he  had  better  abi« 
lities  for  a  judge  than  a  statesman.  He  died  at  Lincoln's- 
inn,  March  14,  1628,  and  was  buried  in  the  church  at 
Westbury,  where  a  sumptuous  monument  was  erected  to 
his  memory.  We  have  noticed  his  attention  to  Irish  his- 
tory while  in  that  country.  Lloyd  has  given  us  another 
trait  of  his  character  while  there,  which  is  highly  honour- 
able to  him.  "  Here  he  practised  the  charge  king  James 
gave  him  at  his  going  over  (yea,  what  his  own  tender  con- 
science gave  himself),  namely,  not  to  build  his  estate  upon 
the  ruins  of  a  miserable  nation,  but  aiming,  by  the  impar- 
tial execution  of  justice,  not  to  enrich  himself,  but  civilize 
the  people.  But  the  wise  king  would  no  longer  lose  him 
out  of  his  own  land,  and  therefore  recalled  him  home  about 
the  time  when  his  father's  inheritance,  by  the  death  of 
bis  five  elder  brethren,  descended  upon  him." 

He  wrote,  or  compiled,  ^*  Reports  of  Cases  in  the  courts 
at  Westminster  in  the  reigns  of  king  James  and  king 
Charles,  whh  two  tables  ;  to  which  is  added'  a  treatise  of 
Wards  and  Liveries,"  1659,  folio.  The  **  Treatise  of 
Wards"  had  been  published  separately  in  1642,   12mat 


LEY.  231 

Among  Hearne's  '*  Collection  of  curious  Discourses/'  are 
some  by  sir  James  Leigh.' 

LEY  (John),  a  voluminous  polemic  in  the  seventeenth 
century,  was  born  at  Warwick,  Feb.  4,  1583,  and  eda«- 
cated  at  Christ  church,  Oxford.  After  bis  admission  into 
holy  orders  he  was  presented  to  the  vicarage  of  Great  Bud* 
worth  in  Cheshire,  where  he  continued  a  constant  preacher 
for  several  years.  He  was  afterwards  made  prebendary 
and  subdean  of  Chester,  and  had  a  weekly  lecture  at  St* 
Peter's  church.  He  was  also  once  or  twice  a  member  of 
the  convocation.  On^  the  commencement  of  the  rebellion, 
be  espoused  the  cause  of  the  parliament,  took  the  coven- 
ant, was  chosen  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  appointed 
Latin  examiner  of  young  preachers,  af^d  by  his  writings, 
encoufaged  all  the  opinions  and  prejudices  of  his  party, 
with  whom  his  learning  gave  him  considerable  weight.  He 
accepted  of  various  livings  under  the  republican  govern- 
ment, the  last  of  which  was  that  of  Solihull,  in  Warwick* 
shire,  which  he  resigned  on  being  disabled  by  breaking  of 
a  blood «•  vessel)  and  retired  to  Sutton  Colfield,  in  the  same 
county,  where  he  died  May  16, 1662.  His  works,  of  which 
Wood  enumerates  about  thirty  articles,  relate  mostly  to 
the  controversies  of  the  times,  except  his  sermons ;  and  his 
share  in  the  '*  Assembly's  Annotations  on  the  Bible,''  to 
which  he  contributed  the  annotations  on  the  Pentateuch 
and  the  four  Evangelists.' 

.  LEYBOURN  (William),  who  was  originally  a  printer 
in  London,  published  several  of  the  mathematical  works  of 
Samuel  Foster,  astronomical  professor  in  Gresham  coUege*^ 
He  afterwards  became  an  eminent  aathor  himself,  and 
appears  to  have  been  the  most  universal  mathematician  of 
his  time.  He  published  many  mathematical  treatises  in 
the  seventeenth  century.  Among  these  his  '^  Cursna  Ma- 
thematicus"  was  esteemed  the  best  system  of  the  kind  ex- 
tant His  ^<  Panarithmologia ;  or.  Trader's  sure  Guide,'* 
being  tables  ready  cast  up,  wa»  long  in  use.  It  wras  formed 
upon  a  plan  of  his  own,  and  has  been  adopted  by  Mr* 
Bareme  in  France.  The  seventh  edition  was  Mblisbed  in 
1741.     We  have  no  account  of  his  birth  or  depb. ' 

LEYDECKER  (M£LCHiOR),  an  eminent  arotestlmt  di- 
vine,  was  t)orn  January  25,  1652,  at  Mi^Deburg.     He 

1  Ath.  Os.  vol.  I.— Lloyd's  State  WorUiies.— Ware's  Ireland,  by  Harris.— 
iPark't  edition  of  lord  Orford. 

9  Ath.  Ox.  to}*  IL  >  GraBger. 


2St  LEYDECKER. 

acquired'great  skill  in  controversy  and  ecclesiastical  antf« 
quity,  and  wrote  much  against  the  Socinians  and  other  sec* 
.  taries.  He  was  one  of  Frederic  Spanbeim's  friends,  ind 
appointed  professor  of  divinity  at  Utrecht,  1678.  He  died 
Jatiuary  6,  1721,  aged  sixty-nine.  The  following  are  the 
principal  among  his  numerous  Latin  works:  1.  a  treatise 
"  On  the  Hebrew  Republic,"  Amsterdam,  1714  and  1716,  2 
vols.  fol.  a  very  valuable  work  for  the  history  of  Judaism; 
2.  "  Fax  veritatis,**  Ludg.  Batav.  1677,  8vo.  3.  «*  A  Con- 
tinuation of  the  jEcclesiastical  History  began  by  Hornius,*^ 
Francforr,  1 704,  8 vo.  4.  «  History  of  the  African  Church,'* 
eorious^  and  full  of  interesting  inquiries.  5.  "  Synopsis 
controv^rsiarum  de  foedere."  6.  A  "  Commentary  in  the 
jHeidelburg  Catechism."  7.  A  "  Dissertation  against  Bec- 
ker's World  bewitched."  8.  "  An  Analysis  of  Scripture,** 
with  the  "Art  of  Preaching."  9.  A  "  History  of  Jansenism,** 
Utrecht,  1695,  8vo.  What  Leydecker  says  in  this  work 
against  the  sovereignty  of  kings,  has  been  refuted  by  P* 
Quesnel,  in  his  "  Sovereignty  of  Kings  defended,**  P^ris^ 
1704    I2mo.  ^ 

EEYDEN  VAN.    See  JACOBS,  Lucas. 

LHUYD  (Edward),  an  eminent  antiquary,  born  about 
1670,  was  a  native  of  South  Wales,  and  the  son  of  Charliei 
Lhuyd,  esq.  6f  Lhanvorde.  In  1687  he  confim^nced  hi^ 
academical  studiies  at  Jesus  college,  Oxford,  where  he  waes 
created  M.  A.  July  21, 1701.  He  studied  nateTral  hiitbrj^ 
imder  Dr.  Plot,  whom  he  succeeded  as  keeper  of  the  A^h- 
luoieSkn  museum  in  1690.  He  had  the  use  of  all  Tatt^to*^ 
collections,  and,  with  incessant  labour  and  great  eiactnes^, 
employed  a  considerable  part  of  his  life  in  searching  into 
the  Welsh  antiquities,  had  perused  or  collected  a  great 
deal  of  ancient  and  valuable  matter  frpm  their  MSS.  trans- 
cribed all  the  old  charters  of  their  montoteries  that  hi 
could  meet  with,  travelled  tteveral  times  over  Wales,  Coirn* 
ieall,  Scotland,  Ireland,  Armoric  Bretaghe,  countries  iti-^ 
habited  by  the  same  people,  compared  their  afitiqiiitle^i 
and  made  observations  on  the  whol6.  In  March  1708-9, 
be  was  elected,  by  the  university  of  Oxford,  esquire  beadl^ 
of  diyinity,  a  place  of  considerable  profit,  Which,  however^ 
he  enjoyed  but  a  few  mouths.  He  died  July  1709,  an 
event  which  prevented  the  completion  of  nfiany  adthirable 
designs,     for  want  of  proper  encouragement,  he  did  very 

}  Bunpan  Traject.  Erudit, 


L  H  U  Y  a 


13$ 


)ktle  towards  understanding  the  British  bards,  having  seen 
but  one.  of  those  of  the  sixth  century,  and  not  being  abte 
to.procure  access  to  two  of  the  principal  libraries  in  the 
country.  He  communicated,  however,  many  observations 
to  bishop  Gibson,  whose  edipon  of  the  Britannia  he  re« 
vised ;  and  published  '^  Archeologia  Britannica,  giving 
•ome  account  additional  to  what  has  been  hitherto  pub« 
lisbed  0f  the  languages,  histories,  and  customs,  of  the 
original  inhabitants  of  Great  Britain,  from  collections  and 
observations  in  travels  through  Wsdes,  Cornwall,  Bas  Bre«* 
tagne,  Ireland,  and  Scotland,  Vol.  I.  Glossograpby  ♦;^' 
Oxford,  1707,  foL  He  published  also  "  Litbopbylacii  Bri- 
tannici  Iconographia,^*  1699,  8vo.  This  work,  which  is  a 
methodical  catalogue  of  the  figured  fossils  of  .the  Ashmo* 
lean  museum,  consisting  of  1766  articles,  was  printed  at 
the  expence  of  sir  Isaac  Newton,  sir  Hans  Sloane,  and  a 
few  other  of  his  learned  friends*  As  only  120  copies  were 
printed,  a  new  edition  of  it  was  published  in  1760  by 
Mr.  Huddesford,  to  which  were  annexed  several  letters 
from  Lhtiyd  to  his  learned  friends,  on  the  subject  of  fossils, 
and  a  "  prselectio"  on  the  tfame  subject. 

He  left  in  MS.  a  Scottish  or  Irish- English  dictionary, 
proposed  to  be  published  in  1732  by  subscription,  by  Mr« 
David  Malcolme,  a  minister  of  the  church  of  Scotland,  witli 
additions;  as  also  the  elements  of  the  said  language,  with 
necessary  and  useful  information  for  propagating  more 
efiectually  the  English  language,  and  for  promoting  the 
knowledge  ef  the  ancient  Scottish  or  Irtsb,  and  many 
branches  of  useful  and  curious  learning.  Lhnyd,  at  the: 
end  of  bis  preface  to  tbe  '^  Archaeologia,'*  promises  an  his-* 
torical  dictionary  of  British  persons  and  places  mentioned 
in  ancient  records  It  seems  to  have  been  ready  for  press, 
though  h6  could  not  fix  the  time  of  publication.  His  coU 
Sections  for  a  second  volume,  which  was  to  give  an  account 
<tf  fixe  antiquities,  mbhumtents,  &c.  in  the  principality  of 
Wales,  wer6 numerous  and  well-chosen;  but,  on  account 


*  His  **  Glojuography''  is  divided 
iito  teo  titles  :  1.  *'  The  Comparative 
Etjribblc^y."  S.  "The  Comparative 
VocahAliiry  of  the  Original  Languages 
of  BriUiD  and  Ireland."  3.  *'  An  Ar- 
morfck  Grammar,  translated  sut  of 
French  by  Mr.  Williams,  the  sub-li* 
b^arian  df  the  Museum."  4.  <*  An 
Armorick  English  Voeabalary."  5. 
"  ^&k  Wdsh  words  omitted  in  Dr. 


Davies'fl  Dictionary."  6.  "  A  Cornish 
Grammar."  7.  «  MSS.  Britannicorum 
Catalc^us.'*  8.  «  A  British  £tymo^ 
logicon,  by  Mr.  Parry,  with  an  Ap-» 
peodix."  9,  **  A  brief  Introduction  to 
the  Irish  or  ancient  Scottish  Lan* 
guages."  la  "  An  Irish  English  Dic- 
tionary." And  lastly,  «  A  Catalogue 
of  If ish  Manuscripts." 


234  L  H  U  Y  D. 

9 
I 

of  a  quarrel ,  between  him  and  Dr.  Wynne,  then  teWoWf 
afterwards  principal  of  the  college,  and  bishop  of  St.  Asapb^ 
tbe  latter  refused  to  buy  tbern,  and  they  were  purchased 
by  sir  Thomas  Seabright,  of  Beachwood,  in  Hertfordshire^ 
whose  grandson  dispersed  them  by  auction  in  1 S07.  Of 
tbe  sale  and  the  chief  articles,  an  account  was  given  by 
Mr.  Gougb  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  for  May  of  that 
year.  Carte  made  extracts  from  Mr.  Lhuyd's  MSS.  about  or 
before  1736  ;  but  these  were  chiefly  historicaL  Many  of 
bis  letters  to  Lister,  and  other  learned  contemporaries, 
were  given  by  Dr.  Fotbergill  to  the  university  of  Osford, 
and  are  now  in  the  Ashmolean  museum.  Lhuyd  undertook 
more  for  illustrating  this  part  of  the  kingdom  than  any 
one  man  besides  ever  did,  or  than  any  one  man  can  be 
equal  to* 

To  this  account  of  so  eminent  an  antiquary  we  shall  sub* 
join  some  loose  memoranda  by  tbe  rev.  Mr.  Jones,  a  cu-» 
rious  collector  of  anecdotes,  aiid  curate  to  Dr.  Young  aft 
Welwyn  : 

*'  He  was  certainly  a  very  extraordinary  man,  both  for 
natural  abilities,  and  sedulous  and  successful. application* 
He  deserved  more  encouragement. 

^<  This  little  story  of  him  was  told  me  lately  by  ^  very 
knowing  person,  who  had  it  from  good  hands;  viz.  ^  That 
during  his  travels  in  Bretagny,  in  the  time  of  our  wars 
^ith  France,  he  was  taken  up  for  a  spy,  confined  for  a  few 
days  to  prison,  and  all  his  papers  seized.  The  papers 
being  examined  by  the  priests  and  Jesuits,  and  found  to 
be  to  them  unintelligible,  raised  tbe  greater  suspicion. 
But  tbe  principal  managers  against  him,  receiving  assur- 
ances, by  letters  from  learned  and  respectable-  men  in 
England,  that  he  was  only  pursuing  inquiries  relating  to 
the  antiquities  of  Britain,  and  had  not  the  least  concern 
with  state-affairs,  honourably  dismissed  him.'  I  wish  I  had 
more  little  anecdotes  of  'this  kind  to  add,  relating  to  that 
truly  great  man.  He  would  have  done  wonders  if  he  bad 
lived  to  complete  his  designs;  and  posterity  would  have 
wondered,  and  thanked  him. 

^^  I  remember  I  was  told  formerly  at  Oxford,  by  a  gen- 
tleman that  knew  and  honoured  him,  ^  that  his  death  vvas 
in  all  probability  hastened,  partly  by  his  immoderate  ap- 
plication to  researches  into  antiquity,  and  more  so  by  his 
ehusing,  for  some  time  before  his  decease,  to  lie  in  a 
Toom  at  the  Museum,  which,  if  not  very  damp,' was  at 


"^ 


L  H  U  Y  D.  235 

^  least  not  well-aired,  nor  could  be.'  Thi»,  it  seems,  was 
theo  the  current  opinion  ;  for  be  was  naturally,  as  I  bate 
heard,  of  a  very  robust  coiystitution.  It  would  probably 
have  been  better,  if  be  could  have. contented  himself  with 
a  chamber  or  two  in  his  college,  though  only  a  sojourner 
there,  and  paying  rent.  He  well  deserved  to  have  lived 
rent-free  in  any  part  of  Great  Britain  ;  though  I  do  not 
know  that  his  college  denied  him  this  piece  of  sntall  respect 
so  evidently  due  to  his  great  merits 

^^  The  ingenious  and  learned  Mr,  Thomas  Richards  (for- 
merly a  member  of  that  college,  and  afterwards  the  most 
worthy  rector  of  Lfaanvyllin  in  North  Wales)  told  me,  ia 
1756,  *^  that,  in  a  year  or  two  after  his  admission  into  the 
university,  a  consultation  was  held  by  the  fellows  of 
Jesus- col  lege,  about  a  proper  person  of  that  college^-  or 
any  other  native  of  Wales,  (though  of  another  college,)  to 
answer  the  celebrated  ^  Muscipula,'  then  lately  published 
by  the  ingenious  Mr.  Holdsworth,  of  Magdalen -col  lege,  at 
the  request,  and  by  the  direction,  of  Dr.  Sacheverell. 
Those  who  knew,  and  had  often  observed,  the  collegiate 
exercises  of  Mr.  Richards,  were  pleased  to  propose  him^ 
though  of  so  low  standing,  as  the  fittest  person  that  tkey 
could  think  of  for  such  an  undertaking.  Mr.  Lhuyd,  being 
present,  asked,  ^  Has  he  the  caput poeticum  ?^  They  assuring 
him  that  he  usually  wrote  in  a  strong  Virgilian  verse, 
'  Then,'  said  Mr.  Lhuyd,  ^  I  will  give  him  a  plan,'  which 
waifi   that  of  the  '  Uoglandia,'  since  published   and    well 

^  knawn.  Mr.  Richards,  as  he  told  me  (and  a  friend  of  his 
said  the  same),  retired  with  leave,  fpr  about  a  week,  out 
of  college,  taking  lodgings  at  8t.  Thomas's,  and  completed 
the  poem.  When  finished,  and  corrected  by  Mr.  Lhuyd, 
and  Mr.  Anthony  Alsop,  of  Christ-church,  Mr.  Lhuyd  * 
drew  up  a  preface,  or  dedication,  in  very  elegant  Latin, 
but  in  terms  by  much  too  severe,  which  made  Mr.  Richards 
very  uneasy,  for  he  must  obey.  Before  the  poem  was 
sent  to  the  press,  Mr.  Lhuyd  died ;  Richards  was  then  at 
liberty.  He  consulted  with  bis  friend  Mr.  Alsop  (who  was 
greatly  offended  with  Dr.  S/s  haughty  carriage),  and  both 
together  drew  up  the  dedication  as  it  now  stands. 

^^  A  friend  of  Mr.  Richards  informed  me,  *  that,  upon 
the  publication  of  the  '  Muscipula,'  Dr.  8.  gave  a  copy  of 
it  to  Mr.  Lhuyd,  with  these  haughty  words :  *  Here,  Mr. 
Lhuyd,  I  give  you  a  poem  of  banter  upon  your  country; 
and  I  defy  all  your  countrymen  to  answer  it.*  This  pro- 
voked the  old  Cambrian/  &c. 


flS6  L  H  U  Y  D. 

**  He  had  prepared  many  other  valuable  materials,  but 
did  not  live  to  finish  and  publish  them.  His  apparatus,  in 
rough  draughts,  are  now  in  the  possession  of  the  family  of 
the  Seabrights  at  Beach-wood,  in  the  county  of  Hertford; 
I  wish  they  were  bestovved  upon  the  British  Museum  iii 
London,  or  the  Ashmolean  Museum  in  Oxford,  of  which 
latter  the  said  Mr.  Lhuyd  was  keeper. 

**  In  some  blank  leaves  of  my  printed  copy  of  the  afore^ 
said  Archaeologia,  I  have  minuted  down  some  particular 
anecdotes  relating  to  this  extraordinary  person^  The  said 
copy  I  intend  to  bestow  for  the  use  of  the  public  academy 
at  Caermarthen,  in  South  Wales,  to  be  preserved  in  tb^ 
library  there,  amongst  my  other  poor  donations  to  that  se- 
.  minary  of  useful  learning  and  religion. 

**The  story  of  Sacheverell's  indecent  affront  to  Mr. 
Lhuyd  is  there  set  forth  more  at  length,  from  an  authentic 
account,  which  I  bad  from  a  person  who  Well  knew  the 
whole. 

**  At  evenings,  after  his  hard  study  in  the  day-time,  hk 
«sed  to  refresh  himself  among  men  of  learning  and  inquiry, 
and  more  particularly  Cambro-Britons,  in  friendly  conver- 
sations upon  subjects  of  British  antiquity  ;  communicating 
his  extensive  knowledge  therein,  with  much  good  humour, 
freedom,  and  cheerfulness,  and,  at  the  same  time,  receiv- 
ing from  them  farther  and  more  particular  informations, 
subservient  to  his  great  and  laudable  designs.  This,  I 
have  been  informed  by  good  hands,  was  his  general  mdn- 
ner.  His  travels  furnished  him  with  many  more  materials 
for  his  work,  and  he  knew  how  to  make  the  best  use  of 
them  all. 

*^  In  the  Ashmolean  Museum  at  Oxford,  is  a  Latin  cata- 
logue of  the  curiosities  there,  in  his  own  hand-writing ;^ 
and  the  statutes  of  that  place  were  drawn  up  by  him  undet 
the  directions  of  the  trustees  thereof. 

**  There  are  many  valuable  MSS.  of  his  still  remaining 
in  private  hands.  See  the  anecdotes  before  mentioned, 
prefixed  to  my  printed  copy  of  the  Archaeologia. 

*^  The  remaining  printed  copies  of  the  same  book  lay 
mouldering  in  the  aforesaid  Museum  at  Oxford.  I  wikb 
they  were  purchased  by  some  worthy  antiquary,  and  dis* 
persed."  * 

1  Biqg.  Brit. — Goagh's  Topography,  vol.  IF.— Owen's  British  Remains,  1718, 
0VO.— Puliewey's  Sketches  of  BoUny.— Geut.  Mag.  vol.  LXXVII.  p.  419.       .•  • 


L  H  U  Y  D.  281 

LHUYD,  LHWYD,  or  LHOYD  (Humphrey),  a  leame4 
English  antiquary  in  the  sixteenth  century,  was  son  an4 
heir  of  Mr.  Robert  Lhwyd  alias  Rossenhall  of  Denbigh  ia 
Denbighshire,  by  Joan  his  wife,  daughter  of  Lewis  Pigotu 
He  was  born  at  Denbigh,  and  was  educated  in  the  univer* 
sity  of  Oxford ;  but  in  what  college  is  not  known.  It  is 
certain,  however,  that  after  he  had  taken  the  degree  of 
bachelor  of  arts,  which  was  in  1547,  he  was  commoner  of 
Brasen-nose  college ;  and  in  1551  took  the  degree  of 
master  of  arts  as  a  member  of  that  college ;  at  which  tim^ 
be  studied  physic.  Afterwards  retiring  to  bis  own  country^ 
he  lived  mostly  within, the  walls  of  Denbigh  castle^  but|^ 
Granger  thinks,  never  practised  as  a  physician,  employing 
his  time  chiefly  in  his  antiquarian  researches.  He  died 
about  1570,  and  was  interred  near  the  church  of  Whit-* 
church  near  Denbigh ;  where  a  monument  was  erected  tq 
him.  He  had  married  Barbara  daughter  of  George  Luiur 
ley,  and  sister  of  John  lord  Lumley,  by  whom  he  had  issue 
ISptendian  and  John,  who  both  died  without  issue,  Henry, 
who  lived  at  Cheam  in  Surrey,  and  Jane  the  wife  of  Rob* 
Coytmore.  Camden  gives  him  a  very  great  character,  as 
one  of  the  best  antiquaries  of  his  time;  and  he  is  by 
I^aines  Barrii^ton  esteemed  very  accurate  in  what  relates 
to  the  history  of  Wales.  He  bad  a  taste  for  the  arts,  par<* 
ticularly  music,  and  executed  the  map  of  Eugland  for  tb^ 
*^  Theatrum  Orbis."  He  collected  a  great  number  of  cu^ 
rious  and  useful  books  for  his  brother-in-law  lord  Lumlej^ 
which  were  purchased  by  James  I.  and  became  the  fouoda^^ 
tion  of  the  royal  library.  They  are  now  a  very  valuable 
part  of  the  British  Museum. 

His  writings  are,  1.  ^^  An  Almanack  and  Kalendar;  conr 
taining  the  day,  hour,  and  minute,  of  the  change  of  the 
u)Oon  forever,"  &c.  8vo.  2.  ^^  Commentarioli  Britannic^s 
Descriptionis  Fragmentum.  Colon.  Agrip."  1572:  of  which 
a  aew  edition  was  published  by  Mr.  Moses  Williams,  under 
the  title  of  ^^Humfredi  Lhwyd,  Armigeri,  Britannicae  Dct 
scri^tiQpis  Cotnmentariolum:  necnon  de  Mon^  Insula,  & 
Britaojiici  Arce  sive  Armamentario  Romano  Disceptatip 
Epistol^ris.  Accedunt^rse  Cambro-BritanoicaB.  Accurapte 
Mose  Gulielmo,  A.M.  R.  S.  Soc."  Lond.  .1731,  4to.  This 
was  translated  into  English  by  Tho.  Twyne,  who  entitled 
it,  "  The  Breviary  of  Britain,"  Lond.  1753,  8vo.  3.  "  De 
Mon&  Druidum  insul&',  Antiquit^ti  suas  redtituta;"  in  a 
letter  to  Abraliam  Ortelius,  April  5, 1568.    4,  "  De  Arma* 


«3«  L  H  U  V  D. 

mentario  Ronraho.'*  These  two  last  are  printed  at  the  tnd 
of  **  HistorisB  Britannicse  Defensio ;  written  by  sir  John 
Price,"  Lond.  1S73,  4to.  5.  "  Chronicon  Walliae,  aRege 
Cadwalladero,  usque  ad  Ann.  Donl.  1294,"  MS.  in  the 
Coctonian  library.  6.  "  The  History  of  Cambria,  now  called 
Waiesj  from  Caradoc  of  Lancarvan,  the  Registers  of  Con- 
way and  Stratflur ;  with  a  Continuation,  chiefly  ex^tracted 
from  Mat.  Paris,  Nic.  Trivet,  &c."  He  died  before  this 
was  quite  finished;  but  sir  Henry  Sidney,  lord -president 
of  Wales,  having  procured  a  copy  of  it,  employed  Dr. 
David  Powel  to  prepare  it  for  the  press,  who  published 
it  under  this  title  :  ^*  The  Historie  of  Cambria,  now  called 
Wales ;  a  part  of  the  most  famous  yland  of  Britaine  ;  writ- 
ten in  the  Brytish  language  above  two  hundred  years  past; 
translated  into  English  by  H.  Lloyd,  gent,  corrected,  aug* 
mented,  and  continued  out  of  Records  and  best  approved 
Authors,"  Lond.  1584,  4to.  Our  author  translated  also, 
7.  **  The  Treasure  of  Health  ;  containing  many  profitable 
Medicines,  written  by  Peter  Hispanus,"  To  which  were 
added,  ^^  The  Causes  and  Signs  of  every  Disease,  with 
the  Aphorisms  of  Hippocrates,"  Lond.  1585.  And'  8. 
«  The  Judgment  of  Urines,"  Lond.  1551,  8vo.' 

LIBANIUS,  a  celebrated  sophist  of  antiquity,  was  bom 
of  an  ancient  and  noble  family  at  Antioch,  on  the  Orontes, 
in  the  year  314.  Suidas  calls  his  father  *^  Phasganius ;''  but 
this  was  the  name  of  one  of  his  uncles ;  the  other,  who  was 
the  eldei^,  was  named  Panolbius.  His  great-grandfather, 
who  excelled  in  the  art  of  divination,  had  published  some 
pieces  in  Latin,  which  occasioned  his  being  supposed  by 
some,  but  falsely,  to  be  an  Italian.  His  maternal  and  pa- 
ternal grandfathers  were  eminent  in  rank  and  in  eloquence; 
the  latter,  with  his  brother  Brasidas,  was  put  to  death  by 
the  order  of  Dioclesian,  in  the  year  303,  after  the  tumult 
of  the  tyrant  Eugenins.  Libanius,  the  second  of  his  fa- 
therms  three  sons,  in  the  fifteenth  year  of  his  age,  wishing 
to  devote  himself  entirely  to  literature,  complains  that  he 
met  with  some  ^^  shadows  of  sophists.'*  Then,  assisted 
by  a  proper  master,  he  began  to  read  the  ancient  writers 
at  Antioch ;  and  thence,  with  Jasion,  a  Cappadocian,  went 
to  Athens,  and  residing  there  for  more  than  four  years, 
became  intimately  acquainted  with  Crispinus  of  Heraclea^ 

^  1  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.— Geo.  Diet— Orange r.-*OUiys't  Briiiih  Ubrarian.-«-Bai^ 

riogtoB  on  the  SUtutes,  p.  559, 


L  I  B  A  N  I  U  S.  S3f 

wboy  he  says,   *^  enriched  him  afterwards  with  books  mt 
Nicdmedia,  and  went,  but  seldom,  to  the  schools  of  Die* 
phantos.'*     At  Constantinople  he  ingratiated  himself  with 
Nicocles  of  Lacedaemon  (a  grammartan,  who  was  master 
to  the  emperor  Julian),  and  the  sophist  Beroiarchius.    Re- 
turning to  Athens,  and  soliciting  the  office  of  a  professor, 
which  the  proconsul  had  before  intended  for  him  when  be 
was  twenty-five  years  of  age,  a  certaio  Cappadocian  hap« 
pened  to  be  preferred  to  him.     But  being  encouraged  by 
Dionysius,  a  Sicilian  who  bad  been  prefect  of  Syria,  some 
jspecimensbf  his  eloquence,  that  were  published  at  Con* 
staotinople,  made  him  so  generally  known  and  applauded, 
that  he  collected  more  than  eighty  disciples,  the  two  so- 
phists, who  then  filled  the  chair  there,  ragir.g  in  vain,  and 
Beroiarchius  ineffectually  opposing  him  in  rival  orations, 
and,  when  he  could  not  excel  him,  having  recourse  to  th^ 
frigid  calumny  of  magic.     At  length,  about  the  year  346, 
being  expelled  thjs  city  by.  his  competitors,  the  prefect 
Limenius  concurring,  he  repaired  to  Nice,  and  soon  after 
to  .Nicomedia,  the  Atl^ens  of  Bithynia,  where  his  excel- 
lence in  speaking  began  to.  be  more  and  more  approved  by 
all ;  and  Julian,  if  not  a  hearer,  was  a  reader  and  admirer 
of  his  orations.     In  the  same  city,  he  says,  ^'  he  was  par- 
ticularly delighted  with  the  friendship  of  Aristsenetus  f '  and 
the  five  years  which  he  passed  there,  he  styles  ^^  the  spring 
or  any  thing  else  that  can  be  conceived  pleasanter  than 
spring,. of  his  whole  life;''     Being  invited  again  to  Con- 
stantinople, and  afterwards  returning  to  Nicomedia,  being 
also  tired  of  Constantinople,  where  he  found  Phcenix  and 
Xenobius,    rival  sophists,    though  he  was  patronised  by 
Strategius,  who  succeeded  Domitian'as  prefect  of  theEa^t, 
jnot  daring  on  account  of  his  rivals  to  occupy  the  Athenian 
chair,  he  obtained  permission  from  Gallus  Caesar  to  visit 
for  four  months,  his  native  city  Antioch,  where,  after  Gal- 
lus was  killed,  in  the  year  354,  he  fixed  his  residence  for 
the  remainder  of  his  life,  and  initiated  many  in  the  sacred 
writes  pf  eloquence.     He  was  also  much  beloved  by  the  em- 
peror Julian,  who  heard  his  discourses  with  pleasure,  re* 
ceiyed  him  with  kindness,  and  imitated  him  in  his  writings. 
Honoured  by  that  prince  with .  the  rank  of  quaestor,  and 
with,  several  epistles  of  .which  six  only  are  extant,  the  last 
written  by  the  emperor  during  his  fatal  expedition  against 
the  Persians,  he  the  more,  lamented  his  death  in  the  flower 
i)f  his  age,  as  from  him  he  had  promised  himself  a  certain 


2#0  i  I  B  A  N  I  U  S. 

and  bating  support  both  in  the  worship  of  i(joIs  and  in  hi# 
own  studies.  There  was  afterwards  a  report,  that  Liba* 
iiius,  with  the  younger  Jamblichus,  the  master  of  Proclu6| 
inquired  by  divination  who  would  be  the  successor  of  Va- 
lei^Sy  and  in  consequence  with  difficulty  escaped  his  cru« 
eky»  Irenseus  attesting  the  innocence  of  Libanius.  In  lifce 
manner  he  happily  escaped  another  calumny,  by  the  favour 
of  duke  Lupicinusy  wnen  he  was  accused  by  his  enemy 
Fidelisy  or  Fidustius,  of  having  written  an  eulogium  on  thd 
tyrant  Procopius.  He  was  not,  however,  totally  neglected 
by  Valens,  whom  he  not  only  celebrated  in  an  oration^ 
but  obtained  from  him  a  confirmation  of  the  law  against 
entirely  excluding  illegitimate  children  from  the  inherit* 
ance  of  their  paternal  estates,  which  he  solicited  from  tfa^ 
emperor,  no  doubt  for  a  private  reason,  since,  as  Eunapius 
informs' us,  he  kept  a  mistress,  and  was  never  married. 
The  remainder  of  bis  life  he  passed  as  before  mentioned, 
at  Autioch,  to  an  advanced  age,  amidst  various  wrongs 
and  Qppressions  from  his  rivals  and  the  times,  which  he 
copiously  relates  in  his  life,  though,  tired  of  the  manners 
of  that  city,  be  had  thoughts)  in  his  old  age,  of  changing 
"bis  abode*  as  be  tells  Eusebius.  He  continued  there,  how^ 
ever,  and  on  various  occasions  was  very  serviceable  to  the 
city,  either  by  appeasing  seditions,  and  calming  the  dis<* 
turbed  minds  of  the  citizen^,  or  by  reconciling  to  them 
the  emperors  Julian  and  Theodosius.  That  Libanius  lived 
even  to  the'  reign  of  Arcadiiis,  that  is,  beyond  the  seven* 
tieth  year  of  his  age,  the  learned  collect  from  his  oration 
on  Lucian,  and  the  testimony  of  Cedrenus ;  and  of  the 
same  opinion  is  Godfrey  Olearius,  a  man  not  more  re- 
sfiectable  for  his  exquisite  knowledge  of  sacred  and  polite 
literature  than  for  his  judgment  and  probity,  in  bis^MS 
praelections,  in  which,  when  he  was  professor  of  both  Ian* 
guages  in  the  university  of  his  own  country,  be  has  given 
an  account  of  the  life  of  thi$  sophist. 

The  writings  of  Libanius  are  numerous,  and  he  coo)* 
posed  and  delivered  various  orations,  as  well  demonstrative 
as  deliberative,  and  also  many  fictitious  declamations  and 
di^utations.  Of  these  Frederic  Moretl  published  as  many 
as  he  could  collect  in  2  vols,  folio,  in  Greek  and  Lalid. 
In  the  first  vol.  Paris,  1606,  are  xiii  ^^  Ezerdses'^  (Pro* 
gymnasmata) ;  XLIV  '^  Declamations  ;**  and  m  ^^  Moral 
JDissertations  f  and  in  the  second  vol.  Paris,  162^  are  the 
^  Life  of  Libanius/'   an^  xxxvi  other  drationa^  most  of 


fe  I  F  A  N  I  U  a  S4i 

\\ke1n  long  afid  5n  serious  subjects.  This  editibaof  Morell 
having  long  been  discovered  to  be  very  erroneous,  the 
learned  Reiske  undertook  a  new  edition,  collated  with  six 
MSS.  which  he  did  not  live  to  complete^  but  which  was 
at  fast  published  by  his  widow  in  1791 — 1797,  4  vols.  8vo. 
Of  the  productions  of  Libanius^  Gibbon  says  that  they 
are,  for  the  most  part,  the  vain  and  idle  compositions  of 
an  orator  who  cultivated  die  science  of  words ;  the  produce 
tions  of  a  recluse  student,  whose  mind,  regardless  of  his 
contemporaries,  was  incessantly  fixed  on  the  Trojan  war 
and  the  Athenian  commonwealth. 

.  Besides  what  are  contained  in  the  above  volumes,  and 
his  epistles,  published  by  Wolff,  Amst  1738,  fol.  ten  other 
works  of  Uiis  sophist  have  been  separately  published,  most 
of  them  orations;  and  in  the  **  Excerpta  Rbetorum'*  of  Leo 
Allatius,  Greek  and  Latin,  Rom.  1641,  8vo,  are  xxxiz 
**  Narrations,"  vii  *'  Descriptio,ns,"  and  vn  more  "  Ex- 
ercises of  Libanius,  with  translations  by  Allatius.'*  His 
unpublished  works  are,  1.  Many  hundred  ^^  Epistles'*  yet; 
concealed  in  various  libraries,  a  mode  of  writing  in  which 
k  appears  he  excelled,  by  the  testimony  even  of  the 
ancients,  particularly  Eunapius  and  Photius ;  and  of 
that  the  perusal  of  them  will  easily  convince  the  intelligent 
reader ;  for  they  abound  with  Attic  wit  and  humour,  and 
every  where  recommend  themselves  by  their  pointed  con- 
ciseness no  less  than  by  their  elegance  and  learning  ^. 
2.  Several  "  Orations"  in  a  MS.  of  the  Barberini  library, 
porrectly  written  on  vellum.  3.  "  Various  Declamations," 
in  the  above  MS.  and  also  in  the  Vatican  library.  And 
that  there  are  are  many  MS  epistles,  orations,  and  decla- 
mations of  Libanius,  in  the. imperial  libcary  at  Vienna^ 
Nesselius  has  observed,  affirming  also,  that  several  Greek 
ischolia  are  frequently  inserted  in  the  margin.  Though  so 
many  of  the  writings  of  this  sophist  are  preserved,  there  is 
BO  doubt  that  many  both  of  his  ^  Epistles"  and  ^^  Orations" 
have  been  lost.^^ 

*  Dr.Bentley,  howerer^  (P'tsserta-  jodgment  of  Libanias  m  a  writer  '19, 

lion. upon  Phalaris,  p.  4B7,}  obsenrct,  that,  *'  while  be  affects  to  be  very  nice 

that'  '*  yoa  feel,  by  the  emptiness  and .  and  curious,  he  destroys  the  simplicity 

deadness  of  them,  that  you  converse  and  elegance  of  language,  and  becoi^aes 

with  some  dreaming  pedant,  with  hit  obscure."    Cod.  xe. 
«lbow   upon    the    desk."     Photius's 

»  Select  Works  of  Julian,  by  Mr.  Duncombe,  nS4,  vdl.  H.  p.  216.— Gib- 
bon^s  Hist, — Hayley's  Life  of  Cowper,  preface,  p.  xxxiii.  Uvo  edit.— Lardner's 
Wocks.— Cave«  vol.  l|«<»S«uui  Onooiast. 

Vol.  XX.  R 


2*^  L  I  B  A  V  I  U  SL 

LIBAVIUS  (Andrew),  a  physician  and  chemist,  bout 
at  Hall,  in  Saxony,  was  professor  of  history  and  poetry  at 
Jena,  in  1588,  but  removed  to  Rothenburg,  on  the  Tauber^ 
in  1591,  and  to  Coburg,  in  Franconia,  in  1605,  where  he 
was  appointed  principal  of  the  college  of  Casimir,  at  that 
place.  He  died  at  Coburg  in  1616.  Libavius  obtained  a 
considerable  reputation  in  his  time  by  bis  chemical  worksf, 
Slaving,  pursued  that  science  upon  better  principles  thaft 
most  of  his  contemporaries,  although  he  did  not  altogether 
escape  the  delusions  of  alchemy.  Although  he  employed 
many  chemical  preparations  in  medicine,  he  avoided  the 
vioieiice  of  Paracelsus  and  his  disciples,  against  whom  he 
frequently  defends  the  doctrines  of  the  Galenical  schooL 
He  left  bis  name  long  attached,  in  the  laboratories,  to  a 
particular  preparation  of  tin  with  muriatic  acid,  which  was 
called  ''the  fuming  liquor  of  Libavius."  It  is  unnecessary  to 
enomerate  the  titles  of  bis  many  works,  which  have  now 
become  obsolete,  and  are  almost  forgotten.  His  last  work, 
published  at  Francfort  in  1615,  under  the  title  of  ^'  Exa- 
men  PbilosophisB  Novae,  quae  veteri  abrogandae  opponitur,"  *  -^ 
foKo^  is  remarkable  for  the  first  mention  of  the  transfusion  v,^^ 
of  blood  from  the  vessels  of  one  living  animal  to  those  of  '  '^ 
another,  of  which  he  speaks  with  great  confidence,  and 
which  once  excited  gre4t  expectations,  which  have  con- 
fessedly been  disappointed.  ^ 

LICETUS  (FoRTUNius),  a  celebrated  physician  and 
philosopher^  was  born  at  Rapallo,  in  the  state  of  G<enoa, 
Oct.  3,  1577,  where  his  father  was  also  a  physician.  After 
completing  his  education  at  Bologna,  in  1599,  he  obtained 
the  professorship  of  philosophy  at  Pisa,  which  he  filled  with 
so  much  reputation  that  he  was  invited  to  the  same  chair  in 
the  univer^ty  of  iPadua  in  1609,  and  occupied  it  until 
1636.  He  removed  at  that  time  to  Bologna,  in  conse- 
quence of  failing  to  obtain  the  professorship  of  medicine, 
when  vacant  by  the  death  of  Cremonini*  But  the  Venetian 
states  very  soon  acknowledged  the  loss  which  the  university 
of  Padua  had  sustained  by  the  retirement  of  Licetus ;  and 
the  same  vacancy  occurring  in. 1 645,  he  was  induced,  by 
the  pressing  invitations  which  were  made  to  him,  to  re- 
turn, to  Padua,  and  held  that  professorship  till  his  death  io 
1657.  He  was  a  very  copious  writer,  having  published 
upwards  of  fifty  treatises  upon  medical,  moral,  philosophi- 

l  ReM's  Cyclopmlia,  fs9m  VU>y  «ad  Haller*  * 


L  I  C  E  T  U  S.  d4$ 

cdl,  antiquarian^  and  historical  sabjects ;  but  they  are  no 
longer  sufficiently  interesting  to  require  a  detail  of  their 
titles,  as,  notwithstanding  his  erudition,  he  displays  little 
acuteness  in  riesearch  or  originality  of  conception.  His 
treatise  **  De  Monstrorum  Causis,  Natur&,  et  DiflFerentiis^** 
which  is  best  known,  is  replete  with  instances  of  credulity^ 
and  with  the  fables  and  superstitions  of  bis  predecessors^ 
and  contains  a  classification  of  the  monsters  which  had 
been  previously  described,  without  any  correction  from  hi^ 
own  observations.  The  best  edition  is  that  of  Gerard  Bla- 
«ius,  in  1668.^ 

LIDOEL  (Duncan),  professor  of  mathematics,  and  of 
medicine,  in  the  university  of  Helmstadt,  the  son  of  John 
Liddel,  a  reputable  citizen  of  Aberdeen,  was  born  there 
in  1561,  and  educated  in  the  languages  and  philosophy  at 
the  schools  and  university  of  Aberdeen.  In  1579,  having 
a  great  desire  to  visit  foreign  countries,  he  went  from  Scot- 
land to  Dantzic,  and  thence  through  Poland  to  Francfoxt 
on  the  Oder,  where  John  Craig,  afterwards'  first  physician 
to  James  VI.  king  of  Scotland,  then  taught  logic  and  ma-^ 
tbematics.  By  his  liberal  assistance  Mr.  Liddel  was  en« 
abled  to  continue  at  the  university  of  Francfort  for  three 
years,  during  which  he  applied  himself  very  diligently  to 
mathematics  and  philosophy  under  Craig  and  the  other 
professors,  and  also  entered  upon  the  study  of  physic.  In 
1582,  Dr.  Craig  being  about  to  return  to  Scotland,  sent 
Liddel  to  prosecute  his  studies  at  Wradslow,  or  Breslaw, 
ill  Silesia,  recommending  him  to  the  care  of  that  celebrated 
statesman,  Andreas  Dudithius  ;  and  during  his  residence  at 
Breslaw,  Liddel  made  uncommon  progress  in  his  favourite 
study  of  mathematics,  under  Paul  Wittichius,  an  eminent 
professor. 

In  1584  Liddel  returned  to  Francfort,  and  again  applied 
to  physic,  and  at  the  same  time  instructed  some  pupils  irii 
various  branches  of  mathematics  and  philosophy.  In  1587, 
being  obliged  to  leave  Francfort  on  account  of  the  plague, 
he  retired  to  the  university  of  Ro%tock,  where  his  talents 
attracted  the  esteem  of  Brucseus,'  and  Caselius,  which  last  » 
observes,  that,  as  far  as  he  knew,  Liddel  was  the  first  per- 
son in  Germany  who  explained  the  motions  of  the  heavenly 
bodies  according  to  the  three  different  hypotheses  of  Pto- 
lemy, Copernicus,  and  Tycho  Brahe.     With  these  learned 

1  Cha^fept^.^^Niceron;  vol.  }tXVII.r-^Ioreri.«»Rees's  Cjo!ops9dta.«-SA]itt 
OnomasticoD, 

R  2 


244  "^  L  I  D  D  E  L.     ^ 

men  he  lived  more  like  a  companion  than  a  pupil;  aQd. 
Brucaeus,  himself  an  excellent  matbematician,  acknow- 
ledged that  he  was  instructed  by  Liddel  in  the  more  per- 
fect knowledge  of  the  Copernican  system^  and  other  astro- 
nomical questions^  It  was  probably  during  his  residence 
here  that  Liddel  became  acquainted  with  Tycbo  Brabe.  In 
1590f  having  taken  his  master^s  degree  at  Rostock,  he 
returned  once  more  to  Francfort;  but,  hearing  of  the  in- 
creasing reputation  of  the  new  university  at  Helmstadt, 
where  his  friend  Caselius  bad  accepted  the  chair  of  philo- 
sophy, he  removed  thither,  and  in  1591  was  appointed  to 
the  first  or  lower  professorship  of  mathematics,  and  in  1594 
to  the  second  and  more  dignified  mathematical  chair,  which 
he  filled  with  great  reputation  to  himself  and  to  the  univer- 
sity. In  1596  he  obtained  the  degree  of  doctor  of  medi-. 
cine,  and  both  taught  and  practised  physic,  and  was  em- 
ployed as  first  physician  at  the  court  of  Bruqswick.  His 
reputation  being  now  at  its  height,  he  was  several  times 
chosen  dean  of  the  faculties,  both  of  philosophy  and  phy- 
sic,  and  in  1604,  pro-rector  of  the  university,  the  year 
before  he  resigned  his  mathematical  professorship. 

In  1607,  having  a  strong  inclination  to  pass  the  re- 
mainder of  his  days  in  his  native  country,  which  he  had 
frequently  visited  during  his  residence  at  Helmstadt,  he 
took  a  final  leave  of  that  city,  and  after  travelling  for  some 
time  through  Germany  and  Italy,  at  length  settled  in  Scot- 
land. The  first  account  we  have  of  him  after  his  return 
relates  to  his  giving  some  lands,  purchased  by  him  neaf 
Aberdeen,  to  the  university  there  for  the  education  and 
support  of  six  poor  scholars.  This  occurred  in  1612,  and 
the  following  year  he  gave  a  sum  to  found  a  professorship 
of  mathematics,  and  bequeathed  his  whole  collection  of 
books  and  mathematical  instruments  to  Marischal  college, 
directing.a  small  sum  to  be  expended  annually  in  adding  to 
the  collection,  and  another  to  be  distributed  among  the 
poor.  This  appears  to  have  been  the  last  act  of  his  life^ 
for  he  died  Dec.  17th  of  that  year,  1613,  in  the  fifty- 
second  year  of4iis  age,  and  was  buried  in  the  West  church 
of  Aberdeen,  where  the  magistrates  placed  in  memory  of 
him  a  large  tablet  of  brass,  upon  which  is  engraved  a  figure 
of  the  deceased  in  his  professor's  gown  and  cap,  surrounded 
by  books  and  instrunaents,  and  accompanied  by  a  suitable 
inscription.  An  engraved  portrait,  taken  from  this  plate 
at  the  expence  of  the  late  sir  David  Dalrymple,  lord  Hailes, 


L  I  D  D  E  L.  245 

is  preBxed  to  the  life  of  Dr.  Liddel,  drawn  up  by  professor 
Stuart,  of  Aberdeen,  and  published  in  1790,  4to.  To  this 
we  are  indebted  for  the  present  sketch. 

Dr.  Liddei's  works  are,  1.  ^' Disputationum  Medicina- 
lium,^*  1605,  4  vols.  4to,  consisting  of  theses  maintained 
by  himself  and  his  pupils  at  Helmstadt  from  1S92  to  1606. 
The  copy  in  the  library  at  Aberdeen  is  full  of  MS  notes 
in  his  own  hand.  Manget  mentions  what  appears  to  be  a 
new  edition,  or  a  new  aran*gement,  of  these  theses,  pub- 
lished at  Helmstadt  in  1720,  4to,  under  the  title  of  **  Uni- 
versal Medicine  compendium.*'  2.  **  Ars  Medica,  sue- 
ciilcte  et  perspicue  explicata,'*  Hamburgh,  1607,  8vo,  re- 
printed at  Lyons,  1624,  by  Serranus ;  and  again  at  Ham- 
burgh, 1628,  byFrobenius,  who  acknowledges  his  obliga« 
tions  to  Dr.  Patrick  Dun,  principal  of  the  Marischal  College 
ojp  Aberdeen,  for  the  use  of  a  copy  corrected  and  enlargcfd 
by  the  author.  3.  "  De  Febribus  libri  tres,"  Hamburgh, 
1610,  12mo,  republished  by  Serranus,  along  with  the 
**  Ars  Medica.'*  4.  **Tractatus  de  dente  aureo,"  &c.  ibid. 
1628,  12mo,  in  answer  to  Horstius's  ridiculous  account  of 
a  boy  who  had  a  golden  tooth.  (See  James  Horstius).  He 
appears  to  have  undertaken  this  work  out  of  regard  to  the 
reputation  of  the  university  of  Helmstadt,  which,  Horstius 
being  one  of  the  professors,  he  thought  might  be  affected 
by  this  imposture.  5.  ^  Artis  conservandi  Sanitatem,  li- 
bri duo,  aC.  D.  doctore  Liddelio  defuncto  delineati,  ope- 
ra et  studio  D.  Patricii  Dunasi,  M.  D.  &c.**  Aberdeen,  1651, 
12mo.  In  the  preface  to  this  work  Dr.  Dun^  who  had 
studied  physic  at  Helmstadt  under  Dr.  Liddel,  says,  that 
having  found  the  MS.  among  his  papers,  he  thought  JtlEi 
duty  he  owed  to  the  public  and  his  old  master,  to  complete 
^nd  publish  it.  All  these  writings  received  the  distinguished 
approbation  of  his  colleagues  and  contemporaries,  and  have 
been  mentioned  with  respect  by  succeeding  authors.  ^ 

LIEBERKUHN  (John-Nat^ianiel),  a  Prusian  anato- 
mist, was  bnrn  at  Berlin  in  171ri.  His  inclinations  led  him 
early  to  cultivate  philosophy  and  anatomy :  but  it  was  not 
until  he  was  about  liis  twenty-fifth  year  that  he  was  per-» 
knitted  entirely  to  indulge  them.  His  acquisitions  before 
that  period  had,  indeed,  been  considerable ;  and  after  it 
he  pursued  his  studies  at  Hall,  Jena,  Leyden,  Paris,  and 
London.     In  1740,  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  royal 

}  A  S3(etch  of  Uie  Life  of  Dr.  Duncan  Liddel,  Aber.  1790,  4U^ 


*•'. 


44«  LIE  BE  R  K  U  H  N. 

society  of  London,  and  of  other  learned  societies  an  the 
continent.  He  returned  to  Berlin  in  that  year,  by  the  ex- 
pfess  command  of  the  king  of  Prussia,  and  became  cele- 
brated for  his  anatomical  researches,  and  a  fine  museum  of 
fnatomical  preparations  which  he  accumulated.  ^He  died 
9*  Berlin  of  a  peripneumony,  in  1756.  The  only  works  he 
left  were  reprinted  at  London,  in  1782,  by  John  Sheldon, 
esq.  lecturer  on  anatomy,  4to,  under  the  title  of  "  Disser- 
tationes  quatuor."  The  first  is  the  author's  thesiis  on  the 
structure  of  the  valve  of  the  colon,  and  the  use  of  the  pro- 
cessus vermicularis ;  the  second,  on  the  structure  and  ac- 
tion of  the  villi  of  the  svm^l  intestines  of  the  human  body : 
the  third,  on  the  proper  methods  of  discovering  the  struc- 
ture of  the  viscera :  the  fourth,  on  the  .anatomical  micro- 
acope.  It  is  said  that  his  eye-sight  bad  almost  the  power 
of  a  microscope,^  and  that  he  could  perceive  with  the  naked 
eye  object$  to  which  other  men  w^e  .obliged  to  apply  mi- 
croscopes and  magnifiers.  This  account  may  perhaps 
have  been  a  little  exaggerated,  bat  we  cannot  doubt  that 
'9^  descripUoi^  of  his  anatomical  microscope  will  affect  every 
humane  mind  with  horror.  To  it  belongs  an  apparatus 
for  the  purpose  of  crucifying  living  animals,  and  fixitig 
them  and  their  bowels  in  such  a  manner,  ynth  pointed 
hooks,  as  that  they  cannot  move,  in  the  midst  of  their  pro- 
tracted tortures,  so  as  to  disturb  the  operator,  after  he  has 
opened  their  belUes,  and  dragged  out  their  intestines,  for 
his  deliberate  inspection.  We  have  no  words  to  express 
Our  detestation  of  such  cruelty,  nor,  we  trqst,  are  any 
necessary.' 

LIEUTAtJD  (Joseph),  a  celebrated  physician  and  ana* 
tomist,  was  bom  at  Aix,  in  Provence,  June  21,  1703.  His 
family,  long  established  at  Aik,  had  produced  many  distin- 
guished officers,  ecclesiastics,  lawyers,  &c.  He  was  at 
first  intended  by  his  parents  for  the  church  ;  but  the  re« 
putation  of  his  maternal  uncle  Garidel,  the  professor  of 
medicine  at  Ai^r,  gaye  him  a  .bias  to  the  study  of  medi- 
cine, and  pai;ticulB!rly  bota^ny,  in  which  his  researches  an4 
skill  soon  occasioned  him  to  be  promoted  to  thie  chairs  of 
botany  and  anatojpay  at  Aix,  which  his  uncle  had  long 
filled.  His  lectui:es  on  anatomy  were  much  atte^nded,  and 
by  an  audience  comprising  many  persons  not  engaged  i^ 

1  Diet  Hilt —  Sheldon's  edition.— Month.  Rer.  toI.  LXVIIIt  —  ]Lounger^f 
CoflimoQ-PIace  9ook,  ts).  IV. 


LIE  U  T  A  U  D.  247 


ilbe  study  of  medidne,  and  among  others,  the  matquis 
d'Argens,  the  intimale  friend  of  the  king.  M.  lieutaud 
pablishedy  in  1742,  a  syllabus  of  anatomy  for  the  use  of 
'bisrpupils,  entitled '^Essais  anatomiques,  contenant  THi^- 
'toire  exacte  de  toutes  les  parties  qui  composent  le  corps 
chunokaioe ;"  it  was  several  tiaies  reprinted,  with  improTe« 
ments,  and  in  1777  was  edited  Jby  M.  Portal,  in  2  Tolumes. 
.Be.Qoramunicated  also  several  papers  on  morbid  anatomy, 
.And  .QB  physiology,  to  the  academy  pf  sciences,  of  whidi 
Juft  was  elected  a  corresponding' n^ember.  In.l74d,  how^ 
ever,  be  quitted  his  post  at  Aiz,  and  went  to  Verssplles, 
jat  the  instance  of  the  celebrated  Seoac,  who  then  held  the 
highest  appointment  at  court,  and  vwho  obtained  for  Lien* 
'taud  the  appointment  of  physician  to  the  royal  infirmary. 
This  ajCt  of  friendship  is  said  to  have  originated  from  the 
private  communicatipn  of  some  errors,  which  Lieutaiid 
;bad  detected  in  a  work  of  M.  Senac,  aiyi  which  he  did  not 
{deem  it  proper  to  publish.  At  Versailles  he  continued  fam 
^aaatomical  investigations  with  unabated  zeal,  and  was  soon 
.after  his  arrival  elected  assistant  anatomist  to  the  royal 
actfideniy,  to  which 'he  continued  to  present  many  valuable 
memoirsc  He  also  printed  a. volume  en  tided  ^' Elepienta 
PhyaioIogiflB,''  &c.  Paris,  1749,  which  bad  been  composed 
for  the  Uj|e  of  his  class  at  Aix,  In  1755,  he  was  nominated 
fihysician  to  the  royal  family^  and  twenty  years  afterwards^ 
he  obtained  the  place  of  first  physician  to  the  king,  Louis 
XVL  In  17S9  he  published  a  system  of  the  practice  of 
medicine,  under  the  title  of  <<  Precis  de  la  Medicine  pra* 
iique,*'  which  underwent  several  editions,  with  great  aug* 
mentations,  the  best  of  which  is  that  of  Paris,  1770,  in 
2  vols.  4to.  In  1766,  he  published  'a  '^/Precis  de  la  Ma<^ 
tiere  .medicale,'^  in  Svo,  afterwards  reprinted  in  2  vols. 
But  his  most  important  work,  which  still  rank^  high  in  the 
estimation  of  physicians,  is  that  which  treats  of  the  seats 
and  causes  of  diseases,  ascertained  by  bis  innumerable  disr 
sections.  It  was  entitled  ^^  Historia  Anatomico^-medica^ 
sistens  numerosissima  cadaverum  bumanorum  extispicia,'* 
.Paris,  1767,  in  2  vols.  4to.  M.  Lieutaud  died  Septem« 
ber  6,  1780,  after  an  illness  of  five  days;* 

LIEVENS  (Jan,  or  John),  a  historical  painter  of  great 
merit,  was  born  in  1607,  at  Ley  den,  and  placed  under 
the  care  of  Joris  Van  Scbooten,  atid  afterwards  of  Peter 

>  Eloget  des  Academiciens,  toI.  IL— Reet's  Cyclopadia,  firofli  Elpy. 


3ia  L  I  E  V  E  N  S. 

f 
t 

Lastman.  Portrait  was  perhaps  that  branch  of  the  art  in 
which  he  uniformly  excelled,  yet  some  of  his  historical  pieces 
are  deserving  of  the  highest  praise.  His^^^  Resurrection  of 
Lazarus''  is  a  work,  Mr.  Fuseli  says,  which,  in  sublimity 
of  conception,  leaves  all  attempts  of  other  masters  on  the 
ssune  subject  far  behind.  His  *^  Continence  of  Scipio/*  is. 
also  celebrated  in  very  high  terms.  Another  of  his  per- 
formances, applauded  by  the  poets  as  well  as  the  artists  of 
his  time,  is  his  ^^  Student  in  his  library,"  the  figures  as 
"  large  as  life.  This  was  purchased  by  the  prince  of  Orange> 
'  and  presented  by  him  to  Charles  L  It  was  the  means  df 
procuring  him  a  favourable  reception  at  the  English  court, 
where,  he  painted  the  portraits  of  the  royal  family  and 
many  of  the  nobility.  After  residing  in  England  for  three 
years,  he  went  to  Antwerp,  and  was  incessantly  employ^gjL 
The  time  of  his  death  is  not  specified,^ 

LIGHTFOOT  (John),  a  learned  English  divine,  was 
born  on  the  19th  or  29th  of  March,  1602,  at  Stoke  upon' 
Trent,  in  Staffordshire.  His  father  was  Thomas  Ligbtfeot, 
vicar  of  Uttoxeter  in  that  county  *.  After  having  finished 
his  studies  at  a  school  kepjt  by  Mr.  Whitehead  on  Morton^ 
green,  near  Congleton  in  Cheshire,  he  was  removed  in 
1617,  to  Cambridge,  and  put  under  the  tuition  of  Mr. 
William  Chappel,  then  fellow  of  Christ's  college  there, 
and  afterwards  bishop  of  Cork  in  Ireland,  who  was  also  the 
tutor  of  Henry  Morf,  Milton,  &c.  At  college  he  applied 
himself  to  eloquence,  and  succeeded  so  well  as  to  be 
thought  the  best  orator  of  the  under-graduates  in  the  uni«- 
versity.  He  also  made  an  extraordinary  proficiency  in  the 
.  Latin  and  Greek;  but  neglected  the  Hebrew^  and  even 
lost  that  knowledge  he  brought  of  it  from  school.  His 
taste  for  the  Oriental  languages  was  not  yet  excited ;  and, 
as  for  logic,  the  study  of  it,  as  managed  at  that  time 

^  Mr.  Thomas  Lightfoot  was  born  died  January  the  34th»  1636,  at  the  ag^ 

at  a  little  village  called  Shelton,  in  the  of  seventy-one.     Mr.  Thomas  Lights 

parish  of  Stoke  upon  Trent  in  Stafford-  foot  had  by  her  five  sens,  the  seoond 

fihire.     He  was  in  holy  orders  six  and  of  whom  was  John  our  author.    The 

fifty  years,  and  was  thirty-six  vicar  of  eldest  was  Thomas,  who  was  brought 

Uttoxeter.     He  died  July  the   dlst,  up  to  trade.    The  third,  Peter,  was  a 

,   1 658,  in  the  eighty-first  year  of  his  physician,  and  practised  at  Uttoxeter* 

^ge.    He  married  Mrs,  Elizabeth  Bag-  The  fourth  was  Josiah,  who  succeeded 
nal,  a  gentlewoman  of  very  good  fa-  '   his  brother.  Dr.  John  Lightfoot,  in  the 

mtiy ;  three  of  which  family  were  made  liviog  of  Ashley  in  Staffordshire.     The 

koights  by  queen  Elizabeth  for  their  youngest  was  Samuel,  whp.  w^s  iil^^ 

Vdluur  i((  the  wars  in  Ireland.    She  wise  a  clergyman. 

\  nikingtpa. 


L  I  G  H  T  F  O  O  T.  MB 

among  t\\e  academics,  was  too  contentious  for  his  qai6t 
anrd  meek  disposition. 

As  soon  as  be  had  taken  the  degree  of  B,  A.  he  left  the 
univemty,  and  became  assistant  to  his  former  master;  Mr; 
Whitehead,  who  then  kept  a  school  at  Repton,  in  Derby* 
shire.     After  he  bad  supplied  this  place  a  year  or  two,  he 
entered  into  orders,  and  became  curate  of  Norton  under" 
Hales,  in  Shropshire.     This  curacy   gave  an  occasion  of 
awakening  his  genius  for  the  Hebrew  tongue.     Norton 
lies  near  Bellaport,  then  the  seat  of  sir  Rowland  Cotton, 
who  was  his  constant  hearer,  made  him  his  chaplain,  and 
took  him  into  his  house.     This  gentleman  being  a  perfect 
master  of  the  Hebrew  language,  engaged  Lightfoot  in  that 
study ;  who,  by  conversing  with  his  patron,  soon  became 
sensible,  that,  without  that  knowledge,  it  was  impossible 
to  attain  an  accurate  understanding  of  the  Scriptures.     He 
therefore  applied  himself  to  it  with  extraordinary  vigour 
and  success;  and  his  patron  removing,  with  his  family,  to 
reside  in  London,  at  the  request  of  sir  Allan  Cotton,  his 
uftde,  who  was  lord^mayor  of  that  tity,  he  followed  his 
preceptor  thither.     He  had  not  been  long  in  London  be- 
fore be  conceived .  the  design  of  going  abroad  for  farther 
improvement ;  and  with  that  view  he  went  into  Stafford- 
shire^ and  took  leave  of  his  father  and  mother.     Passing, 
however,  through  Stone  in  that  county,  he  found  the  place 
destitute  of  a  minister;  and  the  pressing  instances  of  the* 
parishioners  prevailed  upon  him  to  undertake  that  cure. 
He  now  laid  aside  all  thoughts  of  going  abroad,  and  hai^-~ 
ing  in  1628  become  possessed  of  the  living,  he  married 
the  daughter  of  William  Crompton,  of  Stone-pai'k,  esq. 
After  a  time,  his  excessive  attachment  to  rabbinical  learn- 
ing occasioned  another  removal  to  London,  for  the  sake  of 
Ston-college«library,  which  he  knew  was  well  stocked  with 
books  of  that  kind.     He  therefore  quitted  his  charge  at 
Stone,  and  removed  with  his  family   to    Hornsey,    near 
London,  where  he  gave  the  public  a  specimen  of  his  ad- 
vancement in  those  studies,  by  his  ''  Erubhini,  or  Miscel- 
lanies Christian  and  Judaical,"  in  1629.     He  was  now  only 
27  years  of  age,  and  appears  to  have  been  well  acquainted 
with  the  Latin  and  the  Greek  fathers,  as  well  as  with  Plu- 
tar(5h,  Plato,   and    Homer,  and   seems   also  to   have  had 
some  skill  in  the  modern  languages.     These  6rst  fruits  of 
bis  studies  were  dedicated  to  sir  Rowland  Cotton  ;  who. 


SSO  L  I  O  H  T  F  O  O  T, 

in  1631,  presented  him  to  the  rectory  of  Ashley/  in  Staf« 
fordshire. 

Thinking  himself  now  fixed  for  life,  he  built  a  study  in 
the  garden,  retired  from  the  noise  of  the  house ;  and  ap- 
plied himself  for  twelve  years  with  indefatigable  diligence 
in   searching  the  Scriptures.     Thus  employed,  the   days 
passed  very  agreeably  ;  aud  be  continued  quiet  and  unmp*- 
lested   till  the  great  change  which  happened  in  the  public 
affairs,  brought  him  into  a  share  of  the  administration  re* 
lating  to  the  church ;  for  he  was  nominated  a  member  of 
the  memorable  assembly  of  divines,  for  settling  a  new 
form  of  ecclesiastical  polity.     This  appointment  was  purely 
the  effect  of  bis  distinguished  merit ;  and  he  accepted  it 
purely  with  a  view  to  serve  his  country  as  far  as  lay  in  bis 
power ;  but,  although  he  contended  on  son^e  points  with 
many  of  the  most  able  innovators  in  that  assembly,  it  can- 
not be  denied  that  he  had  a  favourable. opinion  of  the  Pres- 
byterian form  of  church-government.     The  necessity  for 
residing  in  London,  in  consequence  of  this  appointment, 
induced  him  to  resign  his  rectory ;  and,  having  obtained 
the  presentation  for  a  younger  brother,  he  set  out  for 
London  in  1642.     He  had  now  satisfied  himself  in  clearing 
up  many  of  the  abstrusest  passages  in  &e  Bible,  and  -had 
provided  the  chief  materials,  as  well  as  formed  the  plan, 
of  his  *^  Harmony ;''  and  an  opportunity  of  inspecting  it 
at  the  press  was,  no  doubt,  an  additional  motive  for  his 
going  to  the  capital.     Here,  however,  he  had  not  been 
long,  before  he  was  chosen  minister  of  St.  Bartholomew'^ 
behind  the  Royal  Exchange.     He  lived  at  this  time  at  the 
upper  end  of  Moore-lane,  whence   he  dedicated   to  his 
parishioners  of  St.  Bartholomew,  his  ^*  Handful  of  Glean- 
ings out  of  the  Book  of  Exodus."     The  assembly  of  divines 
meeting  in  1643,  our  author  gave  his  attendance  diligently 
there,  and  made  a  distinguished  figure  in  their  debates ; 
where  he  used  great  freedom,  and  gave  signal  proofs  of 
his  courage  as  well  as  learning,  in  opposing  many  of  those 
tenets  which  the  divines  were  endeavouring  to  establish* 
His  learning  recommended  him  to  the  parliament,  whose 
visitors,  having  ejected  Dr*  William  Spurstow  from  the 
mastership  of  Catharine-ball  in  Cambridge,  put  Lightfoot 
iii  his  room  this  year,   1643  ;  and  he  was  also  presented  tb 
the  living  of  Much-Munden,  in  Hertfordshire,  void  by  the 
death  of  Dr.  Samuel  Ward,  Margaret-professor  of  divini^ 
in  that  university,  before  the  expiration  of  this  year.     In 


L  I  G  H  T  F  O  O  T.  usi 

the  ndean  time  be  had  taken  bift  turn  with  other  favourites 
in  preaching  before  the  House  of  Commons,  most  of  which 
sermons  were  printed ;  and  in  them  we  see  him  warmly 
pressing  the  speedy  settlement  of  the  church  in  the  Pres- 
byterian form,  which  he  cordially  believed  to  be  according 
tp  the  pattern  in  the  Mount,  liis  leisure  hours  he  em-* 
ployed  in  preparing  and  publishing  the  several  branches  of 
bis  <*  Harmony  ;'*  all  which,  although  decidedly  proving 
the  usefulness  of  human  learniog  to  true  religion,  occa« 
sioned  to  him  great  difficulties  and  discouragements,  chiefly 
owing  to  the  vulgar  prejudices  of  the.  illiterate  part  of  the 
revolutionists,  which  threatened  even  the  destruction  of 
the  universities.  In  16^5 j  he  entered  upon  the  office  of 
vice-chancellor  of  Cambridge,  to  which  he  was  chosen  th9,t 
year,  having  taken  the  degree  of  doctor  of  divinity  in 
1652.  He  performed  all  the  regular  exercises  for  his  de- 
gree with  great  applause*,  and  executed  the  vice-chan- 
cellor^s  office  with  exemplary  diligence  and  fidelity;  and^ 
particularly  at  the  commencement,  supplied  the  place  of 
professor  of  divinity,  then  undisposed  of,  at  an  act  whick 
was  kept  for  a  doctor's  degree  in  that  profession  f.  At  the 
i^ime  time  he  was  engaged,  with  others,  in  completing  the 
celebrated  Pdyglott  Bible,  then  in  thie  press ;  which  being 
eocouraged  by  Oliver  Cromwell,  he  expressed  his  joy  at 
this  high  patronage,  in  his  speech  at  the  commencement. 
He  also  took  occasion  to  commiserate  the  oppressed  state 
of  the  olergy  of  the  church  of  England^  spd  to  extol  theijr 
learning,  zeal,  and  confidence,  in  God. 
^  At  the  restoration,  be  offered  to  resign  the  mastemship 
of  Catharine-hall  to  Dr.  Spurstow,  who  declining  it,  ano* 
tjber  person  would  have  been  preferred  by  the  crpwn,  ia 
vbich  the  right  of  presentation  lay'  But,  as  what  Light- 
foot  had  done  ihad  been  rather  in  compliance  with  the  ne- 
cessity of  the  times  thim  from  apy  seal  or  spirit  of  oppo- 
sition to  the  king  and  government,  Sheldon,  abp.  of  Can« 
lerbury,  readily  and  heartily  engaged  to  serve  him,  though 
personally  unknown ;  iind  procured  him  a  confirmation 


u 


*  His  Uiesis  was  upon  this  question :  nor  eztraordinsiy  gifts,  in  the  chnrcb. 

Post  Canonem  Scriptuiss  consigna*  f  The  qaestions  were,  1.  **  Whether 

torn  noo  snnt  novas  ReveUttones  ex«  the  state  of  innocency  was  a  state  oC 

pectandsB."    He  has  written  much,  in  immortality  ?>*    S.  **  Whether  eternal 

▼arioas  parts-  of  his  works,  upon  this  life  is  promised  in  the  Old  Testament?" 

subject.     It  was  his  opinion,  that,  after  Both  which  he  mainlained  in  tha  affir- 

the  closing  of  the  canon  of  Seriptnrey  mative, 
^km  v«i  wUMr  jpropbcscy,  miraqies, 


252 


L  I  G  H  T  F  O  O  T. 


from  the  crown,    both  of  his  place,    and  of  hrs  liviag. 
Soon  after  this,  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  assistants 
at  the    conference   upon   the  liturgy,    which  was  held; 
in  the  beginning   of  1661,    but  attended  only  once  or' 
twice,  being  more  intent  on  completing  his  **  Harmony ;" 
and,  being  of  a  strong  and  healthy  constitution,  and  re- 
markably temperate,  he  prosecuted  his  studies  with  un-' 
abated  vigour  to  the  last,  and  continued  to  publish,  not-*^ 
withstanding  the  many  difficulties  he  met  with  from  thi^ 
expence  of  it*.     Not  long,  however,  before  he  died,  some' 
booksellers  got  a  promise  from  him  to  collect  and  metho- 
dize bis  works,  in  order  to  print  them;  but  the  fulfilment 
was  prevented  by  his  death,  which  happened  at  Ely  Dec. 
6,  1675.     He  was  interred  at  Great  Munden,  in  Hert- 
fordshire. 

As  to  his  rabbinical  learning,  he  was  excelled  by  none^ 
and  had  few  equals ;  and  foreigners  who  came  to  England 
for  assistance  in  their  rabbinical  studies,  usually  paid  their 
court  to  him,  as  one  of  the  most  eminent  scholars  in  thai 
bfanch.  Among  these  were  Frederic  Miege  and  TheQ«> 
dore  Haak,  who  were  peculiarly  recommended  also  to  Dr. 
Pocock,  with  whom  our  author  had  a  correspondence  ;  «^ 
also  Dr.  Marshal  of  Lincoln-college,  in  Oxford;  Samofel 
Clarke,  keeper  of  the  Bodleian  library ;  Dr.  Bernard,  of 
St.  John's;  and  the  famous  Buxtorf;  were  all  correspond^ 
ents  of  his.  Castell  acknowledges  his  obligations  to  him, 
when  he  had  little  encouragement  elsewhere.  It  is  true, 
he  is  charged  with  maintaining  some  peculiar  opinions  t ; 
of  which  he  says,  *'  Innocua,  ut  spero,  semper  proponens;^* 
yet  he  bore  the  reputation  of  one  of  the  most  ingenious  as 
well  as  learned  of  our  English  commentators,  and  has  been 
of  great  service  to  his  successors.  He  bequeathed  his 
whole  library  of  rabbinical  works,  oriental  books,  &c.  to 
Harvard  college,  in  America,  where  the  whole  were' burnt 
in  1769. 


*  In  a  letter  to  Buxtorf,  he  declares, 
<'  that  he  could  scarce  find  any  book- 
sellers ID  England  who  would  Tenture 
to  print  his  works,  and  that  he  was 
obliged  to  print  some  of  Uiem  at  his 
own  expence ;"  and  Frederic  Miege,  in 
a  letler,  informed  him,  *'  thM  Uiere 
was  not  a  bookseller  in  Germany,  who 
would  freely  undertake  the  impression 
of  his  Commentary  upon  the  first  Epis- 
tle to  the  Cori()thians."  See  these  let- 
ters in  bis  works,  vol.  III.  at  the  enJ. 


f  The  principal  of  these  are  perhaps 
his  belief,  that  the  smallest  points  ia 
the  Hebrew  text  were  of  diTine  institii* 
tion  ;  that  the  keys  were  given  to  Peter 
alone,  exclusive  of  the  other  apostles  ; 
that  the  power  of  bindhig  and  loosing' 
related  not  to  discipline^  but  to  doe- 
trine.    Add  to  these,  his  mean  opinion 
of  the  Septuagint  version;    and  tho^- 
uUer  rejection  of  the  Jews,  wkidli  ha; 
maintained,  contrary  to  Uu(  conuBPilt' 
opinion  of  divines. 


L  I  G  H  T  F  O  O  T.  25S 

The  doctor  was  twice  married;  his  first  wife,  already 
mentioned,  brought  him  four  sons  and  two  daughters. 
His  eldest  son,  John,  who  was  chaplain  to  Bryan  Walton^ 
bishop  of  Chester,  died  soon  after  that  prelate.  His  ser 
oond  was  Anastasius,  who  had  also  these  additions  to  that 
name,  Cottonus  Jacksonus,  in  memory  of  sir  Rowland 
Cotton  and  sir  John  Jackson,  two  dear  friends  of  our  au* 
thor ;  he  was  minister  of  Thundridge^  in  Hertfordshire, 
and  died  there,  leaving  one  son.  His  third  son  was  Anas- 
tasius too,  but  without  any  addition  ;  he  was  brought  up 
to  trade  in  London.  His  fourth  son  was  Thomas,  who 
died  young.  His  daughters  was  Joice  and  Sarah,  the  for- 
mer of  whom  was'married  to  Mr.  John  Duckfieldj^  rector 
of;  Aspeden,  in  Hertfordshire,  into  whose  hands  fell  the 
doctor's  papers,  which  he  communicated  to  Mr.  Strype. 
The,  other  married  Mr.  Coclough,  a  Staffordshire  gentle- 
xnan.  This  lady  died  in  1656,  and  was  interred  in  the  church 
of  Munden,  in  Hertfordshire.  The  doctor's  second  wife  was 
relict  of  Mr.  Austin  Brograve,  uncle  of  sir  Thomas  Brp- 
graye,  bart.  of  Hertfordshire,  a  gentlemaii  well  versed  in 
rabbinical  learning,  and  a  particular  acquaintance  of  our 
author.  He  had-  no  issue  by  her.  She  also  died  before 
him,  and  was  buried  in  Munden  church. 

Dr.  Lightfoot  was  comely  in^  bis  person,  of  full  pro- 
pbrtion,  and  of  a  ruddy  complexion.  He  was  exceeding 
temperate  in  his  diet.  He  ordinarily  resided  among  his 
parishioners  at  Munden,  with  whom  be  lived  in  great  har- 
mony and  affection,  and  in  a  hospitable  and  charitable 
manner.  He  never  left  tliem  any  longer  than  to  perform 
the  necessary  residence  at  Cambridge  and  Ely;  and  during 
that  absence  would  frequently  say  ^^  he  loitged  to  be  with 
his  russet  coats."  He  was  a  constant  preacher ;  and  Mun-^. 
den  being  a  large  parish,  and  the  pa^ sonage*house  a  mile 
from  the  church,  and^  as  he  attended  there  every  Sunday, 
read  prayers  and  preached  morning  and  afterngon,  he  fre- 
quently continued  all  day  in  the  church,  not  taking  any 
refreshment  till  the  evening  service  was  over.  He  was. 
easy  of  access,  grave,  but  yet  affable  and  communicative. 
His  countenance  was  expressive  of  his  dispositicjn,  which 
was  uncommonly  mild  and  tender. 

Dr.  Lightfbot's  works  were  collected  and  published  first 
in  1684,  in  Z  vols,  folio.  The  second  edition  was  printed 
at  Amsterdam,  1686,  in  2  vols,  folio,  containing  all  bis 
Latin  writings,  with  a  Latin  translation  of  those  which  be 


iU  t  1  G  H  T  F*  O  O  t. 

wrote  in  English.  At  tbe  end  of  both  these  editions  there 
is  a  list  of  sticb  pieces  as  he  left  unfinished.  It  is  the  cfaieff 
of  these^  in  Latin,  which  make  up  the  third  volume^  added 
to  the  former  two,  in  a  third  edition  of  his  works,  by  John 
Leusden,  at  Utrecht,  in  1699,  fol.  They  were  commu- 
nicated by  Mr.  Strype,  who  in  1700  published  another 
collection  of  these  papers,  under  the  title  of  *^  Some  ge- 
nuine Remains  of  the  late  pious  and  learned  Dr.  John 
Lightfoot.^'  This  contains  some  curious  particulars  of  his 
iife.» 

LIGHTFOOT  (John),  a  distinguished  botanist,  was 
born  at  Newent,  in  the  forest  of  Dean,  Gloucestershire^ 
Dec.  9,  1735.  His  father,  Stephen  Lightfoot,  was  a  re- 
putable yeoman  or  gentleman  farmer,  who  died  in  1769, 
with  a  very  amiable  character,  expressed  on  a  small  marble 
monument  in  tbe  parish  church  of  NeWent.  His  son  was 
educated  at  St.  Crypt's  school,|^at  Gloucester ;  from  whence 
he  became  an  exhibiticner  in  Pembroke-college,  Oxford; 
where  he  continued  his  studies  with  much  deputation,  and 
took  his  master's  degree  in  July  1766.  He  was  first  ap* 
pointed  curate  at  Colnbrook,  and  afterwards  at  Uxbridge; 
which  he  retained  to  his  dying  day. 

His  first  patron  was  the  honourable  Mr.  Lane,  son  to  the 
late  lord  Bingley.  Lord  chancellor  Northington  presented 
him  to  the  living  of  Shelden,  in  Hants,  which  he  resigned 
on  taking  the  rectory  of  Gotham,  co.  Nottingham.  He 
had  also  Sutton  in  Lownd,  in  the  same  county ;  to  both  of 
which  he  was  presented  by  his  grace  the  duke  of  Portland, 
His  ecclesiastical  preferments  amounted  to  above  500/.  a 
year.  He  was  also  domestic  chaplain  to  his  illustrious  pa- 
troness the  late  duchess  dowager  of  Portland,  and  by  her 
liberality  enjoyed  during  her  grace's  life,  an  annuity  of  a 
hundred  a  year.  During  her  grace's  summer  residence  at 
Bulstrode,  he  performed  duty  in  the  family  twice  a  week, 
and  at  other  times  was  of  very  considerable  use  to  her 
grace  in  arranging  her  magnificent  collection  of  natural 
history,  particularly  the  shells  and  the  botanical  part.  He 
also  drew  up  the  catalogue  of  her  museum  for  sale.  He 
was  an  excellent  scholar  in  many  branches  of  literature, 
but,  next  to  tbe  study  of  his  profession,  he  addicted  him^ 
self  ohiefly  to  botany  and  concbyliology,  excelling  in  both, 

1  Life  prefixed  to  hiii  Works,  and  Sttype's  preface.—* MS  note  respecting  his 
library  in  Mr*  Gouf  h's  copy  of  the  Bio^raphia  Britaiiaia« 


L  I  G  H  T  F  O  O  T.  255 

but  particularly  in  botany,  and  he  was  equally  versed  in 
the  knowledge  of  foreign  as  of  British  botany. 

In  1772,  the  late  Mr.  Pennant  invited  Mr.  Lightfoot  to 
be  the  companion  of  his  second  tour  to  Scotland  and  the 
Hebrides,  advising  him  to  undertake  the  compilation,  as 
he  himself  modestly  calls  it,  of  a  "  Flora  Scotica,"  which 
Mr.  Pennant  offered  to  publish  at  his  own  expence.  Mr. 
Lightfoot  gladly  complied,  and  besides  the  knowledge  ac* 
quired  by  his  own  observations,  was  ably  assisted  by  the 
collections  and  communications  of  Dr.  Hope,  professor*  of 
botany  at  Edinburgh,  the  rev.  Dr.  John  Stuart  of  Luss; 
the  rev.  Dr.  Burgess  of  Kirkmichael,  in  Dumfriesshire,  and 
of  other  gentlemen  in  England.  The  "  Flora  Scotica*' 
was  published  in  1775,  2  vols.  8vo.  The  plan  and  exe- 
cution of  it  appeared  calculated  to  render  it  one  of  the 
most  popular  Flora's,  but  for  a  long  time  it  did  not  pay  its 
expences,  which  certainly  did  not  arise  from  any  want  of 
merit ;  for  its  only  great  and  radical  fault  was  not  known, 
or  at  least  scarcely  considered  such  till  lately.  The  fault 
we  mean,  is  the  compiling  descriptions  from  fo)reign  au« 
thors,  without  mentioning  whence  they  are  taken  ;  so  ^hat 
a  student  can  never  be  certain  of  their  just  application,  but 
on  the  contrary,  often  finds  them  erroneous  or  unsuitable, 
without  knowing  why.  'Even  in  the  last  class,  on  which 
Mr.  Lightfoot  bestowed  so  much  pains,  the  synonyms  of 
Lihnseus  and  Dillenius  often  disagree,  though  in  many 
cases  such  contrarieties  are  properly  indicated,  so  as  ta 
throw  original  light  on  the  subject. 

Mr.  Lightfoot  was  for  some  years  a  fellow  of  the  royal 
society,  and  was  one  of  the  original  fellows  of  the  Linnar^an 
society,  the  formation  of  which  he  contemplated  with  great 
pleasure,  though  his  death  happened  before  he  could  at- 
tend any  of  its  public  meetings.  Having  married  the 
daughter  of  Mr.  William  Burton  Raynes,  an  opulent  mil- 
ler at  Uxbridge,  he  resided  in  that  town,  and  died  there 
suddenly,  Feb.  18,  1788,  aged  fifty-three,  leaving  a  wi- 
dow, two  sons,  and  three  daughters.  Mrs.  Lightfoot  was 
married  in  1 802  to  John  Springett  Harvey,  esq.  barrister  at 
law.  He  was  buried  in  Cowley  church,  where  his  grave 
remained,  for  some  time  at  least,  without  any  memorial. 
He  is  supposed  never  to  have  recovered  from  a  disappoint- 
ment respecting  a  living  which  bis  patron,  the  late  duke 
of  Portland,  solicited  from  lord  chancejlor  Thurlow,  but 
which  the  latter  did  not  think  fit  to  bestow. 


256  LI  G  H  T.F  O  O  T. 


\ 


*  Mp.  Lightfoot  had  in  the  course  of  bis  botanical  studie^^ 
collected  an  excellent  British  herbarium,  consisting  of 
abundant  specimens,  generally  gathered  wild,  and  in  many 
cases  important  for  the  illustration  of  his  work.  Qe  had 
also  amassed  from  sir  Joseph  Banks  and  other  friends,  a 
number  of  exotic  plants.  The  whole  was  bought  after  his 
death)  for  100  guineas,  by  his  majesty,  as  a  present  to  the 
queen,  and  deposited  at  Frogmore,  the  price  being  fixed 
by  an  intelligent  friend  of  the  family.' 

LILBURNE  (John),  a  remarkable  English  enthusiast,  ' 
^as  descended  from  an  ancient  family  in  the  county  of 
Durham,  where  his  father,  Richard  Lilbyirne,  was  possessed 
of  a  bd,ndsome  estate*,  especially  a^  Thickney-Purchar- 
den,  the  seat  of  the  family  upon  which  he  resided^  and 
had  this  son,  who  was  born  in  1618.  Being  a  younger 
ctiild,  he  was  designed  for  a  trade ;  and  was  put  appren« 
tice  at  twelve  years  of  age,  to  a  wholesale  clothier  in  Lon- 
don, who,  a9  well  as  his  father,  was  disaffected  to  the 
hierarchy.  The  youth,  we  are  told,  had  a  prompt  genius 
and  a  forward  temper  above  his  years,  which  shewed  itself 
conspicuously,  not  long  after,  in  a  complaint  to  the  city- 
chamberlain  of  bis  master's  ill-usage ;  by  which,  having 
obtained  more  liberty,  he  purchased  a  multitude  of  books 
favourable  to  his  notions  of  politics  and  religion  ;  and 
having  his  imagination  warmed  with  a  sense  of  suffering 
and  resentment,,  he  became  at  length  so  considerable 
among  his  party,  as  to  be  consulted  upon  the  boldest  of 
their  undertakings  against  the  hierarchy,  while  yet  an  ap^- 
prenticc. 

The  consequence  he  attained  flattered  his  vanity,  and  he 
could  no  longer  think  of  following  his  trade.  In  1636, 
being  introduced  by  the  teacher  of  his  congregation,  to 
Dr.  Bastwick,  then  a  star-chamber  prisoner  in  the  Gate- 
house for  sedition,  Bastwick  easily  prevailed  with  him  to 
carry  a  piece  he  had  lately  written  against  the  bishops,  to 
Holland,  and  get  it  printed  there.     Lilburne,  having  dis- 

*  It  is  worth  notice  that  he  was  the  ,when    the   trial  was   put  off  by  tha 

last  person  who  joined  issue  in  the  aur  judges  \  till  at  last  it  wad  ordered,  at 

cient  custom  of  atrial  by  battle.     It  the  king's  instance,  by  parliament,  that 

«as  with  one  Ralph  Auxton,  for  lands  a  bill  should  be  brought  in  to  taka 

of  tbe  value  of  200/.  per  ann.    The  away  that  trial,  in  1641.     RiuiiworUl'* 

two  champions  appeared  in  the  court,  '*  Collections,"  vol.  I. 
armed  cap-^^pi^,  with  sand-bags,  &c. 

^  Life  by  Pennant— -and  by  Sir  James  South  in  the  CycIop8Bdia.«-<3eiit*  Mas* 
LVm.  and  LXXII. 


L  I  L  fi  t  K  K  £.  257 

jitftcbed  tilis  iiti{9bttant  affair,  petarned  to  EnglAml  in  a  few' 
didA€bs  mth  the  paoipfalet,  Baslwick's  <*  Merry  Liturgy/'' 
as  11  was  cillted^  and  a  car ga  of  other  pieces  of  a  similar 
ktnd.  These  he  dispersed  with  mtieh  prmey;  uiiti),  being 
beiniy^d  by  bis  JEtssoeiate,  he  Was  apprehended  ;  and^  after 
examination  before  the  coancil-board  and  high  eottiYnissfon 
court,  to  whose  rules  he  refused  to  conform,  he  was  found 
guilty  of  printiff^  arrd  pubKshing  severalseditious  books,  par- 
Mularly  **Hews  from  IpswWhj'^ki  production  of  Prynne's. 
Lilburne  was  condeitioed  Feb.  1 637,  to  be  shipped  at  the 
eairt'fl^  it$A{  from  the  Fleet-priSonr  t6  Old  Palace  Yard,  Wes^- 
Mfnater ;-  theil  set  upon  the  piltory  there  for  two  b^urs ; 
•ftenv^rds'to  be  earried  back  to  the  Fleet,  there  to  remain 
#t  be  conformed  to  the  rules  of  the  coiirt ;  also  to  pay  a 
fine  of  SiQOt  to  the  kiffg ;  and,  lastly,  to  give  security  for 
his  good  behaviour.  He  underwent  this  sentence  with  an 
undismayed  obstinacy,  utteriilg  many  bold  speeches  against 
lile  bishops,  amd  dispersing  many  pamphlets  from  the  pil« 
lot^,  whdre,  aftef  the  star-chamber  then  sitting  had  or- 
i0Hld  him  to  be  gagged,  he  stamped  with  his  feet.  The 
Spirtt  h€  lAew^d  apon  this  occasion  procured  him  the  nick* 
oanye  tf  *^  Free-born  John"  among  the  friends  to  the  go* 
l^nmedt;  iAd  amoitg  his  own  party  the  title  of  Saint.  In 
prisoti  he  was  loaded  with  double  irons  on  bis  arms  and 
legfs,  and  put  into  one  of  the  closest  wards ;  but,  being 
suspected  to  have  occasioned  a  fire  which  broke  out  near 
that  wsrdv  he  was  removed  into  a  better,  at  the  earnest  so- 
Kefits^tion  both  of  the  neighbours  and  prisoners.  The  first 
4iSe  b^  made  of  bis  present  more  convenient  situation,  was 
lo  pttbKsh  a  piece  of  his  own  writing,  entitled  '*  The 
Christita  Mail*^  Trial,**  in  4to,  **  Nine  arguments  against 
€pise<9pai^,*^  and  several  <*  Epistles  to  the  Wardens  of  the 
Fleet.'* 

fte  wrot^  several  other  pamphlets,  before  the  long  par* 
liMMnft  gratlted  him  the  liberties  of  the  Fleet,  Nov.  164*0; 
wUch^  indurgenee  he  Fikewi^  abused  by  appearing  on 
M«y  3i  1641,  at  the  head  of  af^s^vage^  mob,  who  clamoured 
tor  Jtisrfceigttitfse  the  earl  of  Strafford.  Next  day  he  was 
seiacfd  and  arraigned  at  the  bar  of  the  House  of  Lords,  for 
ad'  assault  u^n  cblonel  Lunsford,  the  governor  of  the 
TcJwer ;  bnt  ttte  t't^mper  6f  the  times  being  now  in  his  fa- 
vtMi^,'  he  wiis  disfirissed,  and  the  same  day  a  vote  passed  in 
the  Hou^  of  C<Mhtnons,  declaring  his  former  sentence'  ille«*' 
gill  and' SyrMnff^Ul,  and  that  he  ou^ht  to  have  repa/atido 

Vol.  XX.  S 


2&S 


L  I  L  B  U  R.N  E. 


for  his  sufferings  and  lofses*  This  reparation  was  effec** 
tualy  although  slow.  It  w^  not  until  April  7,  1646,  that  a 
decree  of  the  House  of  Lords  passed  for  giving  him  ^wo  thou-^ 
saud  pounds  out  of  the  estates  of  lord  Cottington,  sir  Banks 
Windebank,  and  James  Ingram,  warden  of  the  Fleet ;  and  it 
was  two  years  after  before  he  received  the  money,  in  con* . 
sequence  of  a  petition  to  the  House  of  Commons,  when  he 
obtained  an  ordinance  for  3000/.  worth  of  the  delinquents- 
lands,  to  be  sold  to  him  at  twelve  years  purchase.  This 
ordinance  included  a  grant  for  some  part  of  the  seques- 
tered estates  of  sir  Henry  Bellingham  and  Mr.  Bowes,  in 
the  counties  of  Durham  or  Northumberland,  from  which 
he  received  about  1400/.;  and  Cromwell,  soon  after  hit' 
return  from  Ireland,  in  May  1650,  procured  him  a  grran^ 
of  lands  for  the  remainder.  This  extraordinary  delay  was 
occasioned  entirely  by  himself. 

When  the  parliament  had  voted  an  army  to  oppose  the 
&ing,  Lilburne  entered  as  a  volunteer,  was  a  capUiin  qf 
foot  at  the  battle  of  Edge-hill,  and  fought  weU  in  the  enr 
gagement  at  Brentford,  Nov.  12,  1612,  but  being  taken 
prisoner,  was  carried  to  Oxford,  and  would  have  been 
tried  and  executed  for  high  treason,  had  not  his  parlia- 
mentary friends  threatened  retaliation.  After  this,  as  he 
himself  informs  us,  he  was  exchanged  very  honourably 
above  his  rank,  and  rewarded  with  a  purse  of  300/.  by  the 
earl  of  Essex.  Yet,  when  that  general  began  to  press  the 
Scots*  covenant  upon  his  followers,  Lilburne  quarrelled 
with  him,  and  by  Cromwell's  interest  was  made  a  ms^r 
of  foot,  Oct.  1643,  in  the  new-raised  army  under  the  earl 
of  Manchester.  In  this  station  he  behaved  very  well,  and 
narrowly  escaped  with -his  life  at  raising  the  siege  of  New<» 
ark  by  prince  Rupert;  but  at  the  same  time  he  quarrelled 
with  his  colonel  (King),  and  accused  him  of  several  mis? 
demeanours,  to  the  earl,  who  immediately  promoted  him 
to  be  lieutenant-colonel  of  his  own  regiment  of  dragoons; 
This  post  Lilburne  sustained  with  signal  bravery  ^t  the 
battle  of  Marston-moor,  in  July ;  yet  he  had  before  that 
quarrelled  with  the  earl  for  not  bringing  colonel  King  to 
a  trial  by  a  court-martial;  and  upon  Cromwell's  accusing 
his  lordship  to  the  House  of  Commons,  Nov.  1644,  Lil- 
burne appeared  before  the  committee  in  support  of  that 
charge.  Nor  did  he  rest  until  he  had  procured  an'  impeachf 
ment  to  be  exhibited  in  the  House  of  Commons  in  Augusi 
this  year,  against  colonel  King  for  high  crimes  and  mis-' 


L  I  L  B  U  ,R  N  E.  259 

demeanours.  Little  attention  being  paid  to  this,  be  firat 
offered  a  petition  to  the  House,  to  bring  the  colonel 
to  his  trial,  and  still  receiving  no  satisfaction,  be  pub- 
lished a  coarse  attack  upon  the  earl  of  Manchester,  ia 
1646.  Being  called  before  the  House  of  Lords,  where 
that  nobleipan  was  speaker,  on  account  of  this  publication, 
he  not  only  refused  to  answer  the  interrogatories,  but  pro- 
tected against  their  jurisdiction  over  him  in  the  present 
case ;  on  which  he  was  first  committed  to  Newgate,  and 
then  to  the  Tower.  He  then  appealed  to  4;he  House  of 
Commons ;  and  upon  their  deferring  to  take  his  case  into 
consideration,  he  charged  that  House,  in  print,  not  only 
with  haying .  done  nothing  of  late  years  for  tite  gene* 
ral  good,  but  also  with  having  made  many  ordinances  no- 
toriously unjust  and  oppressive.  This  pamphlet,  which 
was  called  ^^  The  Oppressed  man^s  oppression,''  being 
seized,  he  printed  another,  entitled  '^  The  Resolved 
man's  r^lution,"  in  which  he  maintained  **  that  the 
present  parliament  ought  to  be  pulled  down,  and  a  new 
one  called,  to  bring  them  to  a  strict  account,  as  tb^ 
only  means  of  saving  the  laws  and  liberties  of  England 
from  utter  destruction,"  This  not  availing,  be  applied  to 
the  agitators  in  the  army;  and  at  length,  having  obtained' 
liberty  every  day  to  go,  without  his  keeper,  to  attend  the 
committee  appointed  about  his  business,  and  to  returti 
every  nigfat  to  the  Tower,  he  made  use  of  that  indulgence 
to  engage  in  some  seditious  practices.  For  this  he  was  re- 
committed to  the  Tower,  and  ordered  to  be  tried  ;  but, 
upon  the  parliament's  apprehensions  from  the  Cavaliers, 
on  prince  Charles's  appearing  with  a  fleet  in  the  Downs, 
he  procured  a  petition,  signed  by  seven  or  eight  thousand 
persons,  to  be  presented  to  the  House,  which  made  an  or- 
der, in  August  164S,to  discharge  him  from  imprisonment^, 
and  to  make  him  satisfaction  for  his  sufferings.  This  was 
not  compassed,  however,  without  a  series  of  conflicts  and 
quarrels  with  Cromwell ;  who,  returning  from  Ireland  in 

*  See  the  trial,  which  wa«  printed  power  of  the  ttw,  as  well  as  fact.     In 

by  him  .under  the  name  of  "  Theodo-  the  same  print,  over  his  head,  appear 

ros  Verax/'  to  which  he  prefixed,  by  the  two  faces  of  a  medal,  upon  oae  of 

way  of  triamph,  a  print  of  himself  at  which  were  inscribed  the  names  of  the 

'full  length,  standing  at  the  bar  with  jnry,  and  on  the  other  these  words; 

Cokie's  Institutes  in  his  hand,  the  hook  "  John  Ljlburne  saved  by  the  power  of 

that  he  made  use  of  to  prove  that  flat-  the  Lord,  and  the  integrity  of  his  jury, 

terhig  doctrine,  which  he  applied  with  who  are  judges  of  law  as  well  as  fact, 

singular  address  J|^  the  jury,  that  in  October  26^  1649.** 
them  alone  was  ifllerent  the  judicial 

S  2 


aw  L  1 1  i  tJ  It  ii  Ei 

Mdy  ISBOf^nA  ^fidiog  Lilborne  in  a  peaeeabKe  di$]f6si« 
Mn  wish  i^ard  to?  the  parliattieRt,  {^rbctired!  hind  the  n?* 
maand^  of  his  grant  for  feparatioirs  above-mentiODed. 
This  ^as  gratefully  acknowledged  by  his  antagonist,  wh<f, 
l|GMteyer^  did  not  continue  long  in  that  humour;  for,  hariYtg* 
undertaken  a  dispute  in  law,  in-  which  his  uncle  George 
X^lburne  happened  to  be  engaged,  he  petitiotied  the^  paf^ 
litfment  on  that  occasion  with  his  usual  bold  if  ess  in  1651 ; 
and  this  assembly  fined  him  in  the  sum  of  7000/.  ta  the 
state,  and  balBshed  him  the  kingdom.     Before  this,  how- 
ever, could  b^  carried  into  execution,   he  went  in  Jto. 
I65U2,  to  Amstei^dam  ;  where,  having  printed  an  apologjr 
for  himself,  he  sent  a  copy  of  it^  with  a  letter,  to  Gromw^f, 
charging  him  as  the  principal  promoter  of  the  act  of  bis 
banishment.     He  bad  also  several  conferences  with  some 
of  the  royalists,  to  whom  he  engaged  to  restore  Charles  IT. 
by  his  interest  with  the  people,  for  the  small,  sum  of  10,000/. 
bst  no  Notice  was  taken  of  a  design*  which,  faaAs  it  been 
platisible,  could  never  have  been  confided  to  such  a  man. 
He  then  remained  in  e:{^ile,  without  hopes  of  revisiting 
England,  till  the  dissolution  of  tfae  long  parliament ;  on 
irhich  event,  not  being  able  to  obtain  a  pass,  he  returned 
without  one,  in  June  1657  ;  and  being  seized  and  tried  at 
the  Old  Bailey^  be  was  a  second  time  acquitted  by  his  jury. 
Crbmwell,  incensed  by  this  contempt  of  his  power,  which 
#as  now  become  despotic,  had  him  carried  to  Portsmouth, 
in  ord6r  for  transportation ;  but  the  tyrant's  wrath  was 
averted,  probably  by  Lilburne's  brother  Robert,  one  of  his 
Hiajor-generals,  upon  whose  bail  for  bis  behavtour  he  was 
suffered  to  return.     After  this,  he  settled  at  Eltbamy  in 
Kent,  where  he  p^sed  the  short  remainder  Of  his  days  iti 
tranquillity,  giving,  however,  another  proof  of  hisr  versatile 
principles,    by  joining    the    quakefs,    among  witom    he 
preached,  in  and  about  Eltham,  till  bis  death,  Aug^.  2% 
1657,  in  his  forty-ninth  year.'     He  was  intefrifed  in  th^ 
then  new  bunal- place  iti  Moor-fields,  Aear  the  pl^e  now 
called  Old  Bedlam  ;  four  thousand  persons  attending^ bis 
burial. 

Wood  obaaracteri^es  him  as  a  person  ^<  from  bis  youth 
much  addicted  to  contention,  novelties,  opposition  of  go* 
yernment,  and  to  violeni  and  bitter  expressions ;"'  *^  thc^ 
idol  of  the  factious  people;"  **  naturally  a  great  trouble-, 
world  in  all  the  variety  of  governments,  a  t^ge-^dge  of 
religion,  the  chief  ring-leader  of  the  tev«lfefs,   9l  great 


JL  i  L  B  U  R  :N  £*  261 

propid^alrfiajk^;,  said  ^  modeller  of  Hiif^»  wd  puMisker  of 
leF.eral  seditioius  pitiiiphl^ts,  fifki  of  no  quaixeboMe  a  dta^^ 

E>sitipny  tbatit'Was  s^pfiosit^ly  sidd  pf  bim  (by  judge  Jen«> 
0$),  ^  tba^  4f  tber^  wa3  opne  living  heat  he^  John  would 
be.agfiQst  Lilburne,  and  JLitlburne  agaioot  John/ '*  ^  JLprd 
iJ^i^ndoD  instances  bim  '^  ^ad  an  ejv^ieficeiof  tbe  temper  ci 
llpe^oatioQ  ;  ^nd  bow  lartlihei spirits  at  that  time  (in  1663) 
were  froin  paying  a  spbo^i^^MW  to  that  power,  Wben  m* 
body  bad  tbe  Qourage  to  lift  up  tbeir  bauds  against  iu^ 
Mwfj^  ssys  jl^bat  be  w^s  ^  thp  fEiost  titrbuleiit,  bvit  the  most 
pprig^^t  a^d  pc^rageous  pf  human  kind ;''  and  more  recent 
biographers  bf^v^  given  b^in  credit  for  tbe  consistency  of 
bis  prinoy>les.     We  doubt,  however,  vvtioiher  this  consist 
tency  wHlJbePir  a.  very  <;loae  examination  :  it  is  true  that  be 
luiifbrmly  M^Vjeigbed  f^^nst  tyraoiny,  whether  that  lof  a 
jkif^y  aprotec(or,^.or  a  pfMtliament;  but  snob  was  bi5* selfish 
lov^  pf  libpr^y)  tl#t  he  iecluded  under  tbe  name  of  ty^ 
rapojryjiv^ry  species  ^of  tribunal  wbich  did  not  acq>iKl  men 
^^^MRV^^^  d'^positipn,, and  it  would  not  be  easy  from 
4iis  wr^ng^  tp  (majce4>iu  ^ny  (Tegular  form  of  government, 
QT.  9fft^^  .^f  ^UticjEil  prmoipte^,  likely  to  prove  either 
Piexi9^<|i^(^f\b^>iQ^^^         iti  JtiiesO)  bovtever,  may  be  found 
tbe*mp(Ms.af  <^>tl^09f9  wild  iicbemes  which  men  of  similar 
ten^fH^.bave  from  tii^ije  to  time  obtruded  upon  public  at«- 
tentioiQ.'    lAs  noat^ers^of  ^wipsity,  therefore,  we  shall  add 
11.  iisit  (Of  ibis  principal  publications  :  1.  <*  A  Saiva  Liber^- 
tiaije/'    ;2.  ^*  Tbe  Outcry  of  the  young  men  and  tbe  ap- 
pren^qes  of  ]t'^dpn ;  or  901  inquisition  after  tbe  loss  of 
the  fundamental  Laws  wA  Liberties  of  England,"  t^c. 
jLpn^on«   1645|  August  1,  in  4to.     3.  ^  Preparation  to  aa 
Hue  ;^nd  Cry  after  sif  Art^pr  Haselrig."     4.  <^  A  Letter  to 
aF;rieni3/'  4at^d  the  20th  pf  July,  1645,  in  4to.     5.  '<  A 
Xe^t^pO'WiiVi^a^Prynaef  esq."  dated  the  7th  of  Jamiary, 
.  J1645«     This  ,was'  writtep  upon  occasion  of  Mr.  Prynne's 
'<  Xfuth  tri^.fiq^hmg  over  Falsbood,  Antiquity  over  No*- 
jw^ty.*'     6.  *^  L^ndop's  Liberty  in  Chains  discovered,"  &c. 
London,  1646^  in  4to.     7.^^  Tbe  free  mail's  freedom  vin<- 
-4^109$^^  J  or  .4  ti;Qe  relation  of  tbe.  cause  and  manner  of 
Li^iitf9i9>pt-CoIonel  John  Lilburoe's  present  Imprisonix>ent 
jin  Neivga^,"  &c.  London,   1646,     8.  "  Charters  of  Lon* 
4pt|,  or  tbe  sepond  tpfiiFt  of  London^s  Liberty  in  Chains 
4isc)wered,"  ^c  London,  1646,  2.8  Decemb.     9.   **Two 
Letters  from  the  Tower  of'LondoQ  to  Colonel  Henry  Mar- 
tin, a  meiRKDer  of  the  House  of  Commons,  upon  the  13th 


262  L  I  L  B  U  R  M  E. 

and  15ih  of  September  1647/'  10.  «^  Other  Letters  of 
great  concern/'  London,  1647.  1 1.  ^*  The  resolved  man's 
resolution  to  maintain  iirith  the  last  drop  of  his  blood  his 
civil  liberties  and  freedotns  granted  unto  him  by  the  great, 
jnst,  and  truest  declared  Laws  of  England,"  &c.  London, 
1647,  in  4to.  12.  <<  His  grand  plea  against  the  present 
tyrannical  House  ofXords,  which  he  delivered  before  an 
open  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons,  20  Octob. 
1647,"  printed  in  1647,  in  4to.  13.  <<  His  additional  Plea 
directed  to  Mr.  John  Maynard,  Chairman  of  the  Commit- 
tee," 1647,  in  4to.  14.  "  The  Outcries  of  oppressed 
Commons,  directed  to  all  the  rational  and  understanding  in 
the  kingdom  of  England  and  dominion  of  Wales,"  &c. 
Febr.  1647,  in  4to.  Richard  Overton,  another  Leveller, 
then  in  Newgate,  had  an  hand  in  this  pamphlet.  1 5.  <*  Jo* 
nah's  Cry  out  of  the  Whale's  Belly,  in  certain  Epistle^ 
unto  Lieutenant  General  Cromwell  and  Mr.  John  Good- 
win, complaining  of  the  tyranny  of  the  Houses  d|:*Lords 
and  Commons  at  Westminster,"  &c.  16.  *' An  iflpeach- 
ment  of  High  Treason  against  Oliver  Cromwell  and  his 
son-in-law  Henry  Ireton,  esquires,  late  Members  of  the 
forcibly  dissolved  House  of  Commons,  presented  to  pub- 
lick  view  by  Lieutenant- Colonel  John  Lilburne,  close  pri- 
soner in  the  Tower  of  London,  for  his  zeal,  true  and  zea- 
lous affection  to  the  liberties  of  this  nation,"  London, 
1649,  in  4to.  17.  '^  The  legal  fundamental  Liberties  of 
the  People  of  England  revived,  asserted,  and  vindicated," 
&c.  London,  1649.  18.  ''Two  Petitions  presented  to  the 
supreme  authority  of  the  nation  from  thousands  of  the 
lords,  owners,  and  commoners  of  Lincolnshire,"  &c.  Lon- 
don, 1650,  in  4to.  In  a  paper  which  he  delivered  to  the 
House  of  Commons,  Feb.  26,  1648^9,  with  the  hands  of 
many  levellers  to  it,  in  the  name  of  ''  Addresses  to  the 
Supreme  Authority  of  England,"  and  in  "The  Agreement 
of  the  people,"  published  May  1,  1649,  and  written  by 
him  and  his  associates  Walwyn,  Prince,  and  Overton,  are 
their  proposals  for  a  democratic  form  of  government.* 

LILLO  (George),  a  celebrated  dramtitic  writer,  was  by 
profession  a  jeweller,  and  was  bom  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Moorgate  in.London,  Feb.  4,  1693,  where  he  pursued 
his  occupation  for  many  years  with  the  fairest  and  most 
unblemished  character.     He  was  strongly  attached  to  the 

1  Bioj.  BriU 


L  I  L  L  O.  263 

Muses^  and  seems  to  have  laid  it  down  as  a  maxim,  tliat 
the  devotion  paid  to  tbem  ought  always  to  tend  to  the  pro- 
motiqn  of  yirtue  and  -  mortality.  .  In  pursuance  of  this  aim. 
-LiUo  was  happy  in  the  choice  of  his  subjects,  and  showed 
great  power  of  affecting  the  heart,  and  of  rendering  the 
distresses  of  common  and  domestic  life  equally  interesting 
to  the  audiences  as  those   of   kings  and  heroes.      His 
«  George  Barnwell,"  ««  Fatal  Curiosity,"  and  «  Arden  of 
Feversham,''  are  all  planned  on  common  and  well-known 
stories  ;  yet  they  have  perhaps  more  frequently  drawn  tears 
from  an  audience  than  more  pompous  tragedies,  particu- 
larly the  first  of  them.    Nor  was  his  management  of  his 
subjects  less  happy  than  his  choice  of  them.     If  there  is 
any  fault  to  be  objected  to  his  style,  it  is  that  sometimes 
he  affects  an  elevation  rather  above  the  simplicity  of  his 
subject,  and  the  supposed  rank  of  his  characters ;  but  tra- 
gedy seldom  admits  an  adherence  to  the  language  of  com* 
mon  life^  arid  sometimes  it  is  found  that  even  the  most 
humble  characters  in  real  life,  when  under  peculiar  circum- 
stances of  distress,  or  the  influence  of  any  violent  passion,^ 
will  employ  an  aptness  of  expression  and  power  of  Ian* 
guage^  not  only  greatly  superior  to  themselves,  but  even 
to  the  general  language  and  conversation  of  persons  of  much 
higher  rank  in  life,  and  of  minds  more  cultivated. 

In  the  prologue  to  *^  Elmerick,"  which  was  not  acted  till 
after  the  author's  death,  it  is  said,  that,  when  he  wrote  that 
play,   he  *^  was  depressed  by  wat'it,"  and  afflicted  by  dis- 
ease ;  but  in  the  former  particular  there  appears    to  be 
evidently  a  mistake,  as  he  died  possessed  of  an  estate  of 
60/.  a  year,  besides  other  effects  to  a  considerable  valpe. 
The  late  editor  of  his  works  (Mr.  T.  Davies)  in  two  vo- 
lumes,-1775,  j2mo,  relates  the  following  story,  which,  how- 
ever^ we  cannot  think  adapted  to  convey  any  favourable  im- 
pression of  the  person  of  whom  it  is  told  :  ^<  Towards  the 
latter  part  of  his  life,  Mr.  Lillo,  whether  from'  judgment  or 
humour,  determined  to  put  the  sincerity  of  liis  friends, 
who  professed  a  very  high  regard  for  him,  to  a  trial.     In 
order  to  carry  on  this  design,  he  put  in  practice  ati  odd 
kind  of  stratagem  :  .he  asked   one  of   his   intimate  ac- 
quaintance  to  lend  him  a  considerable  sum  of  money,  and 
for  this  he  declared   be   would   give  no   btind,  nor   any 
other  security,  except  a  note   of  hand ;    the  person  to 
whom  he  applied,  not  liking  the  terms,   civilly   refused 
him.     Soon  after,  Lillo  met  bis  nephew,  Mr.  Underwood, 


264  (^  I  L  L  p.  . 

^itb  wboQA  be  had  bi^p^  f^tr^'u^xi/cip  ^ifn^^vf^f.    Hm  fgm 
tbi^  s^me  que^tioQ  tq  biniy  4^ring  Jtiim  iQ  U«4  biiP»  I9H>a^ 
upon  the  s^me  ^erws.     His  (Pepbemr,  ^her  fsoio  ^  -0^(9^ 
it:ious  ^ppreiiension  pf  bip  uncle^a  £«i^l  i^teiHi<9P»  or  ffpxn 
generosity  of  spirit,  ]iiii;aediately  ofkr^i  to  foq9{»ly  with 
bis  request.    Lillo  wa3  so  well  pleased  witb  ;tb?s  ready  cani^ 
pliance  of  Mr.  Underwood,  ,tbat  be  ioEifl^diatiely  deelar#4 
that  he  was  fully  satisfied  with  tlie  love  and  regard  tjbM:  )h< 
nephew  bore  him  ^  he  w^  conyiucfsd  tb^^  Ms  frif oflfibfp 
was  entirely  disinterested;  and  asspred bio9»  tb^U:  be  $hciMM 
reap  the  benefit  such  generous  behaviour  dfsei'Ved.    !« 
consequence  of  this  promise,  be  bequeathed  biim  tbt  bfilfc 
of  his  fortune.*'     The  same  writer  says,  that  Lilto  in  bi^ 
person  was  lusty,  but  not  tall  ^  of  a  pleasing  aspect,  tbo^gb 
unhappily  deprived  of  the  sight  of  one  eye. 

Lillo  cUed  Sept.  3,  17  39,  in  th^  forty ^^ventb  y^ear^f  bif 

age ;  i^nd,  a  few  moiubs  a&er  his  4eatb,  Henry  F;ielding 

printed  th^  fQllowing  charactdf  of  bii9  in  ^*  The  Chai9* 

pion:^*  ^^He  had  a  perfect  knowledgie  of  blio9i9»  nsrt^ref 

though  his  contempt  of  all  ba,se  means  of  application,  wb&eb 

are  th^  necf^ssary  steps  to  great  acquaintance,  restrained 

bis  conversation  witbip  narrow  bounds.     He  bad  ^h^  spjurit 

pf  an  old  ilomani  joined  to  the  innocence  of  a  primiiiyie 

Christian  :  he  was  content  with  bis  little  state  of  life,  io 

which  bis  excellent  temper  of  mind  gave  bim  an  happiness 

beyond  the  power  of  riches ;  and  it  was  necessary  for  hja 

friends  to  have  a  sharp  insight  into  his  want  pf  tb^ir  ser*- 

yice^,  as  well  as  good  inclination  or  abilities  to  se^e  biip* 

In  short,  he  was  one  of  the  best  of  mee,  and  ^hoiie  wIiq 

knew  him  best  will  most  riSgret  his  loss,''  ^ 

XILLY,  or  LYLl-Y  (John),  auQther  dramatic  writer,  of 

less  fame  and  merit,  was  born  in  the  Wilds  of  Ke^,  abom 

1555,  according  to  the  computation  of  Wood,  who  sayis, 

^<  he  became  a  student  in  Magdalen-college  in  the  begia-" 

oing  of  1569,  aged  sixteen  or  thereabouts,  and  was  altiy-* 

'   wards  one  of  the  demies  or  ^Jerk^  of  that  ho^ise."     He 

*  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  Apr]l27, 1573,  and  of  M«  A.  in  I  S7S» 

Online  disgust,  he. removed  to  Climbridge;  and  th^m^ 

went  to  court,  where  he  was  taken  notjce  of  by  queen  £li* 

^abeth,  and  hoped  to  have  been  preferred  tp  the  po^t  ^i 

master  of  the  revels,  but  after  many  yoars  of  afixioysalt^n^^ 

ance,  was  disappointed,  and  was  forced  to  wjrii^^  te  tba 

<  Life  prefixed  to  bis  Works.— Biog.  pran.-r<^ibber's  Lives,  tqL  V. 


i-  I  H  y.  :jM5 

'^^ryed  ip  iD^n^Qripl.  lu  wbat  year  he  diad  ip  unkpown ;  but 
/WpQ^  3aySy  he  wa3  aUv.e  in  1597.  Xiis^^nQbuient  to-tlt^  dmr 
jmUq  ^I.Mses  prodiiced  aiae  ^ramati^  pieq^fi,  non^  ef  whiclitt 
.  kowever^  have  pre^rved  their  reputation  in  our  liaie94  Ev^m 
PhiliipSf  io  bis  <*  Tbeatrviai/'  evils  ifae^D^  ^  ofd-^^bioned 
:  <trag§die#  and  oooiedie^/'    fie^ides  tb^M»  l^UJy  ^««  bwn 
cel^bra^^d  fipr  bis  attempt,  wbicb  was  a  K^y  uaAiappy  oaa^ 
-  %o  rtform  avd  purify  the  English  ia^guaige.     F^r  ^is  pdiri- 
pose  he  wrote  a  book  entitled  ^'  Eapbues,"  which  u^et  witli 
.  a  degree  of  success  very  unusual,  and  certainly  not  leii 
Quiperi^isdy  being  alioo^  ajaunediaibeJy  aod  universally  fol» 
low^d  ;  at  Uas^,  if  we  |nay  give  credit  to  the  w^ivds  »(  Hf. 
Blount,  who  published  six  of  Lilly's  plays  togetbffr»  i9  ^ne 
volume  in  twelvi^.     lo  a  pre£»ce  to  that  book  hp  ^aya, 
^^  our  nation  are  in  bis  d/^bt  fo^  a  Aew  British,  whipb  be 
taught  them :    *  Euphues   axid   bis   England '  began  6rat 
ihat  language;  all  ou^  ladies  were  his  scbolar9 ;  ai>d  that 
b^uty  at  court,  which  could  not  parley  Eupbuisme,  that 
is  ^o  say,  who  wai  uaahie  to  converse  in  that  pure  aokd  re* 
fofxped  ]£ngUsb,  which  he  had  formed  bis  work  to  be  the 
standard  of^  was. as  little  regarded  a9  she^vhicb  now  there 
speak9  not  French.*' 

Aojcording  to  Mr.  j^loun^  Lilly  was  deserviQ|r  of  the 
highest  encooaiums.      He  styles  him,  in  his  i,i^le-page, 
<^^he  only  ra^^  ppet  of  that  time, .the  witi^yt  ^omcoli  fapeli*^ 
pu^ly  quick  and  unparalleled  John  Lilly ;"'  and  m  his  epis* 
^e  .dedicatory  jsay^^  ^'  that  he  «a|Le  at  ^ppUo'^  table ;  that 
Apollo  gave  him  a  wreath  of  his  own  hayes  without,  .snatch* 
ing,  .and  the  lyi'e  he  played  on  bad  no  borrowed  atrings/* 
li,  indeed,  what.has  been  said  with  regard  to  his  i!^orma* 
tiou  of  the  English  language  had  been  true,  he  certainly 
would  have  had  a  claim  to  the  highest  honours  frona  his 
SPun^rymen  -,    but  those   eulpgJ44ms   are  -  far  from    well 
foundedt    since  his  injudiciovis  attempts  «t  improcement 
produced  only  the  most  ridiciiUus  atfea^ion.     The  style 
of  hj^  j^iipbue^  exhibits^  the  ahsiirde^it  e^sc^s/s  pf  pedantry, 
io  which  notthiDg  but  tl^  mo^t  dejpWr«)ihle  bad  tastp  <could 
bav.e..^ivpn  eyem  a  ten^arary  ^pproba<iou.    jL.iJly  V^astihe 
:    sMUhor.o^  a  famous  pamphli^  •against  Martin  I^bir-preiate 
and  his  party,  well  known  to  collectors,  entitled  **  Pap 
with' a  Hatchet,  alias  a.  Bg  for  my  godson,  &c.*^  published 
ahoiJt  1589,  and  attributed  to  Nasht^y  ^but.  w^s  certainly 


266  '      LILLY. 

Lillys.  His  prose  work,  or  rather  his  two  prose  works 
fntended  to  reform  the  English  language,  were  entitle 
*'  Euphues  and  his  England,''  Lond.  1580,  and  *'  Euphues, 
the  Anatomy  of  Wit^"  1581.  Some  differences  of  opinion 
as  to  the  times  of  publishing  these,  may  be  found  in  oqr 
authorities.^ 

LILLY  (William),  a  famous  English  astrologer,  was 
born  at  Diseworth  in  Leicestershire,  in  1602,  and  was  put 
to  school  at  Ashby*de*la-Zouch,  in  the  same  connty ;  but, 
his  father  not  being  in  circumstances  to  give  him  a  liberal 
education,  as  he  intended  at  Cambridge,  he  was  obliged  te 
•quit  the  school,  after  learning  writing  and  arithmetic.    Be- 
ing then,  as  his  biographers  inform  us,  of  a  forward  tem- 
per, and  endued  with  shrewd  wit,  he  resolved  to  push  his 
fortune  in  London,  where  be  arrived  in  1620;  and  where 
his  immediate  necessities  obliged  him  to  article  himself  as  a 
servant  to  a  mantua-filaker,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Clement 
Danes.     In  1624,  he  was  assistant  to  a  tradesman  in  the 
Strand;    who,    not  being  able- to  write,    employed  him 
(among  other  domestic  offices)  as  his  book-keeper.     He 
had  not  been  above  three  years  in  this  place,  when,   his 
master  dying,  he  addressed  and  married  his  mistress,  with 
ia  fortune  of  1000/.     In  1632,  he  turned  his  mind  to  astro- 
logy ;  and  applied  to  one  Evans,  a  worthless  Welsh  cler- 
gyman, who,  after  practising  that  craft  many  years  in  Lei- 
cestershire, had  come  to  London,  and,  at  this  time,  resided 
in  Gunpowder-alley;     Here  Lilly  became  his  pupil,  and 
made  such  a  quick  progress,  that  he  understood,   in  the 
cant  of  his  brethren,  how  "  to  set  a  figure"  perfectly  in 
seven  or  eight  weeks ;  and,  continuing  his  application  with 
the  utmost  assiduity,  gave  the  public  a  specimen  of  his  at- 
tainments and  skill,  by  intimating  that  the  king  had  chosen 
an  unlucky  horoscope  for  the  coronation  in  Scotland,  1 633. 
In  1634,  having  procured  a  manuscript,  with  some  alter- 
ations, of  the  ^'  Ars  Notoria*'  of  Cornelius  Agrippa,  he 
became  so  infatuated  by  the  doctrine  of  the  magical  circle, 
and  the  invocation  of  spirits,  as  not  only  to  make  use  of  a 
form  of  prayer  prescribed  there  to  the  angel  Salmonseus, 
and  to  fancy  himself  a  favourite  of  great  power  and  inte* 
rest  with  that  uncreated  phantom,  but  even  to  claim  a 

knowledge  of,  and  a  familiar  acquaintance  with,  the  parti-^ 

•.  •  .         •   »  ,         • 

1  Ath.  Otb.  Yol.  I.— Biog^  Brit— Warton's  Ulst  of  Poetry.—- Phillips's  Thea» 
trum  Poetafura,  edit.  1800,  bjT  Sir  £.  Bridges, — Ceusura  Literaria,  rol.  1.^ 
finis's  Specimens,  vol.  II. ' 


LILLY.  1167 

calar  guardian  angels  of  England,  by  name  Salmad  and. 
Malcbidael.     After  this*  be  treated' the  more  common  mys* 
tery  of  recovering  stolen  goods,  &c.  with  great  contempt, 
claiming  a  aupematural  sight,  and  the  gift  of  prophetical 
predictions,  and  seems  to  have  known  well  how  to  profit 
by  the  credulity  of  the  times.    Siich  indeed  was  his  fame,  as 
to  produce  the  following  notable  story.  When  one  Ramsay, 
the  king^s  clock  maker,  being  informed  that  there  was  a  great 
treasure  buried  in  the  cloister  of  Westminster-abbey,  ob» 
tained  the  deanV  (Dr.  Williams,  bishop  of  Lincoln),  leave 
to  search  for  it  with  the  divining  or  Mosaical  rods,  he  ap<- 
plied  to  Lilly  for  his  assistance.     Lilly,  with  one  Scot, 
who  pretended  to  the  use  of  the  said  rods,  attended  by 
Ramsay  and  above  thirty  persons  more,  went  into  the 
cloister  by  night,  and,  observing  the  rods  to  tumble  over 
one  another  on  the  West  side  of  the  cloister,  concluded  the 
treasure  lay  hid  under  that  spot ;  but,  the  ground  being 
dug  to  the  depth  of  six  feet,  and  nothing  found  but  a 
coffin^  which. was  not  heavy  enough  for  their  purpose, 
they  proceeded,  without  opening  it,  into  the  abbey.    Here 
tbey  were  alarmed  by  a   storm,    which   suddenly  rose, 
and  increased  to  sach  a  height,  that  they  were  afi«id  the 
West  end  of  the  church  would  have  been  blown  down 
upon  them ;  the  rods  moved  not  at  all ;  the  candles  and 
torches,  all  but  one,  were  extinguished,  or  burned 'very 
dimly.     Scot  was  amazed,  looked  pale,  and  knew  not  what 
to  think  or-  do;  until  Lilly  gave  directions  to  dismiss  the 
daemons,  which  when  done,  all  was  quiet  again,  and  each 
man  returned  home.     Lilly,  however,  took  care  not  to  ex*- 
pose  bis  skill  again  i|i  this  manner,  though  he  was  cunning 
enough  to  ascribe  the  miscarriage,  not  to  any  defect  in  the 
art  itself,  but  to  the  number  of  people  who  were  present 
at  the  operation  and  derided  it ;  shrewdly  laying  it  down 
for  a  rule,  that  secrecy  and  intelligent  operators,  with  a 
strong  confidence  and  knowledge  of  what  they  are  doings 
are  necessfury  requisites  to  succeed  in  this  work. 
'    In  the  mean  time  he  buried  his  first  wife^  purchased  a 
moiety  of  thirteen  houses  in  the  Strand^  and  married  a  se- 
cond wife^  who,  joining  to  an  extravagant  temper  a  ter- 
magant spirit,-^  which  all  his  art  could  not  lay,  made  him 
-both  poor  and  miserable.     With  this  lady  he  was  obliged 
to  retire  in  1637,  to  Her^ham  in  Surrey,  where  he  con- 
tinued till  Sept  1641  ;  and  now  seeing  a  prospect  of  advan- 
tage from  the  growing  confusion  of  the  time%  and  the 


a<a  LiXfLiTS 

prevaleece  ^f  eailiasiBtio  Mod  its^viity  •of  *U  kibdi^  lie  xe« 
tavned  to  London.  Here  iuuring  purchaeed  sevekraLeiirioae 
bMfcs  in  Us  f0tf  whiob*w#ce  fottiul  in  piritfag  ddwndim 
bouse  tif  epoiher  astMlogeiT}  he  peooset  tbcm  mtb  inoeB^ 
saiit  dUigeece,  and,  in  l^#y  pabliii>ed  Jiis  .^  Merliniis 
JbDglkufi  Juni^ri"  and  several  oiker  astrologieal  books; 
Q/e  iiad  centaraaabed'  an  intimaey^  :the  ip«eecdmg  jear,  with 
fiuUtrode  SlVintelocke,  esq.  v^  mtiA  afterwards  his  fnenA 
and  patrvlu ;  and,  in  1645,  demoted  hioiseif 'entirely  to  ifae 
ivteses^  df  the  pariouoeqt,  ^^^ ' ^^  jbattte  'of  ^aaebjf 
though  Ji^  bad  before  itA^er  igicH'med  *  to 't be  fckig's  ^party* 
Ift  ^47,  iipoti  thp  bieakisig  Mt  jof  the  qtiaiirefl  hettreeo 
^  |»irHaiitcixt  and-  oraqr,: .whose -head  quarb^v  were  at 
Windsor,  he  ma^  «e&t  for,  tqgetber  wkh  Bo(&er>  another 
aititrologer,  by  Faidax,  the  general,  .iwbo  iddsieBsed  tbim  in 
these  terws:  ^^Vkat  iQod  had  blessed /the  army  with  ssany 
signal  yictortes,'  and  yet  iheir  work  was  not  finished ;  that 
he  bdped  God  would  go  along  with  theai,  until  this  work, 
was  done;  that  th^i  soyght  not  themselves,  hut  the  wel- 
fare and  Araoquilltty  of-  the  gpod  people,  and  the  whole 
natmi;  «id,  for^ihat  .«nd^  were  resolved  to  sacrifice  both 
their  own  lives  and  fartuties  ;  that  he  hoped  die  art;^  which 
tAiey  (Lilly  and  Booker)  studied,  »was  lawful  and  agreeable 
to  God*s  word;  that  he  nandeistood  it  not,  but  did  not 
doubt  they  both  teared  Gad,  and  therefore  bad  ^  good 
opsaion  of  them."  To  this  spdefih  Lilly  returned  the  fed- 
lo«dng  answer :  *<  My  lord^  lam  glad  to  see  you  here  at 
this  tune :  certainly  both  ihepfiojfie  of  Ck)d,  and  i^l  others 
of  tiua  natdon,  Ave  V4ery  sensMoile'oiF  God's  mercy,  love,  and 
&vsour  unto  them,  in  directing  the  parliament  tandminate 
and  elect  you  general  .of  their  armies,  a  person  so  rdigious, 

'  so  valiant.  The  several  unexpected  victories  obtained 
under  your  excellency's  conduct  will  eternize  the  same 
^  unto  all  posterkyi  We  are  confident  of  God's  gping  along 
with  you  and  your  army,  un^l- the  great  work,  for  which 
he  ordained  you  both,  is  fully  perfected ;  wbtoh  we  hope 
srill  be  the  ponqueiiDg  and  subversion  of  yoavs  and  the 
ptarhamen^s  enemies ;  and  then  a  quiet  settlement,  and 
iftrm   peace  over  all  the  nation,  unto  GM^9  glory,  and 

^lill  sat3s£actioen  pf  tender  consciences.  Sir,  as  for  onr«> 
jelveS)  we  trust  in  God,  and,  a»  Cluistians,  belie^ie  in 
Jlim;  we  do  net  study  any  art,  i^vtt  what  is  laivful  and  con^ 
sonant  to  the  scriptures,  fathers,  and  ant^qXiity ! .  .viduch  we 
Jittmbly  d^ire  you  to  believe." 


t  I  L  L  Y.  2^& 

« 

Tfclb  ndii^eiitei  Jb'M^rtfuiiber,  seems  to  beuie  hem  oe^ ' 
ctsioned  by  ^  sus{]fick>ii^  of  his  atttttehmetit  to  tte  p»f^ 
pftrt^,  of  v^lch  be  bad  aflforded  some  grottiid^  by  receiiriog^ 
an  appltca^km  frotn  the  kitig^  then  in  ctistod5r  of  tbe  army 
at  HatttpldH-'Court;  for^  in  August  preoedrag^  when  bii^ 
maje^bad  framed  thougfais' of  escaping  from  the  soldiery, 
and  biding  bimttelf  soifiewhere  near  ti^eity>  hesent,  av 
lAlly  teils  tfs,  Mrs.  Wborwoed:,  to  know  in  what  qiianef 
01*  the  nation  be  might  be  safety  eem^led,  tilt  he  thdught 
proper  to  discover  himself.     Lilly,  having  ereeted  a  (iguf«, 
said,  the  king  might  be  safely  concealed  in  some  part  of 
Essex  afooiit  twenty  miles  from  London,  where  the  lady 
happened  to  have .  a  house  fit  for  his  ma^ty's  iieception^ 
and  went  away  next  morning  to  acquaint  him  with  it     BWs> 
the  king*  was  gone  away  in  the  bright  Westward,  and  sur^ 
rtndere^  biMstSf  at  leogth  to  Hammond,  in  the  Isle  of 
Wight;  8ind  thns  the  project  was  rendered  abortive.     He 
was  again'  applied  to  by  the  siMe  lady,  in  1648,  for  the 
same  purpose,  while  the  kiiig  W^s  at  Carisbrook^ castle; 
whence  having  laid  a  design  to  e^ape  by  saviring  ^  iron 
bars  of  his  chamber*  Window,  Mrs;  Whorwood  ^ame  to  oor 
author,  and  ae^ainted  hiin  with  it.     Lilly  procured  a 
proper  saw,  mad^e  by  one  Farnior,  an  ingenious  locfcsflHith, 
in  Bow-'lane,,  Cheapside,  and  famished  her  with  aquafortis 
besides ;  by  which  means  his  majesty  bad  nearly  succeed^ 
'  ed,  but  his  heart  failing,  .he  proceeded  no  farther.     About 
September,  the  same  lady  came  a  third  time  to  {#Uly,  on 
the  sariie  errand.     The  parliameiit-commissioaers  wwre  ftiaw 
Kfypointed  to  treat  with  his  majesty;  on- which,  onx  astro- 
Ibger^  after  perusing  his  figure,  told  the  lady  the  commis- 
sioners would  be  there  such  a  day,-  appoidted  the  day  and 
bdtir  w4ieu  to  receive  them,  and  directed,  as  doon  as  the 
{H'opo^tions  were  read,  to  sign  them,  and  make  haste  with 
dl  spied  icf  come  up  'With  the  commissioners  to  London, 
.  Ae  anrmy  being  then  far  distant  from  London,  and  the  city 
enraged  stoutly  against  them.      The  king  is  said  to  have 
ptonrised  he  wotrlddo  so,  but  was  diverted  from  it  by  lord 

Ailtfitfs  while  our  astrofosfer  continued  true  to  his  own 
it^terest,  *  by  serving  that  of  the  parliament  party,  from 
whom  he  received  this  year,  1648,  fifty  pounds  in  easib^ 
and  an  order  from  the  council  of  ^tate  for  a  pension  of  lOOL 
per  artn.  whicW  was  granted  to  him  for  ftirnishingthem^  with 
*  perfect  knowledge  of  the  chief  concernments  of  FFance. 


270  LILLY. 

This  he  obtidDed  by  means  of  a  secular,  priest,  with  whom 
be  had  been  formerly  acqualDted,  and  who  now  was  con- 
fessor to  one  of  the  French  secretaries.  Lilly  received  the 
pension  two  years,  when  he  threw  it  up,  with  the  employ- 
ment, in  disgust  on  some  account. or  othen  He  read  pubr 
lie  lectures  upon  astrol<^y,  in  1648  and  1649,  for  the  im* 
provement  of  young  students  in  that  art ;  and  succeeded 
so  well  both  as  a  practitioner  and  teacher,  that  we  find 
him,  in  1651  and  1652,  laying  out  near  20%0L  for  lands 
and  a  house  at  Her$ham.  During  the  siege  of  Colchester, 
he  and  Booker  were  sent  for  thither,  to  encourage  the 
soldiers,  which  they  did  by  assuring  them  that  th^  town 
would  soon  be  taken,  which  proved  true,  and  was  perhaps 
not  difficult  to  be  foreseen.  In  1 650  he  published  that  the 
parliament  should  not  continue,  but  a  new  .gpvernment 
arise,  agreeably  thereto;  and  in  the  almanack  for  1653,  he 
also  asserted,  that  the  parliament  stood  upon  a  ticklish 
foundation,  and  that  the  commonalty  and  soldiery  would 
join  together  against  them.  On  this  he  was  called  before 
the  committee  of  plundered  ministers ;  but,  receiving  no- 
tice before  the  arrival  of  the  messenger,  he  applied  to 
speaker  Lenthal,  always  his  friend,  who  pointed  out  the 
offensive  passages,  which  he  immediately  altered  ;  and  at- 
tended the  committee  next  morning  with  six  copies  printed, 
which  six  alone  he  acknowledged  to  be  his.  By  this  trick 
he  escaped  after  having  been  only  detained  thirteen  days 
in  custody  of  the  serjeant  at  arms.  This  year  he  was  en- 
^ged  in  a  dispute  with  Mr.  Thomas  Gataker,  and,  before 
the  expiration  of  the  year,  he  lost  his  second  wife,  to  his 
great  joy,  and  married  a  third  in  October  following.  In 
1655  be  was  indicted  at  Hicks^s-hall,  for  giving  judgment 
upon  stolen  goods,  but  acquitted:  and,  in  1659,  he  re- 
ceived, from  the  king  of  Sweden,  a  present  of  a  gold 
chain  and  medal,  worth  above  50/..  on  account  of  his  haTs 
ing  mentioned  that  monarch  with  great  respect  in  his 
almanacks  of  1657  and  1^58. 

After  the  restoration,  in  1660,  being  taken  into  custody, 
and  examined  by  a  committee  of  the  House  of  Commons, 
touching  the  execution  of  Charles  I,  he  declared,  that 
Robert  Spavin,  then  secretary  to  Cromwell,  dining  with 
him  soon  after  the  fact,  assured  him  it  was  done  by  cornet 
Joyce.  This  year,  he  sued  out  his  pardon  under  the 
broad-seal  of  England,  and  continued  in  London  till  1665; 
when,  on  the  appearance  of  the  plague^  he  retired  to  his 


LILLY.  271 

eAi»te  at  Hersham.  Here  he  applied  himself  to  the  study 
of  pbysicy .  having,  by  means  of  his  friend  Elias  Asbmole, 
procured  from,  archbishop  Sheldon  a  licence  to  practise  it ; 
and,  from  Oct.  1670,  be  exercised  both  the  faculti/es  of 
physic  and  astrology,  till  his  death,  which  was  occasipaed  by 
a  paralytic  stroke,  in  1681,  at  Hersham.  He  was  interred 
in  the  chancel  of  the  church  at.  Walton,  and  a  black  mar* 
ble  stone,  with  a  Latin  inscription,  was  placed  over  bis 
grave  soon  after  by  Mr.  Asbmole,  at  'whose  request  also 
Or.  Smalridge,  bishop  of  Bristol,  then  a  scholar  at  West- 
minster-school, wrote  a  Latin  and  English  elegy  on  bis 
deaths  both  which  are  annexed  to  the  history  c^  our  aui» 
thorns  life  and  times,  from  wh^ch  this  memoir  is  extracted* 
Lillys  a  little  before  his  death,  ^opted  one  Henry  Co- 
ley,  a  tailor,  for  his  son,  by.  the  name  of  Mchrlin  Junior, 
and  made  him  a  present  of  the  copyright,  or  good-will  of 
his  almanack,  which  had  been  printed  six  and  thirty  years 
successively  ;  and  Coley  carried  it  on  for  some  time^  Lilly 
bequeathed  bis  estate  at  Hersham  to  one  of  the  sons  of  his 
friend  and  patron  Bulstrode  Whitelock ;  and  his  magical 
utensils  came  all  into  the  hands  of  Dr.  Case,  his^successor, 
of  facetious  memory. 

•  Lilly  was  author  of  m^ny  works.  His  ^*  Observations  on 
the  Life  and  Death  of  Charles  late  King  of  England,"  if 
we  Overlook  the  astrological  nonsense,  .may  be  read  with 
as  much  satisfaction  as  more  celebrated  histories,  Lilly 
being  not  only  very  well  informed,  but  strictly  impartial. 
This  ^rojrk,  with  the  Lives  of  Lilly  and  Ashmole,  written 
by  themselves,  were  published  in  one  volume,  8vo,  in  1774. 
His  other  works  were  principally  as  follow  :  i.  *^  Merlinus 
Anglicus  Junior.''  2.  ^<  Supernatural  Sight.''  3.  <<  The 
white  King's  Prophecy."  4.  ^^  England's  prophetical  Mer* 
lin;"  all  printed  iu  1644.  5.  ^^The  starry  Messenger," 
1645.  6.  <<  Collection  of  Prophecies,"  1646.  7.  <^  A 
Comment  on  the  white  King's  Prophecy,"  ib.  8.  *^  The 
Nativities  of  archbishop  Laud,  and  Thomas  earl  Straf- 
ford," ib.  9.«  ^^  Christian  Astrology,"  1647;  upon  this 
piece  he  read  bis  lectures  in  1648,  before- mentioned.  10. 
*'  The  third  Book  of  Nativities,"  ib.  11."  The  World's 
Catastrophe,"  ib.  1 2.  f*  The  Prophecies  of  Ambrose  Mer- 
lin, with  a  Key,"  ib^.  13.  "  Tritbemius,  or  the  Govero- 
ment^of  the  World  by  presiding  Angels."  See  Cornelius 
Agrippa's  book  with'  the  same  title.  These  three  last  were 
printed  together  in  one  volume ;  the  two  first  being  trans- 


2r^  LILLY. 

larif^  in^  EdgtidI  hy  ERas  AshMiofe,  esq.  U.  ^<  A  Ti«^ 
ti»«  <rf  rtlie  llM^e  6«IYI8  seeii  in  the  WIntet  of  1647,"  [mnted 
ill  1649.  15.  ^M^miiehy  or  do  Momrchy,'*  1651.  16. 
<>  Ot>«ei¥ii^f)9  on  the  Lifd  arfd  Oeivtb  of  Charles,  late^ 
King  of  England/*  ib.  and  again  in  1615,  with  the  iitUi  of 
Alf.  WMiairi  Liffty'a  ^'True  History  of  King  Jamcd  and 
King  Charles  h*^  fte.  17.  *'  Annus  T^nebrosu»;  or,  fte 
biacb  Year."*  Tbin^  drevlp  hi^  into  the  dispirte  wifib  Gatak«rr, 
Wbkb  our  ailthor  carried  on  in  bis  itlmanack  in  1654.^ 
-  LILY,  ot  LI  LYE  (William),  an^  etdinent  English  gfad^* 
UnfariM,  was  bom  at  Odtbaifi,  inf  Badipsfaire,  about  1466. 
After  a  good  foundation  of  school-learning,  be  was  sent  to 
Magdaleo'COllege,  Oxford,  and  admitted  a  demy  there  at? 
tbe  age  o^  ei^gbteen.    Hiei¥ing  taken  the  degr^  of  B.  A.  he 

3uitt^  Vhe  university,  and  went,  for  retigioa^s  sake,  to 
i^rusaiedf),  as^  Fitfs,  and  aftefr  hiai  Wood,  Tanner,  and 
others  have  averted ;  but  Bale,  from  wboto  l^rt^  eopi^, 
gives  no  such  reason  for  Lily^s  journey.  I4  is  indeed  mdtft 
jlirobabfe,  that  be  travelled  eas^^ard  wTth  an  inteMriOff'tc^ 
atequsrie  sonre  knowledge  of  the  Gr^ek  lanfguagi$,  esj^eeially 
hs  be  continued  five  years  in  the  isilaAd  of  Rhodes^  wit4l  no 
other  design.  At  Rhodes  he  found  several  ieairn^d  aneii^ 
i^ho  b«d  taken  refuge  there,  Under  tbe  pi<oleet}off  of  4ie 
knights,  aftet  the  taking  of  Constanfhiopte  ^  mA  h^ve  he 
became  accjtiainifed  with  the  dooiiestf^  life  and  familiar 
(Conversation  of  t^  Greefes.  He  t^rtt  thence  to' Bom^; 
and  imprbved  hitnseif  farther  in  the  Latio  and  Greek 
tbngu^  under  John  Sulpitius  and  PoHlponius  Sabinlis.  On 
bis  arival  in  Snglaii^d,  in  iBOSy  he  settled  in  London>  and 
tsmght  a  priyalte  gfaitmiar-schobl,  being  tbe  firlst  teaiihfer  of 
Oreek'in  tbe  metropolis.  In  this  he  had  so  m«ieh  sttccafss 
and  reputation,  that  he  was  appointed  first-master  of  St. 
l*aiirs  school  by  the  founder.  Dr.  Gotet,  i^  1510.  1?hi^ 
laborious  and  useful  employment  be  fiUed'  tot  the  space  of 
twelve  years;  and  in  that  tune  educated  a  great  vMXiy 
youths,  some  of  whom  proved  the  greatest  men  iti  the  tki- 
tion,  a's  Thomas  Lupset,  sir  Anthony  t>ennyV  sir  William 
Paget,  sir  Edward  North,  John  Leland,  &c.  He  died  of 
the  plague  at  London  in  February  1 505,  aged  54,  and  was 
buried  in  the  north  yard  of  St.  P'aurs.  He  i^  highly  praised 
by  Erasmus  fbrhis  uncommon  knowledge  in  tbe  hmguages, 
and  admirabte  skill  in  the  instruction  of  youth.     He  was 

/  t ;    «!  lilc  ly  biaiseif.*^Bie0.  Mt.-^Atlu  Ox.  vol.  I. 


LILY.  a7S 

very  inttmMe  with  sir  Thomas  Morje,  to  whose  LatiD  trms- 
Nations  of  sereral  Greek  epigrams  are  prefixed  some  dooe 
by  Lily,  printed  with  this  tide,  **  Progymnasmata  Tbomss 
Aforir  &  .Gulielmi  Liiii,  Sodalium/'  Basil,  1518,  by  Fro« 
benius;  and  again  in  1673,  ibid.  Lily,  by  bis  wife  Agnes^ 
bad  two  sons;  and  a  daughter,  who  was  married  to  bis 
usher  John  Rightwise,  who  succeeded  his  fatber-in-Iaw  in 
the  Qsastership  of  St.  Paul's  school,  and  died  in  1532. 

Lily's  works  are,  1.  '^  Brevissima  institutio,  seu  ratio 
gramndatices  cogDoscendi,'*^  Lond.  1513 ;  reprinted  often, 
and  used  at  this  day,  and  commonly  called  ^^  Lily's  Gram- 
mar." The  English  rudiments  were  written  by  Dr.  Colet, 
and  the  preface  to  the  first  edition,  by  cardinal  Wolsey. 
The  English  syntax  was  •  written  by  Lily ;  also  the  rules 
for  the  genders  of  nouns,  beginning  with  Propria  qu8&  ma^ 
ribus ;  and  those  for  the  preter-perfect  tenses  and  supines, 
beginning  with  ^*  As  in  prsesenti."  The  Latin  syntax  was 
chiefly  tl^  work  of  Erasmus.  See  Ward's  preface  to  his 
edition  of  Lily's  grammar,  1732.  2.  <'  In  senigmatica  Bossi 
Antibossicon  primum,  secundum,  tertium,  ad  G.  Horman- 
iium,"  Lond.  1521,  4to.  3.  **  Poemata  varia,"  printed 
^itk  the  former.  4.  <^  Apologia  ad  R.  Wbyttingtonum." 
'5.  *^  Apologia  ad  Joan.  Skeltonum,"  in  answer  to  some 
invectives  of  that  poet.  6.  "  De  laudib\is  Deipari  Virginis.'* 
7.  ^'  Super  Pbiiippi  archiducis  appulsu."  8.  <<  De  CaroU 
quinti  Csesaris  adventu  panegyricum."  Some  other  pieces 
are  attributed  to  him  on  doubtful  authority. 

Lily  bad  two  sons,  George  and  Peter.  Georqs  was 
born  in  London,  and  bred  at  Magdalen-college,  in  Ox«> 
ferd ;  but,  leaving  the  university  without  a  degree,  went 
to  Rome,  where  be  was  received  into  the  patronage  of 
cardinal  Pole,  and  became  eminent  for  several  branches  of 
learning.  Upon  bis  return,  he  wa^  made  canon  of  St. 
Paul's,  and  afterwards  pre'bendary  of  Canterbury.  He 
"published  the  first  exact  map  of  Britain,  and  died  in  1559. 
Be  wrote  "  Anglorum  Regum  Chronices  Epitome,"  Venice, 
1548,  Francf.  1565,  Basil,  1577.  To  which  are  added, 
•<*  Lancastriee  &  Eboracensis  [Famil.]  de  Regno  Conten- 
tiones,  &  Regum  Angliae  genealogia ;"  "  Elogia  Virorum 
i|lu«trium,  1559,"  8vo;  "  Catalogus,  sive  Series  Pontifi- 
<ium  Romanorum;"  besides  the  "  Life  of  Bishop  Fisher,? 
Ms.  in  the  library  of  the  Royal  Society.  Peter,  his 
second  son,  was  a  dignitary  in  the  church  of  Canterbury, 
and  father  of  another  Peteir  Lily,  l),D»    This  other  was 

Vou  XX.  T 


274  LILY.. 

some,  time  fellow  pf  Jesusrcollege  iu  Cambridge ;  after- 
wards a  brother  of  the  Savoy- hospital  in  the  Strand,  Lon- 
don ;  prebendary  of  St.  Paul's ;  and^archdeacon  of  Taun- 
ton. He  died  in  1614,  leaving  a  widow,  who  published 
some  of  his  sermons.' 

LIMBORCH  (Philip),  a  celebrated  profe^^pr  of  divi- 
nity in  Holland,  of  the  Arminian  persuasion,  was  of  a  good 
family,  originally  of  Maestricht,  and  born  at  Amsterdam^ 
June  19,  1633.  He  passed  the  first  years  of  his  life  in  his 
father's  house,  going  thence  daily  to  school;  and  then, 
attending  the  public  lectures,  became  the  disciple  of  Gas- 
par  Barlspus  in  ethics,  of  Gerard  John  Vossius  in  tfistory, 
and  of  Arnold  Sanguerd  in  philosophy.  This  foundation 
being  laid,  he  applied  himself  to  divinity  under  Stephen 
CurcellseUis,  who  succeeded  Simon  Episcopius  in  that  chair, 
among  the  remonstrants.  From  Amsterdam  he  went  to 
Utrecht,  and  frequented  the  lectures  of  Gilbert  Yoetius, 
and  other  divines  of  the  reformed  religion.  In  May  1654, 
he  returned  to  Amsterdam,  and  made  bis  first  probation- 
sermon  there  in  Oct.  following.  He  passed  an  examination 
in  divinity  in  August  16.55^  and  was  admitted  to  preach 
publicly,  as  a  probationer,  which  he  did  first  at  Haerlem. 
The  same  year  he. was  invited  to  be  stated  minister  of  Alcr' 
inaer,  but  declined  it,  not  thinking  himself  yet  qualified 
for  that  in>portant  task.  In  1657  he  published  a  course  of 
sermons  in  Dutch,  by  Episcopius,  his  great  uncle  by  the 
mother's  side,  and  the  same  year  was  invited  to  be  minister 
of  the  remonstrants  at  Gouda,  where  there  was  a  numerous 
congregation  of  that  sect.  He  accepted  this  vocation,  and 
exercised  the  ministerial  function  in  that  town  till  he  was 
called  to  Amsterdam. 

Having  inherited  the  papers  of  Episcopius,  he  fouifd 
among  them  a  great  number  of  letters  relating  to  the  affairs 
of  the  remonstrants ;  and,  communicating  these  to  Hartr 
soeker,  minister  of  the  remonstrants  at' Rotterdam,  they 
joined  iti  disposing  them  into  a  proper  ordec,  and  then 
published  them  under  the  title  of  ^  Epistolse  prsBstantiuai 
et  eruditorum  Vironim,  &c.^'  at  Amsterdam,  in  1660,  8yo. 
These  being  well  received  by  the  pub\ic,  Limborch  col- 
lected more  letters,  and  pubiitsbed  a  second  edition,  epr^ 
rected  and  enlarged,  in  1684,  foL    After  which,  the  copy 

1  Pits,  Bftle,  and  Tanner.— Biog.  Brit.-^Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.  new  edition.— ^ 
Warum't  Risu»ry  of  Poetry.— ?uUer't  WorthieB.— Knight's  Life  of  Golet— 
Jortin't  Erasmni.  .     . 


Yi 


L  I  M,  B  O  R  C  H.  275 

Comino^  into  another  bookseller's  bands,  a  third  edition 
came  out|  170^^  at  Amsterdam,  in  folio^  with  an  appen^* 
dix,  by  Limborcb,  of  tvveiity  letters  more ;  the  whole  con'- 
laining  a  complete  series  of  every  thing  which  relates  to 
the  history  pf  Arminianism,  from  the  time  of  Arminius  to 
the  synod  of  Dort,  and  afterwards.  In  1661  our  author 
publisfaed  a  little  piece  in  Dutch,  by  way  of  dialogue  upon 
the  subject  of  toleration  in  religion.  Curcellseus  having 
printed,  in  16^0,  the  first  volume  of  Episcopius^s  works^ 
which  had  been  communicated  to  him  by  Francis  Lim- 
borch,  our  author's  father,  the  second  volume  was  pro* 
cured  by  Philip  the  son  in  1661  ;  to  which  he  added  a  pre« 
face  in  defenpe  of  Episcopius  and  the  remonstrants.  In 
1667  he  became  minister  atAmsterdam^  where  Pontanus, 
the  professor  of  divinity,  whose  talent  lay  chiefiy  in  preach- 
ing, appointed  Limborch  his  deputy  ;  first  for  a  year^  and 
then  resigned  the  ch»ir  absolutely  to  him  in  1668.  From 
this  tio^e  he  turned  all  his  studies  that  way,  and  acquired  a 
great  reputation,  not  only  among  those  of  his  own  party  at 
home,  but  among  foreigners  too,  to  which  his  mild  and 
incfdest  temper  contributed  not  a  little.  Soon  after,  he 
published,  in  Flemish,  several  sermons  of  Episcopius^  which 
had  n^ver  bet^p  printed  before. 

In  1660  he  had  married;  and,  his  wife  being  dead,  in 
1674  be  engaged  in  a  second  marriage,  and  had^  two  chiU 
dren.  The  ensuing  year  he  procured  an  edition  of  all  the 
works  of  his  master  Curcellaeus,  several  of  which  had  nevec 
appeared  before.  But,  as  neither  Episcopius  nor  Curcel- 
laeus had  leisure  to  finish  a  complete  system  of  the  remon-^ 
straht  theology,  Limborch  resolved  to  undertake  the  task, 
and  to  compose  one  which  should  be  entirely  complete ; 
some  disorders,  however,  and  several  avocations,  hindered 
him  from  finishing  it  before  1684,  and  it  did  not  come  out 
till  1686.  This  was  the  first  system  of  divinity,  according 
to  tbe  doctrine  of  the  remotistrants,  that  had  appeared  in 
prin^  The  work  was  undertaken  at  their  request,  received 
with  all  eagerness  by  them,  and  passed  through  four  edi- 
tions^.   The  $ame  year^,  1686,  he  ;had  a  dispute,  at  first 

*  The  tfUe  of  the  first  edition  is,  PnedetfinatioQeTractatatpofthumus." 

<' Tl^k^ia  Ghristic^aa  ad  Praxim  Pie-  This  postboiDoiM  pieoe  waa  priiYted 

tatis;  ac  ProDOtioBem  pacis  ChrktiansB  separately  the  tame  year  atAnutor- 

voice  difeeta,  Amst.  1686,''  4to ;  the  dam,  8vo,  ia  I»w  Patch  or  Fiemieh^' 

fourth,  1 7 1$,  ibU  to  which  is  added* "  Re-  with  -  a  loog  pre&ee  in  defence  of  the 

latfo  bisterica  de  drigine  et  Progressu  remonstrants,  against  a  piece  in  liow 

Controversikrom  in  l^cederato  Belgio  de  Duteb,  under  the  title  of  the  *<  Coin> 

T   2  * 


m  1 1  M  B  o  R  d:  B. 

HtHt  t>6cif  and  afterwards  in  writiDg>  with  Isaac  Orobfa,  H 
Jew  of  Seville  iir  Spain,  who  had  made  his  escape  out  of 
the  inquisition,  and  retired  to  Amsterdain,  where  he  prac- 
tised physic  with  great  reputation.    This  dispute  produced 
k  piece  by  oaf  author,  entitled  ^  Collatio  arnica  de  Ve« 
iltate  Heligionis  Christianas  com  erudito  Judaso/*     **  A 
friendly  conference  with  a  learned  Jew  concerning  the 
Truth  of  the  Christian  Religion/'     In  it  he  skewed,  that  a 
Jew  can  bring  no  argument  of  any  force  in  favour  of  Jn« 
daism  which  may  not  be  made  to  militate  strongly  in  favoulr- 
of  Christianity*     Orobio,  however,  contended  that  every 
oian  ought  to  continue  in  the  religion,  be  what  it  would, 
which  he  professed,  since  it  was  easier  to  disprove  the 
troth  of  another  religion  than  it  was  to  prore  his  own  \ 
and  upon  this  principle  he  averred,  that,  if  tt  had  been  his 
lot  tor  be  born  of  parents  who  worshiped  the  sun,  he  laMT 
ho  reason  why  he  should  renounce  their  Religion  and  em-* 
kraee  another.    To  this  piece  against  Orobio,  LimWchf 
idd^d  a  small  tract  against  Uriel  Acosta,  a  Portuguese 
deiit,  in  vtrhich  Limborch  ansvlrers  very  solidly  his  argu- 
inents,  to  shew  that  there  is  no  true  rdigion  besides  the 
i^eligion  of  ilature.    (See  Acosta.)  Shortly  after,  Limborch 
published  a. little  piece  of  Episcopius,  in  Flemish,  contain-' 
ingan  account  of  a  dispute  between  that  remonstrant  and 
one  William  Bome,  a  Romish  priest,  shewing,  that  the 
KDmah  church  is  not  exempt  from  errors,  and  i^  not  the 
sovereign-  judg^e  of  controversies.     In   1692  the  book  of 
sentences  passed  in  the  inquisition  at  Thoulouse,  in  France, 
coming  into  the  hands  of  a  friend,  and  containing  all  the 
sentences  passed  in  that  court  from  iSOTto  1323,  Lim- 
lorch  resolved  to  pub^h  it,  as  it  furnished  him  with  an 
occasion  of  adding  the  history  of  that  dreadful  tribunal, 
drawn  from  the  #ritings  of  the  inquisitors  themselves  '*'.    In 
1693  our  author  had  tbie  care  of  a  he^  edition,  in  one  large 
folio  volume,  of  the  sermons  of  Episcopius,  ifi  Dutch  ;  to 

bats  of  Sion^  by  James  PniUier.''  There  the  translator  has  piefixed  i.  large  in* 

is  a  long  extract  of  the  '*  Theologia  irodoction  eonceroingthe  rise  and  pro-^ 

ChtMtiana,'*   by  L^  Cletc,   io  BibL  gresa  of  persecution,  atidf  the  real  and' 

Univ.  torn.  II.  p.  81,  et  seq.  pretended  causes  of  it.   In  this  edition,. 

'  ♦  TheHttltt  ii,  "Bistona  fnqiHiii-  •Mir.'  Chandler  bad  the  atoistance  of 

lioni^  ctti  subjttnf  itknr  liber  Senten^  sonie  papera  of  our  autlior  coihmahi- 

timtmi  Iriqullitionis  Tboloianss  ab  An*  eated  to  him  by  Anthony  ColUns,  esq. 

no  1907  iM  193S,  Attsiel.  169S,"  fbf*  add  the  correctiona  lAod  addliioils  of 

it  wai  translated  into  English  by  VLn  Franoii  Llmborah,  a  rtf latioii  of  otsr 

Shvi.  Cbandter^  and  printed  at  Lon*  authotw    See  Chsndkr^t  pte£Ke» 
diM^  17dl»  ill  t  TblSi  4to^  to  whicU 


v 


I.  i  A$  B  p  H  C  li  fSJl 

which  be  adde4»  not  only  a  preface,  but  also  a  rery  loog 
history  of  the  life  of  Episcqpius,  in  th^  same  language: 
this  has  been  since  trauaUted  iato  Latin,  and  printed  19 
8v6  at  Amsterdam,  1 70 1 .     (See  Episcopivs.) 

In  1694  a  young  genttlewpman  at  An^terdam,  of  twepty^- 
two  years  of  age,  took  a  fancy  to  learn  Hebrew^  of  a  ,Je;nr  j 
find  w%s  by  frequent  conversations  with  her  tutor,  indiicetf 
to  quit  diie  Christian  religion  for  Judaism.  As  soon  .as  hef 
mother  understood  this,  she  employed  sevei-al  divines,  bujt 
in  vain ;  because  they  undertook  to  prove  Cijgristi^ity  froqi 
the  Old  Testament,  omitting  the  authority  of  the  New  ; 
to  which  she,  r^t.urning  the  common  answers  she  had 
Jiearned  from  the  Jews,  received  no  reply  that  gave  hej^ 
satisfaction.  While  the  young  lady  was  in  the  midat  0^ 
jthis  perplexity,  Djr.  Veen,  a  phy:siGian,  happened  to  hf 
aent  for  to  the  hou^ ;  ^nd,  hearing  her  motb^r  spe^ 
With  great  concern,  of  the  doubts  which  disturbed  h^ 
.daughter,  bfi  mentioned  Limborch'^  dispiii,te  with  Orobio. 
,She  immediat^y  applied  to  Limborci)^  in  hopes  that  he 
would  be  able  to  remove  her  scruples,  and  bdijig  her  bac^ 
to  the  Christian  religion.  Limborcb  a^^^^^^^g'y  used  the 
$ame  train  of  atgunient  which  he  had  pursued  with  Orobio^ 
^d  quickly  recovered  fa^r  to  Jber  former  faith.  In  1^98  h^ 
was  accused  of  a  calumny,  in  a  book  coocei*aing  the  2^ay«( 
in  St.  John's  gospel,  by  Vander  Waeyen,  professor  of  di- 
vinity at  Franecker,  becansje  he  bad  said,  that  Francis 
Burman,  a  divine  a^d  professor  at  Ley  den,  had,  in  bj^ 
.^  Theologia  Christiana,"  merely  .transcribed  .Spinoza  with- 
.out  any  judgment.  JLimborqb^  producing  passages  from 
both,  endeavopred  to  prove  ^l^t  be  bad  said  nothing  which 
was  not  strictly  true ;  but  when  this  ,was  printed  at  Amster- 
dam iu  1693^  the  two  Burmans,  o^^  professor  of  history 
and  eloquence  at  jUtrecht,  and  the  other  minister  at  Am'- 
j^terdam>  published  a  hoo\i  in  vindication  of  their  lather's ' 
jnemOiry,  entitled  "  Burmannorum  Pietas,"  "  The  Piety 
of  the  Burmans  y''  to  which  Limborqh  made  no  reply.  In 
170d  be.  published,  in  P.utch,  at  Amsterdam,  a  bqok  of 
piety,  co^laining  instrivctions  for  dying  peu'^pn^,  or  means 
of  preparing  lor  death ;  with  a  discourse  upon  tl;ie  death 
of  John  Owens,  ininister  of  the  remonstrants  at  Gouda. 
At  the  same  time  he  began  a  commentary  upon  the  Acts  of 
the  Apostles,  and  Aipon  the  Epistles  to  the  Aomans  an^l 
Hebrews,  which  was  published  in  i7ll. 

Having  pursued  the  strictest  temperance  through  life» 


278  L  I  M  B  O  R  &H. 

he  preserved  the  vigaiir  of  bis  mind,  and  health  of  bis 
body,  to  a  considerable  age»  but  in  the  autumn  of  1711 
hc^was  seised  with  the  St.  Antbony^s  fire  ;  wbicbi  growing 
more  violent  in  the  winter,  carried  him  off,  April  30,  17ri, 
His  funeral  oration  was  spoken  by  John  Le  Clerc,  who 
l^ives  him  the  followin^g  character :  **  Mn  Limborch  had 
many  friends  among  the  learned,  both  at  home  and  abroad, 
especially  in  England,  where  he  was  much  esteemed,  par«> 
ticularly  by  archbishop  Tillotson,  to  whom  his  history  of 
the  inquisition  was  dedicated,  and  Mr.  Locke.  With-Mr. 
Locke  he  first  became  acquainted  in  Holland,  and  after-* 
wards  held  a  correspondence  by  letters,  in  which,  among 
othier  things,  he  has  explained  the  nature  of  human  liberty, 
a  subject  not  exactly  understood  by  Mr.  Locke.  He  was 
of  an  open'  sincere  carriage^  which  was  so  well  tempered, 
ivith  humanity  and  discretion  as  to  give  no  offence.  In 
his  instructions,  when  professor,  he  observed  the  greatest 
perspicuity  and  the  justest  order,  to  which  his.  memory, 
which  retained  whatever  he  had  written,  almost  to  a  word, 
contributed  very  much;  and,  though  a  long  course  of  teach* 
ing  had  given  him  an  adthority  with  those  about  him,  and 
his  advanced  age  had  addea  a  reverence  to  him,  yet  he 
was  never  displeased  with  others  for  differing  from  him, 
but  would  both  censure,  and  be  censured,  without  chagrin. 
Though  he  never  proposed  the  understanding  of  languages 
as  the  end  of  his  studies,  yet  he  had  made  large  advances 
in  them,  and  read  over  many  of  the  ancient  and  modern 
writers,  and  would  have  excelled  in  this  part  of  literature, 
if  he  had  not  preferred  that  which  was  more  important. 
Ife  had  all  the  qualifications  suitable  to  the  character  of  a 
divine.  Above  all  things,  he  had  a  love  for  truth,  and 
pursued  the  search  of  it,  by  reading  the  Scriptures  with 
the  best  connmentators.  As  a  preacher,  bis  sernxons.\fere 
methodical  and  solid,  rather  than  eloquent  If  he  had. 
applied  himself  to  the  mathematics  he  would  undoubtedly 
have  excelled  therein  ;  but  he  had  no  particular  fondness 
for  that  study,  though  he  was  an  absolute  master  of  aritb- 
metic.  He  was  so  perfectly  acquainted  with  the  history  of 
his  own  country,  especially  for  150  years,  that  he  even 
retained  the  most  minute  oircumstanoe.%  and  the  very  time 
of  each  transaction  ;  so  that  scarce  any  one  could  deceive 
him  in  that  particular.  In  his  manner  he  was  grave  with- 
out pride  or  suUenness,  affable  without  aOectation,  plea- 
i;ant  and  facetious,  upon  occasion,  Without  sinking  into  ^ 


LIMBO  R  C  H.  279 

vulgar  lowness^  or  degenerating  into  malice  or  iH*nalur!e. 
By  these  qualifications  he  was  agreeable  to  all  who  coiv- 
ver^d'witb  him  ;  and  his  behaviour  towards  bis  neighbours 
was  such,  that  all  who  knew  him,  or  bad  any  <iealhigs  witft 
him,  ever  c6mmended  it."  * 

;     LINACRE,  or  LYNACER  (Thomas),  one  of  the  mosi 
eminent  physicians  and  scholars  of  his  age,  descended  from 
the  Linacres  of  Linacre-hall  in  the  parish  of  Chesterfield, 
Derbyshire,  was  born  at  Canterbury  about  1460.     Having 
completed  his  schooUeducation,  under  William  de  Selling, 
a  very  eminent  master,  in  his  native  city,  he  entered  at 
Oxford,  and  was  chosen  fellow  of  All  Souls*  college  in 
1484.     Being  desirous  of  farther  advaticement  in  learning, 
he  accompanied  De  Selling  into  Italy,  whither  the  latter 
was  sent  on  an  embassy  to  the  court  of  ftonie  by  Henty  VIF. 
De  Selling  left  him  at  Bologna,  with  strong  re<!^dmtiienda^ 
tions  to  Politian,    one  of  the  titost  elegant  Latini^ts  ih 
Europe;  and  removing  thence  to  Flovetide,  Linafcre' ac- 
quired the  favour  of  that  munificent  patF6n  of  literature, 
Lorenzo  de  Medicis,  who  granted  him  the  privilegli  of  at- 
tending the  same  preceptors  with  his  own  sons  ;  an  opp5r- 
lunfty,  by  which  he  knew  how  to  profit ;  and  under  Denied 
trius  Ch^lcondylas,  who  had  fled  from  Constantinople  ^hen 
it  was  taken  by  the  Turks,  he  acquired  a  perfect  know- 
tedge  of  the  Greek  language.     He  then  went  to  Rotne,  and 
studied  medicine  and  natural  philosophy' undet  Hermolaus 
Barbarus.     He  applied  particularly  to  the  works  of  A'Hs* 
totle  and  Galen,  and  is  s?iid  to  have  been  the  first- English- 
man who  made  himself  master  of  those  writers  by  perusing 
them  in  the  original  Greek.     He  also  translated  and  pub^ 
lished  several  of  Galen's  tracts  into  most  elegant  Latin, 
and  along  with  Grocyn  and  William  Latimer,  undertook  a 
translation  of  Aristotle,  which,  however, '  they  left  imper- 
fect.   On  his  return  to  England,  he  was  iwdrparated  M.  D; 
at  Oxford,  which  degree  he  had  taken' at  Paduk,  gave  tem- 
porary lectures  on  physic,  and  taught  tJhe  Gre^  languagii 
in  t^at  university.     His  reputation  soon  became  so  htgh^ 
that  king  Henry  VIL  called  him  to  eourt,  and  eiitrtisted 
btm  with  the  care  both  6f  the  health  and  education  of  his 
son,    prince  Arthur.     He  is  said  also  to  have  instructed 
phncessjCatherine  in  the  Italian  language.     He  was  ma^e 

I  Life,  by  Lfs  Clerc  io  Bib!.  Choisie»  vol.  XXIV. — Ger\.  Dick. — ^Mow,ii,— 
^icerQn,  vol.  Xi,— Sax'u  OoQiaasU-TrChs^ndl^r's  Preface  to  tht  H^ittory  flMbv 
luquIsiUoa* 


#M  LI  NACRE. 

$i^0^etimp\y  phjaician  to  the  kings  Henry  VII*,. H^tty¥lU<y 
Aod  Edward  YL,  and  to  the  princess  Alary. 

In  the  reign  o£  Henry  VIIL  indeed,  he  appears  to  hams 
flood  above  all  rivalsbip  at  the  head  of  his  profession ;  and 
lie  evinced  his  attachment  to  its  interests,  as  well  as  to  the 
fMiiWip  good,  by  various  acts  j  bat  especially  by  founding 
-two  lectures  on  physic  in  the  university  of  Oxford,  and 
one  ill  that  of  Cambridge.  That  at  Oxfiurd  was  left  to 
Merton  college,  and  the  Cambridge  lecture  was  given  to 
St.  Jobn^s^  at  which  college  it  is  said  by  Wood  and  Knight 
that  Linacre  studied  for  some  tima  The  ^endowment  oi 
Jboth  is  the  manor  of  Tracys,  or  Tcacies,  in  Kent ;  but  al<- 
though  be  bequeathed  these  at  his  de^  in  1524,  and  dus 
lectures  were  actually  read  even  in  his  life-time,  they  were 
not  established  until  December  1 549,  by  Tunstall,  bisbop 
jof  Durham,  Linacre  also  may  be  reputed  the  founder  of 
^be  <royal  college  of  physicians  in  London.  R^pretting 
that  there  was  no  proper  check  upon  illiterate  mooJcs  and 
.empirics,  licences  being  easily  obt»ned  by  improper  per* 
sons,^  when  the  bishops  were  authorised  to  examine  and 
license  practitioners  in  an  art  of  which  they  could  not  he 
M^mpeteot  judges,  Linacre  obtained  letters  patent  in  ]  5 18 
firo^  Henry  VIII.  constituting  a  corporate  body  of  regur 
Jarly  bred  physicians  in  London,  in  whom  was  vested  the 
sole  right  of  examining  and  admitting  persons  to  practise 
^hin  the  city,  and  seven  miles  rauAd  it;  and  also  of 
lic^sing  practitioners  throughout  the  whole  kingdom,  ex^ 
Mypt  such  as  were  graduates  of  Oxford  or  Cambridge,  who 
by  virtue  of  their  degrees  were  independent  of  the  college, 
except  within  London  and  its  precincts.  The-  college  had 
likewpse^uthortty  given  to  it  to  examine  prescriptions  and 
drugs  in  ^kpotheoaries"  shops.  Linacre  was  the  first  presto 
^leot  of  the  new  college,  and  c<mtinued  in  theoflSioe  during 
Ibe  remaining  smren  years  of  bis  life ;  and,  at  his  death,  be 
lie^ueatbed  to  the  c<dlege  his  house  in  Knight-rider- stj^eet, 
jjSi  wbiqh  its  meetings  were  held. 

After  raeeiiuog  ail  these  honours^  as  attestations  and  re* 
fsarda  of  SMliierior  .mewt.iM  bis  profession,  he  resolved  tp 
pbange  it  for  that  of  divinity.    To  this  study  be  applied 
in  ibe  latter  part  of  biaiife* ;  and,  entering  into 


*  Sir  John  Cbeke,  ia  insuring  Uus  reading  the  5tb,  6ih,  and  Tth  chapten 

change,  pbserrpiL  that  he  did.  pot  be-  of  St.  MaUhevr»    he  threw   the  bodk 

gin  UiiH  'study  tAl  lift  was  brolien  by  away  wHb  TioleDoe,  and  twore,  ikix 

age  and  infitfiniticai  and  Uiat,-tn^B  tliiawas  either  not  the  Goipel,  or  we 


L  I  N  A  C  R  S.  28i 

0 

iht  priettllobd,  obtained  the  rectory  of  Mershaiq,  Oetobier 
1509 ;  but|  resigning  it  within  a  moptb,  be  was  iQstalied 
into  the  prebend  of  £aton  in  the  church  of  Wells,  and 
afterwards,  in  15 id,  into  another  of  York;  he  <vas  aliie 
precentor  in  the  latter  ch  jrch,  but  resigned  it  in  balf  |i 
year.  He  bad  other  preferments  in  the  efaurob,  sodae  of 
iwbicb  he  receired  froia  archbishop  Warham,  as  he  grate:* 
fuUy  acknowledges  in  a  leuer  to  that  prelate*  Ur»  Knight 
infcMrms  usy  tbat  he  was  a  prebendary  of  St  Stephen^  ' 
Westminster;  and  bishop  Tanker ^vritcs,  that  b^  was  also 
ineclor  of  Wigatii  in  Lancashire.  He  died  of  the  stone,  in 
great  paiii  and  torment,  Oct.  2Q,  1524,  atid  was  buried  in 
St.  Paulas  cathedral ;  where  a  handsome  monument  wa$ 
«fterwanls  erected  to  bis  osemoiy  by  his  admirer  and  aucr 
cessor  in  fame,  Dr.  Cains. 

^  In  his  literary  character,  Linacre  stands  eminently  dii^ 
tinguished ;  as  be  was  one  of  the  '  first,  in  conjunctioii 
widi  Golet,  lily,  Grocyn,  and  Latimer,  who  revived,  or 
iratber  intxoduoed,  classical  learning  in  this  island.  iT^t]^ 
Jations  from  the  Qreek  auibors  into  Laiin  were  the  chief 
:OCGupation^  of  the  literati  of  those  times}  and  Liiiacre, 
as  we  have  already  observed^  conferred  a  benefit  on  bk 
profession,  by  transUtung  several .  of  the  most  valuable 
{tteees  ef  Graleur  These  were  the  treatises,  ^*  De  Sanitate* 
tueada,'* .  in  siK  books,  wUeb  was  printed  at  Cambridge  ih 
1517,  and  dedicated  to  kiog  Henry  VUI.|  *'De  Mor^s 
enrtodis,"'  in  fourteen  books,  priinted  at  Paris  in  i5S€; 
tfairee  books  ^^  De  Tempeiamentis,"  and  one  *^  De  initfi- 
^[i}ali  Temperie,"  first  printed  at  Cambridge  in  1521,  and 
inscribed  to  pope  Leo  X.    A  copy  of  this  on  vellum,  which 

Linacre  presented  to  Henry  VI 11.  is  n<^w  in  tbe  Bodleiail. 
There  is  another  edition,  without  date  or  punter's  nam^. 
^<  De  naturalibus  Facultatibus,"  three  books,  together  witji 
one  book  *^  De  Pulsuum  Usu,"  without  ^ate,  but  they  we«e 
rq>rinted.by  Colinseus  in  1,528,  as  well  as  his  posthumous 

translation  of  the  four  books  ^^  De  Morborum  Symptomattr 
bus.*'  In  these  versions  Linacre  exhibited  .a  Latin  style  so 
pure  and  elegant,  as  ranked  him  among  tbe  finest  inters 
jof  bis  age.  In  the  polish  of  bis  style  he  was  rather  fe^si^ 
dious^  imd  bis  friend  Erasmus  deseribes  him  as  ^*  Vir  oon 


•  iMi^  not  Christiam .  Cheke,  '*  De  as  appears  from  hit  projecting  the  coVr 
•Frdoiue.  Grmen  liogac"  However,  lege  of  pbysielaot,  ^ud  being  prtsidient 
*^  ^  "  ksA  bis  Umtgkli  opsii  pbytiv,  ^  ttei^^ai  m  4«sih, 


1 1.  < 


S82  L  I  N  A  C'  R  E. 

,1 

exact!  tantum,  sed  scveri  judicii  ;**  and  Hu'et,  in  Hi«  learned 
treatise  "  De  claris  Interpretatoribus,"  gives  him  the  praise 
of  extrat)rdinary  elegtuce  and  chastenesiis  of  style,  bat  in- 
timates that  be  occasionally  sacrifices  fidetitj'  to  thes6  qeia- 
litie».  '  .   '- 

It  was^  indeed,  on  his  reputation  as  a  philologist,  that 
be  seems  chiefly  to  have  valued  himself.  His  first  essay 
>vas  a  translation  of .  "  Proclus  on  the  Sphere,**  dedicated 
to  his  pupil,  prince  Arthur;  and  he  also  wrote  a  stnat 
book  of  the  rudiments  of  the  Latin  grammar,  in  English, 
€br  the  use  of  the  princess  Mary,  which  was  afterwards 
translated  into  Latin  by  the  cele^brated  Buchanan.  -^  But 
the  work  which  appears  to  have  engaged  a  veiy  large  por- 
tion of  his  time,  and  wa9  universally  acknowledged  to  be 
a  work  of  the  most  profound  erudition,  was  a  larger  gram- 
matical treatise,  entitled '^  De  emendata  structura  Latini 
Sermonis,  libri  sex."  This  work,-  which  was  not  printed 
till  after  his  death,  in  December  1524,  when  it  appearefd 
with  a  recommendatory  letter  from  the  learned  Melanc- 
tbon,  was  received  with  mt|ch  applause  by  menof  erudi-^ 
tion,  and  passed  through  several  editions;.  The  originat  is 
very  scarce;  but  from  the  translation  of  it,  by  Buchahali^ 
it  appears  to  be  little  more  than  the  present  tfceidenc^  ' 
taught  in  schools,  and  still  retaining  the  title,  of  ^^Rudi<^' 
ments,  &c."  His  friend  Erasmus,  indeed,  in  his  ^^  Moriae 
Encomium,*'  bestowed  some  good-natured  raillery  Upon  tlie 
author,  for  having  tortured  himself  for  twenty  years  by  the 
subtleties  of  grammar,  and,  after  forsaking  other  niore  im- 
portant objects,  thought  himself  happy  in  living  long 
enough  to  establish  certain  rules  for  distinguis\)ing  the 
eight  parts  of  speech. 

In  his  professional  character,  Linacre  acquired  univercal 
reputation,  among  his  countrymen  and  contemporaries,  for 
skill  and  practical  ability,  as  well  as  for  his  learning ;  and 
he  was  equally  the  subject  of  applause  and  estimation 
as  an  upright  and  humane  physician,  a  steady  and  affect 
tionate  friend,  and  a  muni^cent  patron  of  letters.  It 
were  sufficient  of  itself  to  justify  this  eulogium,  to  men* 
tion  that  he  was  the  intimate  friend  of  Erasmus.  That 
great  and  worthy  man  frequently 'takes  occasion  to-express 

bis  affection   and  esteem  for  his  character  and  abilities ; 

'.  -•  .  '.'1. 

*and  writing  to  an  acquaintance,  when  seized  witU  an  ijt^ 
ness  at  Paris,  he  pathetically  laments  hh-  iibsence  from 


L  I  N  A  C  R  E. 


28S 


Linacfe,  from  whose  skill  and  kindness  he  nnight  receive 
equal  relief*.* 

LINDEN.     See  VANDER  LINDEN. 

LINDSAY  (John),  a  learned  divine,  of  St.  MaryVhall 
at  Oxford,  officiated  for  many  years  as  minister  of  the 
Qonjuring  society  in  Trinity-chapel,  Aldersgate-street,  and 
is  saifl  to  have  been  their  last  minister.  He  was  also  for 
some  time  a  corrector  of  the  press  to  Mr.  Bowyer  the 
printer.  He  finislied  along  and  useful  life,  June  21,  1768, 
at  the  age  of  eighty-two;  and  was  buried  in  Islington 
ohurch-yard.  Mr.  Lindsay  published  "The  Short  History 
of  the  Regal  Succession,"  &c.  with  "  Remarks  on  Whiston'^s 
Scripture  Politics,"  &c.  1720,  8vo;  which  occurs  in  the 
Bodleian  Catalogue.  His -valuable  translation  of  Mason^s 
•*  Vindication  of  the  Church  of  England^'*  1726,  (reprinted 
in  1728,)  has  a  large  and  elaborate  preface,  containing  "  a 
full  and  particular  Series  of  the  Succession  of  our  Bishops, 
through  the  several  Reigns  since  the  Reformation,"  &c. 
He  .dat4^s  the  second  edition  fronn  "  Islington,  I'A  Dec. 
1727,"  In  1747,  he  published,  in  the  same  si^se,  "  Two 
Sermons  preached  at  Court  in  1620,  by  Francis  Mason  ;^* 
which  he  recommeods,  ^<  as  well  for  their  own  intrinsic 
value^  as  to  make  np  a  complete  Collection  of  that  learned 
Author's  Works."  He  had  a  nephew,  who  died  curate  of 
Waltham  abbey,  Sept.  17,  1779." 

LINDSAY,  or  LYNDSAY  (Sir  David),  an  ancient 
Scotch  poety  descended  from  a  qoble  family,  was  born  in 
1490,  at  Garmylcon  in  Hadingtonshire,  and  received  bis 
early  education  probably  at   the  neighbouring   school  of 


*  The  following  epitaph,  written  by 
paius,  will  b&  acceptable  to  the  learned 
reader,  from  the  elegance  of  its  com- 
position ;     . 

<*  Thomas  Lynacrui,  Regis  Henrici 
Vl[[.  medicus ;  yir  et  Orsec^  et  Latind, 
a^que  in  f«  medica  looge  eradittssimos. 
Mull  OS  et^te  sua  langoentet,  et  qai 
jam  animam  despondisrant,  vits  resti- 
tuit.  Malta  Gaieni  opera  in  Latinam 
liogiiant  mira  et  stngnUri  faeundia, 
vertit.  Egregium  opus  de  emendata 
structnra  Litini  aermonis,  amicorUm 
rogatui  pattlo>  ante    mortem  edidic 


MediciniB  studiosis  Oxonite  .publicas 
lectibnes  duas,  Cantabrigite  uiiam,  in 
perpetunra  stabilivit  In  hac  urbe  Col- 
legiam  Medicoram  fieri  sua  industria 
curavit,  cnjus  et  Prtesidens  prostimut 
electus  est.  Fraudes  dolosque  mirdi 
peroisus  $  fldus  amicia ;  omnibus  jtixta 
charus  :  aliquot  annos  anteqaam  obi* 
erat' Presbyter  factus;  plenus  annis, 
ex  hac  Tita  migrarit,  moltum  deside- 
ratns,  anno  1624,  die  91  Octobris.  Vi^ 
vit  post  fiinera  virtus.  Thomas  Lina- 
cro  darissiiDo  Medico,  Johannes  Caius 
poeuit,  anno  1651.'' 


1  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  I.  newedit.*^Diog.  Brit^^Fallee*s  Worthies. ^Freind's  Hkt. 
of  Phy^ic-r- Wood's  Annals  by  Gutcb.-^Aikia^  Biog.  Memoirs  of  Medicine.-^ 
llHes*8  dyclopedia. 

2  NtchoU*s  Bowyer,  In  irhich  is  a  portion  of  his  correspondence  with  Th, 
Zachary'Grey, 


SM  LINDSAY: 

Coupar.  In  1505  be  was  sent  to  the  umve^rsity  of  j^t*  A^^- 
draw's,  which  he  is  supposed  to  have  left  in  |^9L  He 
then  entered  into  the  service  of  the  courts  where,  in  iSH^ 
he  was  an  attendant,  or  page  of  honour  to  James  Y^  tl^ei^ 
an  infant  In  this  situation  be  Continued  until  1524,  wfaep,: 
by  the  intrigues  of  tbe  queen  mother,  the  young* king  w^ 
deprived  of  his  servants,  Bellenden,  Lindsay,  and  Oi^^ersy 
for  whom  he  seems  always  to  have  entertained  a  just  ce* 
jgard,  and  whom  he  dismissed  with  a  pension,  tbe  payment 
of  which  bis  majesty  was  studious  to  enforce,  while  bis 
means  were  few,  and  bis  power  was  liftie.  From  1524  to 
1528,  Lindsay  was  a  witness  of  tbe  confusions  and  oppres** 
sioDs  arising  from  tbe  domination  of  the  Douglasses  over 
both  the  pnnce  and  bis  people.  From  that  thraldom  tbe 
lung,  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  made  his  escape,  by  bis  own 
address  and  vigour,  in  July  of  1528,  after  eve^y  other 
exertion  bad  failed.  Lindsay  bad  now  liberty  and  spirits 
to  sup[>ort  him  in  tbe  cultivation  of  bi^  muse,  and  abput 
the  end  of  tbe  year  just  mentioned,  produced  bis  ^^  Dreme.'* 
In  tbe  following  year  he  presented  bis  ^'  CPQ^playnt'Vto 
tbe  king,  and  in  1 530  be  was  inaugurated  lion  ki^igof  ^irais> 
and  incidentally  became  a  knight.  In  December  pf  this 
year  be  published  bis  satire  oa  the  cj#rgy,  ciUled  ^'  The 
CfOmpIaynt  of  tbe  Papingo.^' 

Sir  David  was  soon  employed  in  discharging  tb^  proper 
functions  of  hon  herald.  In  April  153),  he  was  seol  with 
Campbel  and  Panter,  Mo  Antwerpi  to  renew  the  ancient 
treaty  of  commerce  with  tbe  Netherlands,  and  they  w<^c 
so  well  received  by  the  emperor  Charles  y.  ^  to  in^vre 
tbe  success  of  their  mission.  Lindsay  returned  to  Scotland 
IQ  tbe  latter  end  of  1 531,  and  not  long  after. married.  This 
marriage  does  pot  appear  to  have  been  either  fruitful,  or 
liappy.  Sir  David  leift  no  issue,  and  he  every  where  speaks 
with^  a  sort  of  Turkish  contempt  of  women.  He  was  now 
occupied  upon  a  poem,  wbiich  displays  much  of  that  senti- 
ment, a  drama  of  a  very  singular  kind,  which  be  qalled, 
what  be  intended  it  to  be^  ^' A  Satyre  of  tbe  three  Estatis.'* 
Some  of  his  biographers  have  affected  to  consider  him  as 
tjie  first  dramatist  of  his  copntry.  But  moralities  existed  in 
Scotland  before  be  was  bora  ;  aiKl  weie  very  comfxion  in 
bis  timte.  In  16^,  probably,  be  prinlueed  bis  ^^' Answer 
to  tbe  King's  Flyting,"  and  iiis  **  Complaynt  of  fiasche,'* 
which  sbew  the  gloominess  of  bis  temperaipent. 

In  tbe  mean  time  be  was  sent  as  lion  king,  wi^  sir  John 


LINDSAY.  285 

Cimpbel  of  Laudon»  in  1535^  to  the  emperor,  to  demand 
in  marriage  one  of  the  princesses  of  his  house.  The  king, 
fao#ever,  not  being  satisfied  with  the  portraits  of  the  prin- 
cesses presented  to  him,  or  perhaps,  as  Mr.  Chalmers 
thinks,  being  attracted  by  a  more  useful  connection  with 
f^rance,  sent  Lindsay,  in  1536,  to  that  country  to  demand 
iti  nfearriage  a  daughter  of  the  house  of  Vendome ;  but  the 
king  himself,  arriving  the  year  following,  made  choice  of 
Magdalene  of  France,  who  died  in  about  two  months  after 
her  marriage  ;  and  this  lamentable  event  occasioned  Lind- 
say^&  next  poem,  the  ^*  Deploratioun  of  the  Deith  of  quene 
Magdalene."'  The  king,  however,  married  again  in  1538, 
and  Lindsay's  talents  were  called  forth  in  the  rejoicings 
And  ceremonies  consequent  to  that  event,  and  afterwards 
on  the  birth  of  a  prince.  During  the  remainder  of  the 
reign  of  James  V.  he  appears  to  have  retained  his  majesty's 
favour,  and  to  have  been,  frequently  employed  in  his  cha« 
racter.  of  herald  ;  but  few  of  these  incidents  seem  of  suffi-r 
cieiit  importance  to  be  detached  from  his  biographer's  nar* 
rative.  During  the  regency,  he  appears  to  have  espoused 
the  cause  of  the  reformers,  and  after  the  assassination  of 
Ordinal  Beaton,  wrote  his  "  Tragedie  of  the  late  Cardinal,'* 
to  strengthen  the  prejudices  of  the  public  against  that  ec* 
<;lesiastic. 

In  1548  he  was  sent,  as  lion  herald,  to  Christian,  king 
of  Denmark,  to  solicit  ships,  for  protecting  the  Scottish 
coasts  agaihst  the  English,  and  to  xiegociate  a  free  trade^ 
particularly  in  grain  :  the  latter  purpose  only  wa$  accom* 
|»Ushed,  but  at  Copenhagen,  Lindsay  had  an  opportunity 
of  becoming  acquainted  with  the  literati  of  Denmark.  He 
at  length  returned  to  his  usual  occupations,  and  was  pro- 
bably no  more  employed  in  such  distant  embassies.  About 
tbis^time  he  published  the  most  pleasing  of  all  his  poei(bs, 
^*  The  Historie  and  Testament  of  Squire  Meldrumi"  In 
1553  he  finished  his  last  and  greatest  work,  "The  Mo- 
ildrchi'e."  When  he  died,  seems  a  matter  of  great  uncer- 
tainty. His  latest  and  best-informed  biographer  is  inclined 
lo  place  his  death  in  or  about  1557  ;  but  others  say  that 
hcf  lited  tiH  1^67.  It  is  rather  sin^lar  that  a  man  of  so 
nduch  celebrity,  a  great  public  officer,  one  of  the  reformers, 
or  who  at  least  contributed  to  the  reformation,  and  the 
Aiost  popular  poet  of  his  time,  should  have  died  in  such 
obscurity,  without  even  a  tradition  as  to  when  or  where  he 
was  buried.    Little  of  his  personal  .character  can  now  be 


28C  LINDSAY. 

1 

known^  but  what  is  to  be  gleaned  from  his  writings.  I}9, 
entered  with  great  zeal  into  the  religious  disputes  of  his 
time>  but  is  supposed  to  lean  rather  to  the  Lutheran  than 
Calvinistic  principles  of  reformation  ;  his  satires,  however, 
were  powerfully  assisting  in  exposing  the  vices  of  the 
clergy,  and  produced  a  lasting  effect  on  the  minds  of  the 
people.  We  shall  not  enter  very  minutely  into  his  cha^ 
racter  as  a  poet.  In  his  works,  says  Mr.  Ellis,  we  do  not 
often  find  either  the  splendid  diction  of  Dunbar,  or  the 
prolific  imagination  of  Gawin  Douglas.  Perhaps,  indeed, 
the  ^*  Dream''  is  his  only  composition  which  can  be  cited 
as<  uniformly  poetical;  but  his  various  learning,  his  good 
sense,  his  perfect  knowledge  of  courts,  and  of  the  world, 
the  facility  of  his  versification,  and  above  all,  his  peculiar 
talent  of  adapting  himself  to  readers  of  all  denominations, 
will  continue  to  secure  to  him  a  considerable' sh^re  of  that 
popularity,  for  which  he  was  originally  indebted  to  the 
opinions  be  professed,  no  less  than  to  bis  poetical  merit. 
The  most  ample  information  respecting  Lindsay,  his  per-r 
sonal  history,  and  works,  may  be  found  in  the  very  accu* 
rate  edition  of  the  latter  published  in  1806,  by  George 
Chalmers,  esq.  in  3  vols.  8vo.  It  has  be/^  justly  remarked 
that  if  the  learned  editor  had  executed  no  more  than  the 
glossary  prefixed  to  this  edition,  he  would  have  been  amply 
entitled  to  the  gratitude  both  of  English  and  Scotch  scbo* 
lars.  A  more  elaborate,  learned,  and  satisfactory  produc- 
tion of  the  kind  has  certainly  not  appeared  since  that  of  ' 
Ruddiman.' 

LINDSEY  (Theophilus),  a  Socinian  writer,  was  boro 
at  Middlewich,  in  Cheshire,  June  20th,  1723,  old  style. 
His  father,  Mr.  Robert  Lindsey,  was  an  opulent  proprietor 
of  the  salt-works  in  that  neighbourhood ;  his  mother's  name 
was  Spencer,  a  younger  branch  of  the  Spencer  family,  in 
the  county  of  Buckingham.  Theophilus  was  the  second  of 
three  children,  and  so  named  after  his  godfather,  Theo- 
philus earl  of  Huntingdon.  He  received  the  rudiments  of 
grammar-learning  at  Middlewich,  and  from  his  early  at«^ 
tachment  to  books,  and  the  habitual  seriousness  of  his  mind, 
he  was  intended  by  his  mother  for  the  church.    He  lost 

^  Life  prefixfd  to  Mr.  Chalmerses  edition. — Ellis's  Specimeni. — ^Wartoo't 
Hist,  of  Poetry.— Brit.  Crit.  vol.  XXIX. — Robert  Lindsay  of  Pitscottie,  wbo  was 
a  contemporary  of  air  OaTid,  is  the  reputed  author  or  editor  of  wh^t  has  been 
hitherto  published  as  a  *'  History  of  Scotland  from  1436  to  1565,  &c."  Of  this 
a  recent  and  very  correct  ediMon  has  been  published  by  John  Graham  Dalyell» 
esq.  F.  S.  A.  E".  in  2  vols,  ivo^  with  its  proper  title  pf  **  The  Chronicles  of  Soou 

Uuaj» 


L  I  N  D  S  E  Y-  ,  287 

soine  ,tiine.  by  a  change  of  schools^  until  he  was  put  under 
the  care  of  lAr,  Barnard  of  the  free-school  of  Leeds,  under 
whom  he  made  a  rapid  progress  in  classical  learning.  At 
the  age  of  eighteen  he  was  admitted  of  St.  John's  college^ 
Cambridge,  where,  by  exemplary  diligence  and  moral 
conduct,  he  obtained  the  entire  approbation  oC  his  tutors. 
As  soon  as  he  had  finished  his  studies  at  college,  taken 
his  first  degree,  and  bad  been  admitted  to  deacon's  orders, 
he  was  npmii^at^d  by  sir  George  Wheler  to  a  chapel v in 
SpitaUsquare  London.  Soon  after  this,  he  was,  by  the 
recommendation  of  the  earl  of  Huntingdon,  appointed  do- 
mestic chaplain  to  Algernon  duke  of  Somerset;  Tb«  duke, 
from. a  great  regard  for  his  merit,  determined  to  procure, 
him  a  high  rank  in  the  church,  but  an  early  death  deprived 
Mr.  Lindsey  of  his  illustrious  patron.  In  1754,  he  accom« 
panied  the  present  duke. of  Northumberland  to  the  con* 
tinent,  and  on  his  return  he  supplied,  for  some  time,  the 
temporary  vacancy  of  a  good  living  in  the  north  of  Sag- 
land,  called  Kirkby-Wisk:  here  he  became  acquainted 
with  Mr.  archdeacon  Blackburne,  and  in  1760  married  his 
daughter  •in-law.  From  Kirkby  Mr.  Lindsey  went  to  Pid-» 
dletown,  in  Dorsetshire,  baying  been  presented  to  the 
Jiving  of  that  place  by  the  earl  of  Huntingdon:  this, 
through  the  interest  of  the  same  patron,  he  exchanged,  in 
1764,  for  the  vicarage  of  Catterick,  in  Yorkshire*  Here 
be  resided  nearly  ten  years,  an  exemplary  pattern  of  a  pri- 
mitive and  conscie.ntous  pastor,  highly  respected  and  be- 
loved by  the  people  committed  to  his  charge.  Besides  his 
various  and  important  duties  as  a  parish  clergyman,  Mr* 
Lindsey  was  ever  alive,  and  heartily  active,  in  every  cause 
in  which  a  deviation  from  the  formularies  and  obligations 
of  the  church  was  considered  as  necessary.  With  this 
view,  in  177 T  he  zealously  co-operated  with  Mr.  arch- 
deacon Blackburne^  Dr.  John  Jebb,  Mr.  Wyvil,  and  others, 
in  endeavouriqg  to  obtain  relief  in  matters  of  subscription 
to  the  thirty-nine  articles.  Mr«  Lindsey  bad,  probably, 
for  some  years,  entertained  doubts  with  respect  to  the 
doctrine. pf  the  Trinity,  and  other  leading  topics  of  the 
established  faith;  and  these  pressed  so  heavy  upon  him 
that  he  could  no  longer  endure  to  remain  in  a  church, 
partaking  of  its  emoluments,  which  he  could  not  deserve, 
and  preaching  .its  doctrines,  which  he  could  not  believe^ 
He  tber^efore,  in  November  1773,  wrote  to  the  prelate  of 
his  .4iocefe,  informing  him  of  his.  inte^uiion^  to  quit  th^ 


a$M  L  I  N  D  S  £  Y* 

nhurch,  and  signifying,  that  in  a  few  ilays  he  should  trttis* 
mit  to  him  his  deed  of  resignation*  The  bishop  endea* 
Toured  to  persuade  him  to  remain  at  his  post,  but  he  had 
made  u^  liis  mind  that  duty  required  the  sacrifice,  and  be 
was  resolved  to  bear  the  consequences.  When  the  act  was 
done,  he  said  he  felt  himself  deliyered  from  a  load  which 
bad  long  lain  heavy  upon  htm,  and  at  times  nearly  over* 
whelmed  bim.  Previously  to  his  quitting  Catterick,  Mr. 
Lindsey  delivered  a  farewell  address  to  his  parishioners, 
ih*  which  he  stated  his  motives  for  quitting  them  in  a  sim« 
pie  and  very  affecting  manner,  pointing  out  the  reasons 
why  be  could  no  longer  conduct,  nor  join  in  their  worship, 
without  the  guilt  of  continual  insincerity  before  God,  and 
endangering  the  loss  of  his  favour  for  ever.  He  lefb  Cat-* 
terick  about  the  middle  of  December,  and  after  visiting 
some  friends  in  different  parts  of  the  country,  he  arrived 
in  London  in  January  1774,  where  he  met  with  friends, 
who  zealously  patronized  the  idea  which  he  entertained 
of  opening  a  place  of  worship,  devoted  entirely  to  unt« 
tarian  principles.  A  large  room  was  at  first  fitted  up  for 
the  purpose  in  Essex-street  in  the  Strand,  which  was 
opened  April  17,  1774.  The  service  of  the'  place  wa» 
conducted  according  to  the  plan  of  a  liturgy  which  had 
been  altered  from  that  used  in  the  established. church  by 
the  celebrated  Dr.  Saitouel  Clarke,  whose  conscic^nce  was 
not  quite  so  delicate  as  that  of  Mr.  Lindsey.  Mr.  Lindsey 
published  the  sermon  which  he  preached  on  the  opening  of 
bis  chapel,  to  which  was  added  an  account  of  the  liturgy 
made  use  of.  About  the  same  time  he  published  his 
*^  Apology,^'  of  which  several  editions  were  called  for  in 
the  course  of  a  few  years.  This  was  followed  by  a  still 
larger  volume,  entitled  **  A  Sequel  to  the  Apology,'*  which 
was  intended  as  a  reply  to  his  various  opponents,  and  like* 
Wise  to  vindicate  and  establish  the  leading  doctrines' which 
he  professed,  and  on  account  of  which  he  had  given  up 
his  preferdaent  in  the  church.  This  work  was  published  in 
1776 ;  and  in  1779  he  was  enabled,  by  the  assistance  of 
his  friends,  to  build  the  chapel  of  Essex-street,  and  to  pur« 
chase  the  ground  on  which  it  'stands.  Till  the  summer  of 
17d3,  Mr.  Lindsey,  with  the  aid  of  his  friend  the  Rev.  Dr^ 
Disney,  conducted  the  services  of  the  place,  upOn  strict 
unitarian  principles,  to  a  numerous  congregation.  He 
then  resigned  the  whole  into  the  bands  of  his  coadjutor, 
tkotwithstandiog  the  earnest  wishes  of  his  hearers  that  he 


^ 


L  I  K  1>'S  E  V.  28# 

ftiioidd  still  contifiue  a  paTt  of  tbcf  services.  Though  \^b 
had  quitted  the  duties  of  the  pulpit,  he  continued  to  labour 
in  the  cause,  by  his  publications,  till  hie  had  attained  bis  80th 
yean  In  1802,  he  published  his  last  work,  entitled  '<  Con- 
rersations  on  the  Divine  Government,  shewing  that  everv 
thing  is  from  God,  and  for  good  to  all.*'  The  professed 
object  of  this  pi^ce  is  to  vindicate  the  Creator  from  those 
gloomy  notions  which  are  too  often  attached  to  his  provi- 
dence, and  to  shew  that  the  government  of  the  world  i^ 
the  wisest  that  could  have  been  adopted,  and  that  afflict 
lions  and  apparent  evils  are  permitted  for  the  general 
good.  From  this  principle  Mr.  Liiidsey  derived  consola^ 
tioQ'  through  life,  and  upon  it  he  acted  in  every  difBciilt 
and  trying  scene.  On  his  death-bed  he  spoke  of  his  suf^ 
ferings  with  perfect  patience  and  meekness,  and  i^hed 
iremitided,  by  a  friend,  that  he  doubtless  was  enabled 
io  bear  them  With  so  much  fortitude  in  the  recollection 
of  his  favourite  maxim,  that  "  Whatever  is,  is  right  ;'* 
^^No,**  said  he  with  an  animation  that  lighted  up'his  coun- 
tenance, **  Whatever  is,  is  best."  This  was^  the  last  sen^ 
tence  which  he  was  able  distinctly  to  articulate :  he  died 
Novembers,  1808.  Besides  the  works  already  referred 
to,  he  publiisbed  tw6  dissertations :  1.  On  the  preface  to 
St.  John's  Gospel ;  2.  On  praying  to  Christ :  *•  An  Histo- 
rical View  of  the  State  of  th6  Unitarian  Doctrine  and  Wdr- 
ship  from  the  Reformation  to  our  own  Times  ;'*  and  seve- 
lul  other  pieces.  Among  controversial"  writers  Mr.  Lindsey 
takes  a  place ;  as  his  '*  Vindicise  Priestleianse,^  and  his 
"  Examination  of  Mr.  Robinsoh's' Plea  for  the  Divinity  of 
Christ,'*  will  shew.  Two  volumes  of  his  Sermons  have  beep 
published  since  his  death. 

Mr.'Lindsey  was  a  nian  of  mild  and  amiable  manners, 
and  very  highly  respected  by  every  person  who  knew  hida. 
As  a  writer  on  the  side  of  unrtariamsm,^it  cannot  be  said 
that  he'brought  many  accessions  of  Hew  matter  and  argu- 
ment, but  his  honourable  conduct  in  the  resignation  of  his 
preferment  rendered  him  peculiarly  ah  ornament  to  the 
iect  he  joined,  and  the  loss  of  such  a  man  might  be  justly 
ifigretted  by  the  church  he  left.* 

'    LlKGLEBACH  (John),  a  Dutch  pfainter,  or  at  least 
one  who  painuid  much  in  tfa^  Dutch  manner,  'was  born^at 

%  '     .     ■  ,  *        •        ,  .  ■•      ^  •  »        . 

.  '^  M^eomnm^  ToL  V;«-*S£es'ft  CfclOF«iaia.«r^M9a9iri  liy  Mr.  JlalihaA> 

Vol,  XX-  l} 


S9Q  L  I  N  G  L  £  B  AC  H. 

t 

JFfankfort  on  the  Maine,  in  1625,  and  learned  bis  act  iq 
fiolland,    but  afterwards  went  to  Rom^,  where  be.stu^f 
liliously  observed  every  thing  that  was  curious  in  art  or.na^ 
ture,  and  continued  at  Rooaetill  he  was  twenty-five  yea^rs 
of  age.     His  usual  subjects  are  fairs,  mountebanks,  sear 
prospects,  naval  engagements,  and  landscapes.     Hisland« 
;scapes  are  enriched  with  antiquities,  ruins,  animals,  an4 
elegant  figures ;  his  sea-fights  are  full  of  expression,  ex* 
citing  pity  and  terror;  and  all  his  objects  are  well-de- 
signed,.   His  skies  are  generally  light,  and  thinly  clopded^ 
and  his  management  of  the  aerial  perspective  is  extremely 
judicious;  bis  keeping  is  usually  good;  his  distances  of. a 
clear  bluish  tint ;  and  the  whole  together. is  masterly,  pror 
ducing  an  agreeable  effect.     In  painting  figures  or  anir, 
mals,  he  had  uncommon  readiness,  and  on  that  accQi|n| 
he  was  employed  by  several  eminent  artists  to  adocn  th^if 
landscapes  with  those  pbjects  j,  and  whatever  he  insertefdw 
the  works  of  other  masters,  was  always  well  adapted  to.tb^ 
scene  and  the  subject     His  pencil  is  free, .  bis  touch  cii^aa, 
and  light,  and  his  compositions  are  in  general  esteem*. ;I|i 
nay  be  observed,  that  he  was  particularly  fond  of  intro-. 
ducing  into  most  of  his  compositions,  pieces  of  ar^hitec-' 
ture,  the  remains  of  elegant  buildings,  or  the  gate4  of  the. 
sea-port  towns  of  Italy ;  embellished  with  statues,  placed, 
sometimes  on  the  pediments  and  cornices,  and  sometiines 
in  niches.     He  also  excelled  in  representing  Italian  fairs 
and  markets,    inserting  in  those  subjects  abundance  .oft 
£gures,  well  grouped  and  designed,  in  attitudes  su^b]e 
to  their  different  characters  and  occupations;  and  although 
)ie  often  repeated  the  same  subjects,  yet  the  liveliness,  of: 
his  imagination,  and  the  readiness  of  his  invention,  always  ^ 
enabled  him  to  give  them  a  remarkable  variety.     He|  died  ^ 
in  1687.*  . 

LINGUET  (Simon  Nicholas  Hjenry),  a  French  advo- 
cate and  political  writer,  was  born  at  Rheii)|i^,  July.  1^-^ 
4736.     His  father  was  one  of  the  professors  ot  the  .college 
of  Beauvais,  at  Paris,  and  had  his  son  educated  un^er  \dm^  . 
.who  made  such  proficiency  in  his  studies  as  to  gsUn^th^v 
three  chief  prizes  of  the  college  in  1751.     This  early-^p^^* 
Jebrity  was  noticed  by  the  duke  de  Deux-Pont,  .thei^at>/ 
Paris,  who  took  him  with  him  to  the  country ;  but  Ling|ia||;  ^ 
soon  left  this  nobleman  for  the  service  of  the  prince  d^  , 
fieavau,  iwho  employed  him.  as  bis  aide-de-camp  in  the*  war  • 

>  Argenville,  ViA,  111.— Pilkington. 


LlvNGUET.  gH 

iit  Portugal,   on  account  of  his  skifl  in  odalheinaticsu 
JDuring  his  residence  in  that  country,  Linguet  learned,  the 
language  so  far  as  to  be  able  to  translate  some  Portuguese 
dramas  into  French.     Returning  to  France  in  176^,  he  wa$ 
admitted  to  the  bar,  where  his  character  was  very  rarious ; 
but  amongst  the  reports  both  of  enemies  and  friends,  it 
appears  that  of  an  hundred  and  thirty  causes,  he  lost  only 
nine,  and  was  allowed  to  shine  both  in  oratory  and  compor 
sition.     He  had  the  art,  however,  of  making  enemies  by 
the  occasional  liberties  he  took  with  characters ;  and  at 
one  time  twenty-four  of  hi^  brethren  at  the  bar,  whether 
from  jealousy  or  a  better  reason,  determined  that  they 
would  take  no  brief  in  any  cause  in  which  he  was  con*- 
cerned,  and  the  parliament  of  JParis  approved  this  so  far 
as  to  interdict  him  from  pleading.     We  are  not  sufficiently 
acquainted  with  the  circumstances  of  the  case  to  be  able  to 
|orm  an  opinion  on  the  justice  of  this  harsh  measure.     It 
appears,  however,  to  have  thrown  Linguet  out  of  his  pro«> 
fession,  and  he  then  began  to  employ  his  pen  on  his  nu-^ 
merous  political  writings';  but,  these,  while  they  added  to 
his  reputation  as  a  lively  writer,  added  likewise  to  the 
number  of  his  enemies.    The  most  pointed  satire  levelled 
at  him  was  the  "  Theory  of  Paradox,*',  generally  attributed 
to  the  abb6  Morellet,  who  collected  all  the  absurd  para- 
doxes to  be  found  in  Linguet's  productions,  which  it  must 
be  allowed  are  sufficiently  numerous,  and  deserve  the  cas- 
tigation  he  received.     Linguet  endeavoured  to  reply,  but 
the  iaugh  was  against  him,  and  all  the  wits  of  Paris  en«- 
joyed  his  mortification.     His  *^  Journal,"  likewise,  in  which 
.most  of  his  effusions  appeared,  was  suppressed  by  the  mi- 
nister of  state,  Maurepas  ;  and  Linguet,  thinking  his  per- 
sonal liberty  was  now  in  dauger,  came  to  London ;  but  the 
English  not  receiving  him  as  he  expected,  he  went;  to 
Brussels,  and  in  consequence  of  an  application  to  the  count 
de  Vergennf  8, .  vas  allowed  to  return  to  France,    He  bad  not 
been  here  long,  before^  fresh,  complaints  having  been  mad^ 
pf  his  conduct,  he  was,  Sept.  27, 1780,  sent  to  the  Bastille^ 
where  he  remained  twenty  months.     Qf  his  imprisonment 
and  the  causes  he  published^a  very  interesting  account^ 
which  was  translated  into  English,   and  printed   here  ii^ 
1783.     He  was,  after  being  released,  exiled  to  Rethel, 
bat  in  a  short  time  returned  to  England.     He  had  beeii 
exiled  on  two  other  occasions,  once  to  Chartres,  and  the 
pther  to  J>f ogent*le-Rotrou.    At  this  last  place;  he  seduced 


««  1 1  N  G  U  fi  T. 

t  ttftdame  ButI,  the,  wife  of  n  mannfflictdrtr,  who  aedoiti* 
|»at)i<ed  bim  to  England;     From  Eofgiand  be  went  again  tb 
'  l^rtrsseh^  and  resnm^  his  journal,  or  **  Annates  politiqtic^,^ 
in  ^icb  he  endeat^otired  to  pay  his  court  to  the  emperor 
Joseph,  who  was  so  much  pleased  with  a  paper  be  bad 
MFritten  on  his  faTourite  project  of  opening  the  Scheldv^ 
that  he  invited  bim  to  Vienna,  and  made  him  a  present  df 
1000  ducats.     Linguet,  however,  soon  forfeited  the  empe<- 
*tdr*»  favour,  by  taking  part  with  Vander  Noot  and  the  otbetr 
insurgents  of  Brabant.     ObKged,  therefore,  to  quit  the 
Netherlands,  he  came  to  Paris  in  1791,  and  appeared  at 
the  bdr  of  the  constituent  assembly  as  advocate  for  the  c<^ 
lonial  assembly  of  St.  Domingo  and  the  cause  of  the  blacks. 
In  February  1792,  he  appeared  in  the  legislative  assembly 
to  denounce  Bertraud  de  MolevillC)  the  minister  of  the 
itiarine ;  but  his  manner  was  so  absurd,  that  notwithstand* 
itig  the  unpopularity  of  that  statesman  j  the  assembly  treated 
it  With  contempt,  and  Linguet  itrdignantly  tore  in  pieces 
bis  memorial,  which  he  had  been  desired  to  leave  on  the 
table.     During  the  reign  of  terror,  he  withdrew  into  the 
country,  but  was  discovered  and  brought  before  the  revo- 
lutionary tribunal,  and  condemned  to  death  June  27,  17^4^ 
for  having  in  his  works  paid  court  to  the  despots  of  Vienna 
and  London.     At  the  age^of  fifty -^seven  he  went  with  ste«> 
Irenity  and  courage  to  meet  bis  fate.     It  is  not  very  easy 
to  fdrm  an  opinion  of  Linguet^s   real  character.     His 
being  interrupted  in  his  profession  seems  to  have  thrown 
him  upon  the  public,   whose  prejudices    he    alternately 
opposed  and  flattered.     His  works  abound  in  contradict 
tiont,  but  upon  the  whole  it  may  be  inferred  diat  be  was  a 
lover  of  liberty^  and  no  ineortsiderable  promoter  of  those 
opinions  which  precipitated  the  revolution.     That  he  was 
not  one  of  the  ferocious  sect,  appears  from  Ms  escape,  fttid 
his  death.     His  works  are  very  numerous^.    The  principal 
are,  1.  "  Voyage  au  laAyrinthe  du  jardin  du  roi,**  Hagile, 
(Paris,)    1755,    12mo.     2.   «  Histcire  dtt  slecle  d'Atex-. 
andre,**  Paris,  1762,  l2tno.     3.  <^  Projetd^un  tanfcl  ct 
d'un  pont  sur  les  cotes  de  Picardie,*'   1764,' 8r^6.     4. 
«  Le  Fanatisme  de  Phil0st)phes,'^  lf64,  8vo.     5.  *«  Mte* 
cessit^  d'une  raforme  dans  Padministra^n  de'  la  justice 
et  des  lois  qiviles  de  Prance,"  Amst.  1764^,  Sto.     6.  ^  La 
Dime  royale,*'  i764,  reprinted  in  17M.     7.  «  Hi&tbire 
des  Revoltttidtis  de  Pempii'e  Romain,*^  1766,  2  ^ols.  I2ma 
This  is  one  of  his  patudotical  wbrka,  in  i^rhtclv  tyiutiny  and 


L  I  N  G  U  E  T.  29% 

shv«ry  axe  represented  in  the  iii03t  &vour»ble  li|^t  B. 
.  ^*  Theorie  des  Loi%'^  17^7,  2  vols.  Svp^  repristed  in  J1774« 
f.  <<  Histoire  isppartiale  des  JesittUe%*'  1763,  8vo«  10^ 
**  Hardioo's  Uoiversal  History,''  vob.  19>h  and  ^Otb«  IK 
<<  Theatre  Espagnole,"  1770,  4  voR  It^o.  1£.  '<  Theorie 
4u  Libelle,"  Amst  (Paris),  1775,  12ii»o,  gp  answer  to  the 
abb£  Morellet*.  13.  "  Du  plus  beureux  giwverniaent^''  &c. 
1774,  2  .vok.  12IOP.  14»  ^^  Essai  pbii.osgpbique  ^ur  l(e^ 
Monacfaisme,"  1777,  Svo.    Besides  these  he  wrot^  several 

Eieces  on  the  revoUuuon  in.  Brabaqt,  .an^  a  cplle^tipa  of 
iw  cases. 


1 


.  LIN^^Y  G^ohn),  an  emineDt  music  profesisor  and  or- 
ganist, ]oog  reseat  at  Bath,  adhere  he  had  served  van  ap^ 
prentioesbip  under  Chilcpt,  the  organist  pf  that  city,  was  4 
studious  majx,  equally  versed  in  the  theory  and  practice 
pi  bis  art  Having  a  large  family  of  children,  in  ^om  he 
found  the  seeds  9f  genius  had  beea  planted  by  aatdre,  and 
the  gift  of  voice,  in  order  to  cultivate  this,  he  pointed 
bis  studies  to  singing^  and  became  the  best  siogiug-n^st^ 
of  his  time,  if  we  may  judge  by  the  spedmens  of  his 
fucceas  iu  bis  owp  family.  He  was  not  only  a  masterly 
|dayer  xxi  the  organ  au^  harpsichord,  b^t  a  good  composer^ 
as.  his  elegies  and  several -coi^positions  for  Drury*laoe 
theatre  evinced.  His  sou  Thomas,  who  was  placed  under 
l^fardini  at  Florence,  -the  celebrated  discipk  of  Tartipi, 
was  a  fine  performer  tm  the  violin,  with  a  talent  for  com-* 
position,  which,  if  be  had  lived  to  develope,  would  have 
giyeii  loBf^vity  to  bis  fanae.  ^ein^  at  Grimsthqrpe^  ia 
Lincobisbice,  at  the  se^  of  th^  duke  of  Ancaster,  wher^e 
)ie  oftea  ^uaaused  himself  iu  rawing,  fibbing,  and  sailing  i^  .^ 
boat  on  a  piece  of  water,  io  a  squall  of  wind,  or  by  some  ac«- 
cident,  the  boat  waf,  overset,  aud  this  amiable  and  promising 
youth  wasdrowued  at  ^a  early  a^,  to  tjjije  great  ^Uction 
of  bis  family  and. firic^odfiy  paruculaily.bis  l^atcbless  sister* 
jl^rs.  Sheridan,  whom  this  calamity  rendered  miserable  for 
a  long  time^  during  wljucb,  ?her  affection  aud  grief  ap» 
peared  in  verses  of  the  most  sweet  and  affecting  kind  oa 
the  sorrowful  ev«Qt  The  beauty,  talents,  and  mental 
endowments  of  this  ^'  Saucta  CsDcilia^rediviva,*'  will  %be 
f  emembered  tp  the  lastv  hour  of  all  who  heard,  or  even  saw 
.  and  conversed  with  her.  The  tone  of  her  voice  and  ex- 
prcfssive  manqer  of  singing  were  as  encbauting  a9  her 

I  Dictt  Hist^Bipgraphit  Moderne. 


fi9*  L  I  N  L  £  i.  ■'• 

0 

countenance  and  conversation.  In  her  singing,  w^  sf 
nAellifldous-toned  voice,  a  perfect  shake  and  intonation, 
she  was  possessed  of  the  doable  power  of  deh'ghting  an 
audience  equally  in  pathetic  strains  and  songs  of  brilliant 
execution,  which  is  allowed  to  very  few  singers.  When 
dhe  had  heard  the  Agujari  and  the  Danzi,  afterwarda  ina- 
dame  le  Bran,  she  astonished  all  hearers  by  performing 
their  bravura  airs,  extending  the  natural  compass  of  her 
Voice  a  fourth  above  the  highest  note  of  ^the  harpsicfaordy 
before  additional  keys  were  in  fashion.  Mrs;  Sheridan 
died  at  Bristol  in  1792.  " 

-  Mrs.  Hckel,  her  sister,  was  but  little  inferior  to  her  in 
beauty  and  talents ;  and  Mr.  Linley^s  other  daughters  con* 
tinned  to  excite  the  admiration  of  all  who  knew  them,  in 
ft  manner  worthy  of  the  family  from  which  they  sprang. 

Mr.  Linley,  the  father  of  this  nest  of  nightingales,  fmni 
being  assistant  manager  of  Drury-lane  theatre,  lived  to 
become  joint  patentee,  and  for  some  time  sole  acting  ma^ 
nager ;  in  which  capacity  he  gave  satisfaction,  and  escaped 
censure,  pablic  and  private,  by  his  probity  and  steady 
conduct,  more  than  is  often  allowed  to  the  governor  of  stidhi 
a  numerous  and  froward  family.  This  worthy  and  ingenif 
ous  man  died  November  1795.'  -        ' 

LINN^US  (Charles),  afterwards  Von  LiNNfi',  the  most' 
eminent  of  modern  naturalists,  was  born  at  Rftshult,  in 
the  province  of  Smaland,  in  Sweden,  May  1 3tfa,  1 707. 
His  father,  Nicholas  Liiinseus,  was  assistant  minister  of  tfa^ 
l^rish  of  Stenbrohult,  to  which  the  hamlet  of  Rft^hult  be^ 
longs,  and  became  in  process  of  time  its  pastor  or  rector ; 
having  married  Christina  Broderson,  the  daughter  of  his- 
predecessor.  The  subject  of  our  memoir  was  their  first-bom 
child.  The  family  of  Linnasus  had  been  peasants,  but  some' 
of  them,  early  in  the  seventeenth  century,  had  followed' 
literary  pursuits.  In  the  beginning  of  that  century  regulat 
and  hereditary  surnames  were  first  adopted  in  Sweden^  on 
^bich  occasion  literary  men  offcen  chose  one  of  Latin  or 
'Greek  derivation  and  structure,  retaining  the  termination' 
proper  to  the  learned  languages.  A  remarkable  Linden^ 
tree,  Tilta  Europaaj  growing  near  the  place  of  their  resi^ 
dence,  is  reported  to  have  given  origin  to  the  names  of 
Lindelius  ami  Tiliander,  in  some  branches  of  this  family  ;- 
but  the  above-mentioned  Nicholas,  is  said  to  have  first 

1  Rees'f  CjrclopflMlia,  by  Dr.  Burnejr. 


L  INf  N  ^JE\J  S:  391 

taheh  that  of  Linnsras,  by  which  bis  son  becanfe  so  exten-A 
stvely  known.     Of  the  taste  which  laid  the  foundation  of 
bis  bappiness^  as  well  as  his  celebrity,  this  worthy  fatbet 
#a«  the  primary  cause.     Residing  in  a  delightful  spot^  oo. 
Ibe  blanks  of  a  fine  lake/  surrounded  by  hiljs  and  vaHevSi^ 
woods  and  cultivated  ground,   his  garden  and  his  fidfdr 
yielded  him  l)oth  amusement  and  profit,  and  his  infant  sbn« 
imbibed,  under  his  auspices,  that  pure  and  ardent  love  ol^ 
^iature  for  its  own  sake,  with  that  habitual  exercise  of  the; 
mind  in  observation  and  activity,  which  ever  after.mark^d^ 
his  character,  and  which  were  enhanced  by  a  rectitude  o^ 
prineiple,  an  elevation  of  devotional- taste,  a  warmth  of 
ieeling,  and  an  amiableness  of  manners,  rarely  united  iiv 
iiiose  who  no  transcendantly  excel  in  any  branch  of  phi** 
losophy  or  sciienee,  because  the  cultivation  of  the  hearci 
does  by  no  means  so  constantly  as  it  ought  keep  pace  with^ 
that  of  the  understanding.    The  maternal  uncle  of  Nicholan 
Liona^us,  Sueno  Tiliauder,  who  had  educated  him  witb 
his  own  children,  was  also  fond  of  plants  and  of  gardening)^ 
so  that  these  tastes  were  in  some  measure  hereditary.  From 
bis  tutor  he  learned  to  avoid  the  error  of  the  desubory* 
speculators  of  nature.;  and  his  memory,  like  his  powers  oi 
perception,  was'  naturally  good,  and  his  sight  was  always 
rematicably  acute.     He  does  not  appear,  however,  to  have 
been  very  happy  under  this  tutor,  and  at  seven  year$  of 
age  grammar  bad. but  an  unequal  contest  with  bo^ny^  ia^ 
ifae  mind  of  the  young  student.     Nor  was  he  much,  morer 
fortunate  when  removed,  in  1717,  to  the  grammar-^scbobl 
of  Wexio,  the  master  of  which,  as  his  disgusted  pupil, 
lelates,   ^^  preferred  stripes   and   punishments  to  admOf^ 
uitions  and  encouragements."     In  17^22  he  was  admitted 
to   a  higher  form  in  the  school,  and   his  drier  studies 
were  now  allowed  to  be  intermixed  and  sweetened  witb 
the  recreations  of  botany.     In    1724,   being  .seventeen 
3^earsof  age,  he  was  removed  to  the  superior  seminary  or 
Gynmasiuni,  and  his  destination  was  fixed  for  the  churchy 
but,  having  no  taste  for  Greek  or  Hebrew,  ethics,  metar  . 
physics,  or  theology,  he  devoted  himself  with  ^  success  tor 
mIMrliematics,  natural  philosophy,  and  a  scientific  pursuit 
o€  his-  darling  botany.    The  "  Chloris  Gatfaaca"  of  Brome*^ 
lius,  and  <^  Hdrtus  Upsaliensis''  of  Rudbeck,  which  made 
apart^of  his  little  library,  were  caJculated  rather  to  fire 
than  to  satiisfy  his*  curiosity  ;  while  bis  Palmberg  and  Til-i 

kthds'migkt  mal^Q  faip  sensible  bow  m^cM  still  remiii^ed  m 


sm  VI  N  N«  U  Si 

be^Me.  Hit  «wn  copies  of  tbese4>ooks,^ii)ied  wkhdiejiife*^ 
tikOBi  care^aad  neatness,  are  now  in  sir  Jamea  Smith's  library^ 
LiiKDssns's  literary  reputation,  therefore,  aoade  so  little  pro^ 
gfess^  that  his  tutors  having  •pronounced  him  a  dance,  fa»: 
ifould  probably  have  been  put  to  iKiine  handicraft  tradOf 
bed  not  Dr.  Rotlunann,  the  lecturer  on  natural  philosof^yy 
taken  him  into  his  own  house,  with  a  view,  to  the  study  of 
|ihyncy  and  given  him  a  private  course  of  instruction  kk 
fbysialogy.  He  first  suggested  to  LinnaBUS  the  true  priu*' 
eipie^  upon  which  botany  ought  .to  be  studied,  founded  on 
Ihs  parts  of  fructification,  and  put  the  system  of  Tpurnen 
{art  into  his  hands,  in  the  knowledge  of  which  he  made  a 
flapid  progress. 

-  In  1727  LinnsBus  was  matriculated  at  the:  university  of 
Lund,  and  devoted  himself  to  the  suidy  of  medicine.  He 
lodged  at  the  house,  of  a  physician,  Dr»  Stobaeus,  and 
having  acoesp  to  a  library^  and  museum  of  natural  history^ 
wab  indefatigablein  his  application,  and  Stobss^s  being  infirm 
inheidthand  sfurits,  Linnasus  was  eUowed  occa^jionally  4o 
leUeve  him  from  the  labours  of  his  profession,  and  soeo.be* 
eaone  a  great  favourite.  In  the  ensuing  summer  be  passed 
Hhe  vacation  under  his  paternal  roof,  and  jneeting^  there 
with  his  foroser  patnoU'  Bothmann,  by  his  advice  he  quitted 
Lund  for  Upsal,  as  a  superior  school  of  medicine  and  ha- 
tany;  But  in  this  situation,  owing  to  his  father's  poverty, 
he  waa  reduced  to  grant  necessity,  and  although  he  csxaie 
well  reconunended,  could  only  obtun  a  royal  scholarship, 
which  was  so  insuificient  for  his  maintenance,  that  he  often 
wanted  the  necessaries  of  life.  He  nevertheless  studied 
with  great  persererance,  and  at  last,  in  1729,  obtained  a 
fibenu  patron  in  Dr.  Oknis  Celsius,  professor  of  dimity, 
who  met  htm  by  chance  in  that  acsdemic  i^den,  the  fame 
•f  which  he  was  destined  to  immortalise.  I>c.  Celsius 
discorering  hia  merit,  took  him  under  bis  protection,!  and 
aoon  leeommended  him  to  pupils,  by  which  ooeasure  his 
finances  were  improved. 

-  While  under  the  roof  of  Dr.  Ce}riusy  he  aaet  wHh  a  rer 
view,  of  Vaillant's  treatise  on  the  sexes  of  plants,,  which 

'  first  led  him  to  consider  the  importanci&  and  vaisioua  forma* 
tion  of  the  staaaeas  and  pistik,  and  thence  to  form  a  «ew 
acheme  of  arrangement  fi>dnded  on  those  essential  organs. 
He  drew  up  an  essay  in  opposition  to  the  librarian  of  the 
university,  who  had  publiriied  a  work  ^f  De  nuptiis  filen* 
tssnanV*  and  thU  performance  beia|(  iq^iuroTal  both  by 


L  I  N  N  £  U  S.  im 

Cdsiuft  and.  Kodbeck,  led  thf  way  to  bis  being  a^ppoliHe^ 
in  1730  to  lecture  in  the  botanic  g«jrdeo»  as  an  aAsi^taajt 
to  Rudbeck.  He  was  also  taken  into  Eudbeck's  bouse  ag. 
tntor  to  his  younger  children,  and  his  leisure  time  was  em- 
ployed  on  some  of  those  botanical  works  which  be  after** 
wards  ^published  in  Holland  during  bis  stay  there* 

The  frequent  cooyersations  bf  Rudbeck,  concerning  die 
natural  history  of  Laplaiid,  and  the  curiosities  be  bad  se^ 
ibere^  t^scited  an  ieresis^ble  desire  in  Linmeus  to  visit  th^ 
saaie  eouotry*    To  this  he  was  perhaps  the  more  imme* 
diately  prom|>ted  by  some  little  circumstances  which  made 
bis  residence  at  Upsal  uncomfortable.    These  were,  the 
jealousy  of  Dr»  Rosen^  who  was  ambitious  of  sucoeedie^ 
Rudbeek  whenever  his  professorships  should  become  va* 
eant,  ai?d  who  by  his  success  as  the  only  practising  pbyip 
sician  at  Upsal,  was  likely  to  prove  a  formidable  rival ;  ai 
well  as  some  domestic  chagrin,  which  be  thus  relates: 
^'  The  faithless  wife  of  the  librarian  Norrelius  lived  at  tbii 
lime  in  Rudbeck*s  bouse*  and  by  her  Linneeus  was  made 
so  odious  to  his  patroness,  that  he  could  no  longer  jsttajr 
there/'     In  the  end  of  1 7  ^  1 ,  be  retired  to  bis  native  place» 
and  soon  received,  from  the  academy  of  sciences  at  Upsal^ 
an  appKHmment  to  travel  tbi^ugh  Lapiand,   under  tbe 
royal  authority,  and  at  the  expence  of  the  academy*    He 
accordingly  set  out  from  Upsal,  May  1 2th,  on  this  expe* 
dition ;  and  after  visiting  the  Lapland  Alps  on  foot,  and 
descending  to  the  coast  of  Norway,  of  which  be  has  given 
a  most  picturesque  and  striking  description,  returned  by 
Tornea,  and  the  east  side  of  tbe  Bothoian  gulpb,  to  Abo, 
and  so  to  Upsal,  which  he  reached  on  tbe  iOth  of  October, 
having  performed  a  journey  of  near  4000  JCngUsh  miles^ 
^he  particulars  of  his  interesting  expedition  have  lately 
^een  given  to  tbe  public,  in  an  English  translation  of  the 
original  joui^ey  written    on    the   spot,  aUustrated  with 
wooden  cttts  from  his  own  sketches,  making  two  octavo 
volumes. 

,  Having Jeamed  the  art  of  assaying  metals  d  uriog  ten  days* 
residence  at  the  mines  of  Bi(»rknas,  near  Calix,  in  tbe  course 
of  Juis  tour,  he  next  year  gave  a  private  course  of  lectures 
'pm  that  subject,  which  had  never  been  taught  at  Upsal  be« 
fern.  Tbe  jealousy  of  Rosen,  however,  still  pursued  b^m  ; 
and^this  rival  descended  so  low  as  to  procure,  partly  by,  in* 
treaties,  partly  by  threats,  the  loan  of  bis  manuscript  lee* 
tares  ion  botany)  fbich  Linnsenv  dented  him  in  surrepti* 


tious!y  copying.  RosTen  bad  taken  by  tbc  hand  a  younjj 
man  named  Wallerius,  who  aftenrards  becjame  a  distibi 
^uished  mineralogist^  itnd  for  whom  be  now  'procured,  ill 
opposition  to  Linnaeus,  die  new  place  of  adjunct,  orassisti^ 
^ant,  in  the  medical  faculty  at  Lund.  But  the  basest  actiokl 
of  Rosen,  and  which  proved  envy  to  be  the  sole  source  t>f  hti 
conduct,  was,  he  obtained,  through  the  archbisbop^s  means, 
an  order  from  the  chancellor  to  prevent  all  private  medical 
lectures  in  the  university.  Linnaeiis,  deprived  of  his  oolf 
means  of  subsistence,  is  said  to  have  been  so  exasperated 
as  to  have  drawn  his  sword  upon  Rosen,  an  affirpnt  with 
which  the  latter  chose  to  put  up ;  and  Linnseus,  after  hav^ 
ing  for  some  time  indulged  feelings  of  passionate  reseats; 
ment,  entirely  subdued  these;  and  Rosen,  towards  the  close 
of  his  life,  was  g)ad  of  the  medical  aid  of  the  man  he  bad 
in  vain  endeavoured  to  crush. 

Disappointed  in  his  views  of  medical  advancement,  Lin* 
ns&us  turned  his  thoughts  more  immediately  to  the  subject 
of  mineralogy.     In  the  end  of  1733,  be  had  visited  some 
of  the  principal  mines  of  Sweden,  and  had  been  introduced 
to  baron  Reuterholm,  governor  of  the  province  of  Dalarnesj: 
or  Dalecarlia,  resident  at  Fahlun,  at  whose  persuasion  and 
ezpence^he  travelled  through  the  eastern  part  of  Dale^ 
carlia,  accompanied  by  seven  of  his  ablest  pupils,  a  jonrnal 
of  which  tour  exists  in  his  library.     At  Fahlun  he  gave  a. 
course  of  lectures  on  the  art  of  assaying,  which  was  nome^^  • 
rously  attended ;  and  here  he  first  became  acquainted  with  * 
Browallius,  then  chaplain  to  the  governor,  afterwards  bishop ' 
of  Abo,  who  advised  him  to  take  his  doctor^  degree,  in" 
order  to  pursue  the  practice  of  physic,  and  further  recom-^ 
mended  him  to  aim  at  some  advantageous  matrimonial  con- 
nection.    In  pursuit  of  the  first  part  of  this  advice,:  Lin^ 
ns?usi   having  scraped  together  about  15/.  sterling,  no#< 
entered  on  his  travels,  with  a  view  of  obtaining  his  degree 
at  the  cheapest  university  he  could  find,  and  of  seeing  as 
much  of  the  learned  world  as  his  chances  and  means  might 
enable  him.  to  do.     Id  the  beginning  of  1735 -he  set  out, 
a.t]d  after  a  short  stay  at  Hamburgh  and  Amsterdam,  -  bd 
{nroceeded  to  Harderwyck,  where,  having  ofFerefdhiBnaelf 
^  a  candidate,  and  undergone  the  requisite  examinations^ 
he  obtained  his  degree  June  23.    On  this  occasion  he  p«b* 
lisbed  and  defended  a  thesis,  entitled  "  Hypoihests  xt&fk 
de  Febrium  Intermittentium  Caus&,"  in  the  dedication  ^f  ^ 
which)  to  bis  <<  Ma^xenates  etPatrones,"  it  i»«emiNrkab(4  ' 


LIN  N'JE  U  S:  ^99 

tbat^  among  the  names  of  Rudbeck,  Hothmann,  Stobseusv 
MorsBus^  &c;  we  find  that  of  Rosen.    The  hypothesis  here 
ftdvaisoedy  most  correctly  so  denominated,  is  truly  Boer- 
Imxmn.     Intermitting  ferers  are  supposed  to  be  owing  to 
fine  particles  of  clay,  taken  in  with  the  food,  and  lodged 
ift  the  terminations  of  the  arterial  system,  where  they  cause 
the  symptoms  of  the  disorder  in  question. 
f'In<  Holland  Linnaeus  became  acquainted  with  Dr.  John 
Frederick  Gronovius,  who  assisted  him  in  publishing  thd 
first  edition  of  the  celebrated  *'  Systema  Nattirse,*''consist« 
ihg  of  eight  large  sheets,  in  the  form  of  tables ;  which' 
edition  is  now  a  great  bibliothecal  curiosity.     He  also  pro- 
enred  access  to  the  illustrious  Boerhaave,  who  encouraged 
Inm  to  remain  in  Holland  ;  but  this  advice  could  scarcely 
kaye  been  followed,  had  he  not  met  with  a  patron  in  Bur- 
roann,  of  Amsterdam,  who  was  then  preparing  his  "  The- 
saurus 2eylanicus,''  and  who  received  Linnaeus  into  his 
house  as  his  guest  for  some  months,  during  which  period   , 
be  printed  his  ^^Fundamenta  Botanica,''  a  small  8vo,  which 
dontains  the  very  essence  of  botany,  and  has  never  been 
superseded  or  refuted.     After  he  had  been  a  few  months 
under  BnrmaTtn's  roof,  he  was  introduced  by  Boerhaavie  to 
Mr.  George  Clifford,  an  opulent  banker,  tvho  had  a  capital 
garden  at  Hartecattip,  and  invited  Linnaeus  to  superintertd 
it.     This  situation,  which  he  acceptied,  appears  to  have 
been  in  all  respects  agreeable  and  profitable  to  his  studies, 
aod^iere  he  wrote  and  printed  his  *^  Flora  Lapponica.'*    In 
1796^  after  having  written  his  "  Musa  Cliffortiana,*'  Lin- 
lUBus  was  sent  by  Mr.  Clifford  to  England,  and  was  intro- 
duced to  the  lovers  and  teachers  of  natural  science  at  Ox- 
ford and .  London,  Shaw,  Martyn,  Miller,  and  Collinson^ 
&c.     They  admired  his  genius,  and  valued  his  friendship, 
Md  supplied  him  with' books  and  plants,  both  for  his  own 
herbarium,  and  the  garden  of  his  patron  at  Hartecamp. 
'^On  bis  return  to  Holland,  he  continued  the  impression 
atins^^  Genera  Plantarum,"  which  appeared  in  1737.     In 
Oct.  1736,  he  was  made  a  member  of  the  imperial  academy 
Natura  Curwsorum^  by  the  title,  according  to  the  custom 
of  that  body,  of  "  Dioscorides  Secundus."     He  printed 
almoin  1737,  the  **  Viridarium  ClifFortiaiium,"  an  8vo  cata- 
logtie  of  his  friend's  garden,  disposed  according  to  his  own 
se^raal  system,  of  which  he  published,  later  in  the  same 
year,   at  Leyden^   an  exemplification  under  the  title  of 
^^Metbedns  "Sexualis,-  in  which  all  the  known  genera  of 


300  L  I  N  N  JE  U  S. 

plants  are  so  aminged  by  name  only.    Tbia  year  also  bd 

; reduced  his  magnificeDt  ^'  Hortjas  ClifFortiaous/'  folio* 
'bis  splendid  voluine»  wbicb  was  priated  by  Mr.  Clifford 
ooly  for  private  distribution^  -  was  begun  and  finished  io 
sine  mouths.  In  the  same  year  Linnasus  wrote  and  pub- 
lished bis  *^  Critica  Botanica/*  a  sequel  to  part  of  the 
^'  Fundamenta  ;*'  but  these  labours,  and  perhaps  the  tur  of 
Holland  not  agreeing  with  bis  health,  be  lefttbe  hospitable 
roof  of  Mr.  Clifford,  and  for  a  while  assisted  professor 
Adrian  Van  Roy  en  at  Ley  den  in  the  garden  there,  aad 
about  the  same  time  printed  the  ^'  Classes  Plantarum,''  a 
view  of  all  the  botanical  systems  ever  known.  Here  also 
lie  published  his  friend  Artedi's  "  Ichthyologia." .  (See 
Abteoi). 

LiunsBus  remained  at  Leyden  till  the  spring  of  1738^ 
when  be  bad  an  interesting  interview  with  the  great  Boer- 
haave,  then  on  his  deatb«bed«  Linnseus's  departure,  how- 
ever, from  Leyden,  was  prevented  by  a  very  fonaidable 
intermittent  fever.  The  skill  of  Van  Swieten,  and  the 
renewed  attentions  of  the  amiable  Clifford,  who  veceived 
bim  again  under  his  roof  with  the  most  liberal  and  indul* 
geot  kindness,  after  soipe  weeks  restored  him  so  far,  that 
he  was  able,  though  still  weak,  to  set  out  on  his  journeys 
carrying  with  him  an  introductory  letter  from  Van  Roy^sn 
to  Anthony  de  Jussieu,  the  physician,  who  made  him  aor 
quainted  with  bis  brother,  the  famous  Bernard  de  Jussieu* 
He  inspected  the  botanic  garden,  the  herbariums  of  Tourne- 
fort,  Vaillant,  the  Jussieus,  &c. ;  visited  the  ueigbbour- 
bood  of  Fontainbleau,  formed  an  acquaintance  wi£  Reai^ 
mur  and  other  distinguished  naturalists,  and  was  admitted 
a  corresponding  member  of  the  academy  of  sciences. 

How  be  conversed  with  Reaumur  and  others,  who  knew 
no  language  but  their  own,  and  how  he  contracted  so  clcpa 
a  friendship  with  Mr.  CoUinson  at  London,  it  is  not  easy  to 
conceive.  He  confesses  a  peculiar  inaptitude,  and  cer- 
tainly a  blameable  indifference,  for  the  learning  ef  lai|^ 
guages,  declaring  in  his  diary  that  in  all  his  tiayeis  be 
learnt ''  neither  English,  French,  German,  Laplandisby  npr 
even  Dutch,  though  he  stayed  in  Holland  three  whole  yeaok 
Nevertheless,  be  found  bis  way  every  where,  well  and  hap- 
pily." By  the  journal  of  bis  Lapland  tour,  and  other  ma- 
nuscripts, it  appears  that  Latin  was  sufficiently  familiar  to 
him ;  and  as  some  fastidious  critics  have  censured  the  style 
of  the  '^  Amoeniutes  Academicse^*'  it  is  fair  to  remark  that 


L  I  N  N  -iE  U  S.  301 

idke  essays  which  compose  those  volames  are  chiefly  writteti 
by  the  pupils  whose  inaugural  dissertations  thev  were,  and 
4are  therefore  ifljnproperly  quoted  as  the  works  of  our  author. 
-    After  leaving  Paris,  Linnsus  took  his  passage  at  Rouen 
fer  Sweden,  and  landed  at  Helsingborg,  from  whence  he 
proceeded  to  Fahlun,  visiting  his  father  for  a  few  days  th. 
hk  way.     His  reception  from  the  lady  of  his  choice,  the 
■daughter  of  Dr.  Morseus,  a  physician  of  the  place,  wis 
'faTOorable,  and  they  were  formally  betrothed  to  each  oth^f, 
hot  it  was  necessary  that  some  prospect  of  an  advantageonii 
establishment  should  be  discovered.    The  scientific  merits  ^ 
of  Linne&us  were  not  overlooked,  as  be  was  unanimously 
chosen  a  member  of  the  Upsal  academy,  the  only  one  then 
in  Sweden ;   yet  the  homage  he  had  so  lately  received 
abroad,  seems  to  have  made  him  a  little  unreasonable  on 
this  head,  and  he  declares  that  he  would  certainly  have 
quitted  his  native  country,  '*<  had  he  not  been  in  love/*  To 
this  all*powerful  deity,  therefore,  and  not  to  his  merits,  tit 
io  the  wisdom  of  his  countrymen  in  discerning  them,  was 
Sweden,  in  the  first  instance,  indebted  for  the  possession 
of  her  Linnseus.  After  passing  the  winter  of  1738  in  Stock-* 
holm,  he  began  to  make  his  way  in  medical  practice,  so 
dMit  by  the  following  March  he  had  considerable  employ- 
slient '  At  this  time  a  plan  was  formed  for  establishing  a 
^erary  society  at  Stockholm,    which  afterwards'  rose  r to 
great  eminence.     Triewald,  Hapken,  and  Alstroem  (whose 
finnily  was  ennobled  by  the  name  of  Alstroemer),  were,  ^vith 
Linnseus,  the  first  members :  and  the  infant  society,  being 
incorporated  by  royal  authority,  was  augmented  with  all 
the  most  learned  men  of  the  country. 

A  most  flattering  mark  of  public  approbation  was^  soon 
sUter,    conferred    on   Linnaeus,    without  any  solicitation. 
Ckmnt  Tessin,  marshal  of  the  Diet,  which  was  then  sitting, 
gave  him  an  annual  pension  of  200  ducats  from  the  board 
of  mines,  on  condition  of  his  giving  public  lectures  on 
botafiy  and  nuneralogy  at  Stockholm.   The  same  nobleman 
also  obtained  for  him  the  appointment  of  pbysiQian  to  the 
Havy,  and  received  him  into  his  house.     His  practice  now 
Increased'  greatly  among  the  nobility,  and  be  found  himself 
in  so  prosperous  a  condition  that  he  would  no  longer  delay 
%u  marriage,  which  took  place  at  Fahlun,  June  26/  17S^. 
After  a  month  he  returned  to  Stockholm.     He  Wasr,  by  lot, 
the  first  prettd:ent  of  the  new  academy ;  and  as  that  office 
was  to  be  but  of  three  months'  dutationr,  after  the  French 


302  L  I  HN  M-U  8. 

^ •  ■ ..  •  *  ■ 

.plan,  .he  resigned  it  in  September,  and.  on  that  ocoa$t<li 
delivered  an  oration  in  Swedish,  on  the  wonderful  economy 
of  insects,  which  was  printed  in  the  Transactions  ;. end  « 
Latin  version  of  it  may  be  found  in  the  ^' Amcsnitates  Aeade-' 
micffi,"  V.  2.  His  example  was  followed  by  all  the  sud^ed-^^ 
ing  presidents. 

The  death  of  professor  Rudbeck  in  1740,  gave  Litmmu» 
.a  hope  of  succeeding  to  the  botanical  chair  at  Upsal,  ooie 
of  the  greatest  objects  of  his  ambition.  The  prior  claims^  oif 
his  former  rival,  Rosen,  on  account  of  iiis  standing  in  ^he 
university,  could  not,  however,  be  set  aside.  Wallerinsako 
.rpsje  up  in  opppsition  to  the  claims  of  Linnaus.  It  hap<- 
pened,  however,  that  Roberg  resigned  the  professorship  of 
physic  about  this  time,  and  by  the  exertions  of  count  Tes- 
sin,  a  compromise  took  place.  Rosen  obtained  the  pfi>^ 
fessor$hip  of  botany,  aud  Linos^s  that  of  medicine^  aifd 
these  two  afterwards  divided  their  official  duties  between 
,theip,  so  as  best  to.  suit  the  talents  of  each.  > 

In  1741  Linnaeus  received  an  order  to  travel  tlirongh^ 
iEIand,  Gothland,  &c.  for  the  purpose  of  investigatifrg  the 
natural  history  and  produce  of  those  countries.  >  O&lhis 
he  spent  four  months,  accompanied  by  six  of  his  pufUts, 
and  published  an  account  of  it  at  Stockholm  in  1745.  Be« 
fore  he  began. his  lectures  at  Upi^al,  to  which  place  he  ^re^^' 
moved  in  the  autumn,  be  delivered  a  Latin  oratioii.  ^^  On 
the  benefit  of  travelling  in  one's  own  country,^'  which  is 
translated  by  Mr.  Stillingfieet  in  his  miscellaneous  tracts* 
In  1742  he  undertook  the. reform  of  the  Upsal  garden^ 
which  in  the  following  year  was  put  in  a  staite  to  receive 
those  many  exotics  which  his  extensive  foreign  correspond^ 
.ence  procured*  In  1745  he  published  his  *^  Flora  Snecica^ 
and  in  1746  his  ^^  Fauna  Suecica;''  the  second  editiona^of 
which  valuable  works  were  enriched  with  many  addi^Mi 
His  reputation  was  now  followed  by  corresponding.  hoT 
hours.  He  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  academy  at  Mont* 
pellier,  and  secretary  to  the  Upsal  academy ;.  a  medal  of 
him  was  struck  in  1746,  and  soon  after  he  received  ,th^ 
rank  and  title  of  Archiater  from  the  king,  and  was  the  only 
Swede  chosen  into  the  new-modelled  academy  of  Berlin; 
He  also  acquired  about  this  time,  what  he  perhaps  valued  a$ 
highly  as  these  honours,  the  herbarium  made  by  HeniMUia 
in  Ceylon,  now  in  the  possession  of  sir  Joseph  Banka* 
From  this  originated  LinnsBUs^s  ^^  Flora  Zeylanica,''  Stock'? 
holm,   1747.    In  1749  appeared  his  ^rMateria  Medica,!; 


b  I .N' N  .£  u  ».  %e» 

YnBtteR  tA  the  same  systematic  and  didai^tie*  style  as  tlie^ 
l^t.pf  his  works.  >  Of  this  numerous  editions  have  beeU: 
publUbed  on  the  continent,  but  none  with  any  additions 
on  corrections  from  the  author  himself,  though  he  left  be-* 
bind  him  copipus  manuscript  notes  on  the  subject.  In  the 
s^me  year  he 'had  a  violent  attack  of  the  gout,  which  en« 
dapgered  his  life ;  and  such  was  his  anxiety  to  promote 
science^  that  he  dictated  from  his  bed-side,  the  manuscript 
of:  his  "  Philosophia  Botanica,"  which  afterwards  received 
his  own  corrections,  and  was  published  in  1751. 

About  this  period  the  queen  of  Sweden,  Louisa  Ulricay 
having  a  taste  for  natural  history,  which  her  royal  consort, 
king  Adolphus  Frederick,  also  patronized,  shewed  muchf 
favour  to  Linnaeus.  He  was  employed  in  arranging  her 
collection  of  insects  and  shells,  in  the  country  palace  of 
Sipotningholm,  or  Ulricksdahl,  add  was  frequently  honoured 
with  thef  company  and  conversation  of  their  majesties, 
during  bis-stttendance  there*  The  queen  interested  her-' 
seJf  in  the  education  of  his  son,  and  promised,  to  send  him 
to  tcavel  through  Europe  at.  her  own  expence.  She  also 
}istened  very  graciously  to  any  recommendation  or  petitiori 
of-.-Linnasus,  in  the  service  of  science.  Linnaeus  devoted 
some  of  his  leisure  time  in  winter,  to  the  arragement  of  his 
friend  count  Tessin's  collection  of  fossils,  at  Stockholm,  of 
which  an  account  in  Latin  and  Swedish,  making  a  small 
folioi  with  plates,  came  out  in  1753.  The  result  of  his 
labours  at  Drotningbolm  was  not  given  to  the  public  till 
17,^4,^  when  his  ^^  Museum  Regime"  appeared,  in  8vo,  be^ 
ingasortof  iVW7W}»i^ of  an  intended  more  splendid  work^^ 
that  was-ruever  ereciited.  His  most  nagniBcent  publica-. 
tiQn  appeared  in  1754,  being  a  large  folio,  entitled  ^*  Mu^^ 
se^m-  Regis  Adolpbi  Frederici,"  comprehending  descrip- 
tions of  Uie  rarer  quadrupeds,  birds,  serpents,  fishes,  &c. 
of  the  king's,  museum,  in  Latin  and  Swedish,  with  plates, 
and  an  excellent  prefece^  which  was  translated  by  Dr.  (now 
sir  James)  Smith,  and  first  printed  in  1786;;;  appearing 
s^aio,  in  a  volume  of  *^  Tracts  relating  to  Natural  History," 
in  179d.t  In  the  mean  time,  Linnaeus  was  preparing  a 
lastijpg^inoaument  of  his  own  talents  and  application,  the 
'^  SpecKes  Plantarum,"  of  which  the  first  edition  was 
{Minted  in  175^,  the; second,  icr  17d^2,<  each  in  two  volumes 
jpyQ4f  ,:The  work  is  tpo.well  known  to  need  any  description^ 
f  nd'Autst  ever  be  iiiemoniJ[>le  for  the  adaptation  of  specific, 
or  a^. they  i^ere  at  fint.c^ll^,- trivial^  names.  .  This  con- 


i€4  1  I  K  N  iE  U  8. 

trivancey  wbicfi  Liniteus  first  tned  m  bis  ^  Piui  SaeeidQ^ 
II  dissertation  printed  in  1749,  extended  to  minerals  in  tali 
^  Musetrm  Tessinianum/'  and  subsequently  to  all  the  dd^ 
partments  of  soologj,  basperbaps  rendered  bis  works  more 
popular  tban  any  one  of  tbeir  merits  besides.  His  speeifie 
differences  were  intended  to  be  used  as  names ;  but  ttieit 
Imavoidable  length  rendering  this  tmpractipable,  and  tbe 
application  of  numeral  figures  to  eaeh  spedies,  in  HitteiPs 
manner,  being  still  more  burtbensome  to  tlie  memorj,-  ril 
.  natural  science  would  have  been  rained  for  want  of  a^eoiB^ 
Kaon  language,  were  it  not  for  this  simple  and  bappjr  in- 
vention. By  this  means  we  speak  of  every  natural  pib* 
duction  in  two  words,  its  getieric  and  its  specific  name.  No 
ambiguous  comparisons  or  references  are  wanted,  no  pre* 
supposition  of  any  thing  already  known.  The  pbiiosophi-^ 
eal  tribe  of  naturalists,  for  so  they  are  called  by  themsebes 
and  their  admirers,  do  not  therefore  depreciate  Lisnsetu; 
when  they  call  him  a  nomendator. .  Whatever-  may  ham 
been  thought  of  the  Linns^n  trivial  nanies  at  their  firat 
appearance^  they  are  now  in  universal  use,  and 'their  prtft*^ 
eiple  has  been,  with  the  greatest  advantage^  extended  to 
chemistry,  of  which  the  celebiated  Bergman^  the  friend 
of  LinnsKus,  originally  set  the  example. 

These  Herculean '  literary  labours,  combined  with  die 
practice  of  physic,  were  more  than  the  bodily  conslitution 
of  Linnseus  could  support  He  was  attacked  with  the  stone» 
and  bad  also,  from  time  to  time,-  returns  of  gouf,  bttthe 
considered  the  wood  strawberry  as  a  specific  for  both-  dis« 
orders,  and  they  never  greatly  interfered  with  his  comfort 
or  his  duties.  On  the  27th  of  April,  17^3,  he  received^ 
from  the  hand  of  his  sovereign,  the  orderof  the  Polar  Star, 
an  honour  which  had  never  before  been  conferred  fer4ile^ 
rai^  merit  A  still  more  remarkable  cdmp^^nt  was  'ftid 
him  not  long  after  by  the  king  of  Spain,  who  iavifed'hini 
fo  settle  at  Madrid,  with  the  dFer  of  nobility,  tbe  free  ex^ 
ercise  of  his  religion j  and  a  splendid  botanical  appoint- 
ment This  proposal,  however,  he  declined^  from  tfn  ^* 
tachment  to  his  own  country,  and  in  November  1 756,^  h6 
was  raised  to  the  rank  of  Swedish  nobility,  and-  took  the 
name  of  Von  Linn6.  .     .    •  .  - 

Hie  **  Systema  Natur®^*  had  already  gone  tbrongh^nify* 
editions  in  different  countries.  Its  author  hod,  forsevetd 
years,  a  more  ample  edition  of  the  arrimai  departm^eotJ^ 
contemplation,  on  the  plan  of  his  <^  Species  Plantintfa/ 


flft 


L  I  N  N  jE  U  S:  i03 

ind  tEis  constituted  the  first  volume  of  the  tenth  edition^ 
l^ublished  in  1758.  The  second  volatile,  which  came  oiit 
the  follotving  year,  was  an  epitome  of  the  vegetable  king- 
dom. Thii  skme  work  appeared  still  more  enlarged,  in  sL 
twelfth  edition,  in  1766  :  to  this  the  mineral  kiiigdom  was 
added  in  a  third  volume  on  the  same  plan  with  the  fiirst. 
We  can  readily  pairdon  the  i$elf-complacency  of  its  author, 
when,  in  his  diary  written  for  the  use  of  bis  friend  Me* 
rtan^er,  he  calls  the  **  Systema  Nature**  '<  a  v<rork  to  which 
natural  history  never  hud  a  felldw.''  We  may  venture  t6 
predict,  says  his  learned  biographer,  that  aA  this  was  tbe 
first  performance  of  the  kind,  it  will  certainly  be  the  last; 
the  science  of  natun£il  history  is  now  become  so  vast,  that 
tto  man  can  ever  takie  the  lead  again  as  an  universal  natu- 
ralist 

The  emoluments  of  Linn^us  by  his  various  pliblicationii 
were  not  great,  as  be  is  reported  to  have  sold  the  coplyrighi 
of  most  of  them  for  a  ducat  (about  nine  and  sixpence)  a 
printed  sheet.  Hk  different  appointments,  however,  for 
be  soon  laid  aside  the  general  practice  of  physic,  had 
raised  him  to  a  considerable  degree  of  opulence.  In  1758 
be  purchased  the  estates  of  Hammarley  and  Sofja,  for 
above  2330/.  sterling,  and  having  chosen  the  foiriher  for 
Dfis  country  residence,  be  received  the  visits  of .  distin- 
guished foreigners,  and  admitted  bis  favourite  pupils,  to 
several  of  whom  he  gave  private  courses  of  lectures,  and 
completely  laid  aside  the  state  of  the  nobleman  and  pro- 
fessor while  he  discoursed  with  them  on  bis  favourite  topics. 
In  1760  he  wrote  a  prize  dissertation  on  the  ^^  sexes  df 
plants,''  which  was  published  in  English  in  1786  by  Dr. 
(nowsir  James)  Smith,  the  possessor  of  his  library.  Liri- 
nteus's  patent  of  nobility  did  not  receive  his  majesty's  sign 
manual  till  1761^  though  it  was  antedated  1757.  It  was. 
Confirmed  by  the  Diet  in  1762,  and  he  then  took  a  coslt  of 
arms  expressive  of  the  sciences  which  he  cultivated.  -  He 
became  also  about  the  same  time  one  of  the  eight  fbreign 
members  of  the  French  academy*  of  sciences^  an  honour 
never  before  conferred  on  a  Swede. 

In  1763,  he  was  permitted  to  avail  himself  of  tbe  assist- 
etice  of  his  son,  now  twenty»one  years  of  age,  in  the  bo- 
tanical professorship,  and  the  young  miin  was  thus  trained 
up  for  his  future  successor.  .  In  1764,  the  sixth  edition,  by 
far  the  most  complete,  of  the  "  Genera  Plantarum,"  was 
pttbliAed,  and  be  never  jirepared  another.  It  was  intended 
Vol.  XX.  X 


S0$  L  I  N  N  ;£  U  S. 

as  a  compaD^on  to  tb^  <<  Species  Plaptartmiy^*  but  wa| 
greatly  superseded  by  tbe  more  con(cise  atui  commodious 
Aort  characters  of  genera,  given  in  the  vegeti^ble  part  of 
the  "  Systema  Naturae,'*  published  with  the  titl^  of  "  Sys« 
tema  Veg^tahilium/*  edition  ISth^  in  1774,  and  reprinted 
inrith  additioQS  in  1784. 

Although,  as  a  physician^  luiniueus  appears  to  advaur 
ta^e  ip  bis  ^/Clavis  Medicins**  and, his  ^Genera  Mor* 
borum/*  bis  abilities  are  piore  striking  in  his  classific||t^n 
of  liataml  objectg.     He  eifcelled  in  a  happy  perc^ptioq  of, 
supb  technical  characters  as  brought  together  things  most 
qatu|rally  alUed.   His  lectures  on  the  nati|ral  order  of  plants 
wer^  published  long  after  his  death  in  1793,  at  Hstinburgh, 
and  evince  bis  0eep  consideration  of  a  subject  then  in  the 
infancy  of  cultivation.     In  the  zoological  department,  his 
classincatipQ  of  birds  and  insects  is' the  mpst  original  as 
v^eli  as.  the  best  of  the  whole.*  The  arrangement  pf  fishes 
was  an  original  idea  of  Lirinasus;  and  in  the  arrangement  of 
shells,  he  lias  succeeded  at  least  as  well  s^  any  of  his  felr 
low-labourers ;  though  we  are,  si^s  bis  biographer^  by  no 
,  m^ans  inclined  ip  justify  some  pf  bis  tern^s,  which  are  bor- 
rowed frpm  an  anatoinical  analogy,  not  only  false  in  itself, 
but  tp^ily  exceptiopable.    This  leads  ut^  to  consider  a  ' 
charge^  otttj^  brought  against  this  great  man,  of  pruriency 
of  phraseology  iumaqy  parts  of  bis  works.    The  most  at-  ] 
tentive  conteipplation  of  bis  writings  has  sausfied  us  that! 
ki  s^ch  instances  be  meant  purely  to  be  anatomical  and 
physiological  ;^  and  if  his  fondness  for  philosophical  analo-  ^ 
gi^s  sometimes  led  him  astray,  it  was  not  in  pursuit  of  s^ny 
tiding  to  contaminate  bis  own  mind,  much  less  that  pf  others* 
That  the  mind  of  Linnasus  was  simple  and  cbast^,  as  bis 
morals  were^  con,fessedly  pure,  is  evinced  by  his  Xapland 
TouA  written  only  for  ^^  own  use,  .but  which  is  now,  as.  ^ 
we  have  already  mentioned,  before  the  public.     This,  is 
suc^.a  picture  qf  his  heart  as  will  ever  render  any  justifi* 
catipn..Qf  his  mori^l  cban^acter,  and  any  elabprate  display  of. 
his  reii^io,us  priuciples  or  feelings,  alike  superfhious.     ^ig. 
apparent  vanity,  as  displayed  ^n  his  dia^y^,  pulj^Hsbed  ii^. 
Dr.  Maton^s  valuable  edition  of  ,Dr.  PuUep,ey's  "  View  of 
hi9..Writings,''  is  perhaps  £ar  less  justifiaj^le.     All. we  can,, 
say  for  (lim  is,  that  this  paper  w^s  drawn  up.for  t^e  pse  of^ 
his  intimate  friend  Menande^  as  materials  froni^  vfjaifh  }^w>, 
life  was  to  be. written.     If  it  be  unbecoming,  and  indeed, 
bi^bljr  ridiculous  ill  o^ny  instances,  for  s^  man  t^  spf^a^.M., 


r 


LI  N  N  iE  U  S.  >  3W 

< 

h^  does  of  biaiself,  the  JosliGe  and  aocuraey  of  his  aisei"* 
t^qu^,  had  th^y  come^from  any  other  person,  could  in  no 
cane  be  dUpmedk  < 

As  the  Jiabita  of  LinoeMis  w6ne  temperate  and  regnho^ 
he  retained  liis  health  and  vigour  in  tolerable  pevfection, 
notwithstanding  4be  immense  lidioum  Of  bis  mlnd^  till  b^ 
y(H)d  Jbis  sixtieth  year,  when  his  memory  begin  in  some 
degree,  to  fail  him.  Id  I774>^at  the  age  of  sixty-sc^en, 
an  Mtack  of  apoplexy  greatly  iitipaired  his  consMtitution. 
Two  years  afterwards  a  Second  attack  rendered 'jyitaii^ai^a** 
lytic  on.tfa^  rigfbt  side,  and  materially  afiectedhiifaicirfties. 
The  immediate  caase  of  his  deaths'  which  hapfieibed  J»- 
tiuary  l^th,  1 778,  in  the  seveitty-^fimt  yeat  of  bis  ag#,  was 
tin  liberation  of  the  bladd^.  His  retiaidns  were  d^esited 
in  a  Tadlt  near  the  wesb  en  j  of  the  oatbedral  of  Upsal,  Whar^ 
a  monqment of  Sneedisb  parphynr  was  erecSedliy  his  pt^ila. 
His  obse^ies  were  performed,  in' the  moat  Mspectfulmnn^ 
Der,  by  the  whole,  university^  the -pall'  bdng  aupported  by 
siicteea  doctors  of  physic,  all  of  whom  bad  been  bis  p«qpil^ 
A.general  .mounting  took  plaee4m^  tbe^  eccatoioli  at^  Upsat. 
Hb  >soyereigq^  Gustavus  IIL  oetnmanded  a  uedatto  be 
atcudk^  expressive  of  the  pubHc  id^^  and  iiooont^d  the 
academy  of  soienoeaat  S^pckhohn^  i^Mx  his  presenMKe^  wheA 
the  eulogy  of  this  celebrated  loin^  waajNwaoilticed  tb<0r«  by 
his  ihtimate  friend  fiadk«  A  still  higher  eomplhttent  was 
paid  to  bis  .memojsy  by  tbe  king  in^  a'»sp6#c^  fffom*  ib6 
throne,  whereiiv  bis  oiajesty  puUicly  celebrated  tbe  talenti 
of  his  deceased  subject,'  and  lamented  the  »10ss  whidh  his 
CQUfiJUj^  had  so  rec^eiitly.flmstiiiaed*  Vaiibus  tessiitfoffles  4ji 
respect  were  ^ven.to  the  mecitsof  Linsseos  In  the  different 
pacts  of  Eorope^  eveii  where  rival  systems  or  interests  had 
hereto&re  triamplied  at  Jus  expence*  The  oelebrated 
Condorpet  delivered  an  oration  in^Us  {iraise*to  the'Pa<*> 
risiaoiacadedsy  of  sciences,  which  is  prksted  in  its  mtemeifSk 
We  cannot  wonder  thathk  memory  was  aheriiBh.ed  in  Etig-^ 
famd,  X  where  hp  bad  k>Dg  had  fiuikieroiis  eoreespOfldeMsi 
afid.wheietwpof  his  most  diaun^ished  pU{>fisr  S<^landef 
aad  Piyandar,  iiave^.iin  their  ow»  talents  and  character; 
cooferrod  sengular  faonoar  upon  tbekr  preoeptor.  *  Ten  years 
afiiep  his  decease  a  aew^  society  <tf  naturalists^  distifyguisbcrd 
byolfis  aame^  was  founded  iit  Loddoii,  isnd  has  since  been 
incorporated  by  royal  ebastAr^  whose  pi^Micatibns,  in  ten 
quarto  volumes  of  Transactions,  sufBciendy  evince  that  its. 
ttiembers  are  dot  idle  venerators  of  tbi&  name  they  bissr* 

X  2- 


i 


30»  L  t  N  N  ^  u  a . 

This  tMabf  in  imitation  of  theoii  has  been  adopted  by 
8cv«'al  similar  institutions  in  other  parts  of  the  world. 

The  appellation  of  Linnsan  Society  was^  with  the  more 
propriety,  chosen  by  this  British  institution,  on  account  of 
the  museum  of  Linnssus  having  hHea  into  the  hands  of  sir 

,  James  Smith,  its  original  projector,  and  hitherto  only  pre* 
sident.  .  This  treasure,  comprehending  the  library,  harr 
barium,  insects,  shells,  and  all  other  natural  curiosit^ei; 
with  all  the  manuscripts  and  whole  correspondence  of  the 
illustrious  Swede,  were  obtained  by  private  purchase  firom 
his  widow,  after  the  death  of  his  son  in  1783.  The  autho- 
ri^  which  such  an  acquisition  gave  to  the  labours  of  the 
in&nt  society,  ai  well  as  to  all  botanical  and  zoological 
publication!!^  the  authors  of  which  have  ever  been  allowed 
freely  to  consult.it,  will  readily  be  perceived.  Nothing 
perhaps  could  have  more  contributed  to  raise  up,  or  to 
improve,  a  taste  for  natural  science,  in  any  country. 

Linnseus  bad  by  his  wife  Sarah  Elizabeth,  who  siirvivf  d 

.  to  extreojie  old  .age,  two  sons  and  four  daughters.  His 
eldest  son  Charles  succeeded  him  in  the  bptanicat  prpfes* 
sorship.  Tbejouoger,  John,  died  March?,  1757,  in  the 
third  year,  of  .his  age.  His  eldest  daughter,  Elizabeth 
Christina,  ia  recorded,  as  having  discovered  a  luminous 

.property  in  the  flowers  of  the  nasturtium,  tropaeolum  ma- 
jus,  which  are  sometimes  seen  to  flash  like  sparks  of  fire  in 
the  evening  of  a  warm. summer's  day.  Of  the  other  daugh* 
ters  we  know  nothing  materially  worthy  of  record.  ^ 

LINNjEUS,  or  VON  LINNE'  (Charles),  the  oldest, 
and  only  sunfivipg  son  of  the  preceding,  was  bom  January 
20,  174.1^  at  the  bouse  of  his  maternal  grandfather,  at 
Fahlun.  His  jfather  was  anxiously  desirous  of  his  excelling 
in  natural  history,  more  particularly  botany;,  and  com- 
taitted  him,  when  about  the  age  of  nine  or  ten,  to  the 
more  particular  care  of  some  of  his  own  most  favourite 
pupils^ .  By  theni  be  was  taught  the  names  of  the  plants  in 
the  Upsal  garden,  and  sUcb  of  the  principles  of  natural 
sci^fv^e  as  were  suited  to  his  period  of  life,  as  wdl  as  to 
converse  habitually  ipc  Latin*^    He  appears  to  have  giveit 

.  satisfaction  to  his  father,,  who  procured  for  him,  at  the 
age  of  eighteen,  the  appointment  of  Demonstrator  in  the 
botanic  garden,  an  oflice  then  first  contrived  on  purpose! 
for  him.     Having  learned  .tQ  draw  from  nature,  he  because 

'  ^  Tafe,  by  the  I'resideiit  of  th«  Linnean  fociety,  io  Rees'i  Cyelops^a,  wbkl^ 
f  nperatfiks  tbe  necessity  of  soy  t>tber  rd!«:reoofli»»        '  *    •    - 


. 


L  I  N  N  iE  U  S. 


309 


'  in  Wtitbor  «t  the  age  of  twenty-one,  publishing  in  176^  his 
first  '^  Decas  Plantaitun  Rarionim  Horti  Upsaliensis/'  the 
plates  of  which,  in  outline  only,  wore  drawn  by  his  own 
^hand,  and  are  sufficiently  faithful  and  useful,  if  not  oma* 
'  inentad,  while  the  descriptions  are  full  and  scientific.  In 
1 763  another  ^'  Decas,"  or  collection  of  ten  species,  cam^ 
out  on  the  same  pbm,  but,  for  whatever  reason,  he  printed 
nothore  numbers  under  this  title*  In  1767,  however,  he 
published  at  Leipsic  ten  more  plates  and.  descriptions,  like 
^tbe  above,  entitled  '^Plantarum  Rariorum  .Horti  Upsa- 
liensis  Fasciculus  Primus,'*  but  no  second  fasciculus  ap* 
peared.  In  1763  he  was  nominated  adjunct  professor  of 
botany,  with  a  promise,  hitherto  unexampled,  that  after 
his  father's  death  he  should  succeed  to  all  his  academical 
functions.  In  1765  he  took  hb  de^ee  of  doctor  of  physic, 
and  began  to  give  lectures. 

<  His  progress  would  probably  have  been  happy,  if  not 
briUiaitt,  but  for  the  conduct  of  his  unnatural  mother,  who, 
not  content  with  dbbonouring  her  husband^s  bed^  and 
making  his  home  as  uncomfortable  ns  she  could,  by  the 
meanest  parsimony  and  disgusting  petty  tyranny,  conceived 
a  hatred  for  her  pnly  son,  which  she  displayed  by  every 
Affront  and  persecution  that  her  situation  gave  her  the 
means  of  inflicting  on  bis  susceptible  and  naturally  amiabte 
mind.  According  to  Fabricius, ,  she  forced  her  husband, 
who  by  such  a  concession  surely  partook  largely  of  her 
guilt  and  meanness,  to  procure  the  nomination  of  his  pupil 
Solander  to  be  his  future  successor,  in  preference  >to  his 
own  son;  and  it  was  a  part  of  her  plan  that  he  should  marry 
her  eldest  daughter.  Solander,  how'ever,  disdained  both 
the  usurpation  and  the  bait,  refusing  to  leave  England ; 
fud  the  misguided  father  recovered  his  senses  and  autho- 
rity, causing  his  son,  as  we  have  said  above,  to  receive  this' 
truly  honourable  distinction.  The  mind  and  spirit  of  the 
young  man  nevertheless  still  drooped ;  ao4  even  when  he  had 
attained  his  thirtieth  year,  he  would  gladly  have  escaped 
from  his  miseries  and  bis  hopes  together.  The  authority 
of  the  king  was  obliged  to  be  exerted,  at  his  father's  soli- 
citation, to  prevent  his  going  into  the  army.  This  mea- 
sure of  the  parent  was  happily  followed  up  by  kindness 
and  encouragement  in  his  botanical  pursuits,  to  which 
treatment  the  son  was  ever  sensible^  and  he  revived  from 
his  despondency  before  his  father's  death,  which  happened 
when  be  was  thirty-seven  years  of  age. 


ua  h  IN  N  iE  U  §, 

I  Tbottgk  oiiUged  hy  bis  mother  to  tpiurohaie,  at  her  qwii 
IBriee;  the  library,  .manuaoiiptg,  herbarhjin^  &c.  wbfch  be 
QUgbt  by  etety  tiltle  to  have  iniiorited)  he  rose  above  evety 
knpedbBenty  idnd  betook  himself  to  the  useful  apf^catira 
o£  the  means  now  in  his  hands^  for  hta  own  reputat^  und 
adarancemen^  His  fatbei  hadabeady  prepared  great  psU't 
of  a  tbicd  botanicai  appendcicy  or.  ^^  Mantissa ;"  from  the 
oomnnimGatiops  of  Mutis^  Koenig,  Spsrmann,  Forster^  Pai- 
lasy  and^ibers*  Hence  originated  the  ^*  Supplementani 
Piatitarum/^  printed  at  Brunswiok,  under  the  care  of  Ehiw 
bart  in  1751.  The  ingenious  editovinsefrned  his  own  nev9» 
dhaisaoters  of  some  genera  of  mosses;  which  Hedwig  baa 
fiince  confirmed^  except  that  some  of  the  names  have  bfBeif 
justly  rejected.  This  sheet  was,  in  an  eril  iHiur,  sxxp^ 
P«esse4  by  the  mandate  of  Lina^s-from  Loodou,  wbereg 
at  that  period,  the  subject  of  generic  charactersof  mossea 
wa5  nei^er  studied  nor  understood,  whatever  superior 
kiiowledge  was'  displayed  oonceming  their  species.  Th^ 
pknts  of  the  -^^  Supplementam''  are  admitted  into  die 
feuTteenth  edition  of  the  ^'  Syistefioa  Vegetabsliupa''  bf 
Murray,  and  figures  of  some  of  the  most  curious  have  been 
published  by.  sif  J.  Stoiith)  in-iiis'  ^  iptontarum  Icoaeaex 
Herbario  Linmeano^V  Tbree  botanical  dissertations  jj89 
s^peared  under  the:  presidency  of  th^  younger* Linns^D% 
oh'  grasses,  on  tayandula,  ^  and  the  celebrated  Metbodua 
musconnn,  wfaieh-  tastf  ijras  the  work,  and.  the  inaugoraii 
tb^sis,  of  the  present  pr6fe8«or  Swarts  of  Stockholoi. 
Tbeee  Ibrm  a  sequel  to  the  1S6  similar  essays,  which  mosi 
of  them  compose  %he  seven  Tokimes>  of  the  Amoeiiitates 
Academicse,  the  rest  being*  published  by^  ScJirebeE  ia^thBte 
additional  ones. 

r  ^  The  subject  of  our  memoir  had  always  felt  a  aftron|p 
desire  teyisit  the  chief  countries  of  learned  a^  civili^a 
Europe.?  For  this  purpose  be  was  obliged  to  pawn  bis  j«** 
venile  herbaritiVn,  made  from  the  IJpsal  garden,  to  bis 
friend  Alstroemer,  for  the  loan  of  about  fifty  or  Hs^tf 
pounds.  He  arrived  at  London  in  May  17-Bl,  and  ^ was- 
received  with  enthusiasm  by  the  surviving  friends  and[^edr«» 
respondents  of  his  father,  and  was  in  a  maufner  dbmesvi* 
cated  under  the  roof  of  sir  Joseph  Banks,  whose  6iend^ 
ship,  kindness,  and  liberality  eould  not  be  exceeded; 
neither  couJd  they  have  been  by  any  one  more  gratefully 
rQcetved.  Here  the  ardent  Swedish' risitor;  bc^  every,  as- 
sistance for  the  preparation  of  several  works  oft*  wlftich  t^ 


tfns  rni^t,  as  a  system  of  thi  mahbkiMffil,  ^  hdimicA 
ireat&e  or  the  lily  and  and  pahnf  triV¥iy  itbd  riev^  edft?6i/| 
6f  several  of  hk  fathered  st^nclaM  hddki:  Noncf  of  tttesi^, 
however,  have  yet  been  printed.  Arf  attack  of  the  j^n- 
dtce  rendered  hatf  his  stay  in  England  uncomfortable  aii 
well  as  useless  to  bim.  He  proc^dM  to  Ptfris  in  the  lUMi 
end  of  August  1781,  accompanied  by  tb^  Mriabfe'and 
celebrated  BroUssonet,  with  whom  he  became  acquainted 
M  London.  His  reception  in  FhMce  wa^  nbtf  h^  fhtterin^ 
thaty  what  he  had  expefreneed  m  England.  The  ne:^ 
place  in  which  he  made  a  Ay  litay  #as  Hamburgh-,  wher^ 
several  of  his  own  friends  were  akeady  seMi^d  ;  and  fi^oni 
hence  be  returned  by  Copenhilgen  and  Stockholm,  visiting 
hfs  friend  l*abrictus  at  Kiel,  and  his  pfttron  baroii  AFstroe- 
zAidr  at  Gottenburgb,  finally  arriving^  at  Upsal  in  Feb.  178S. 
But  hitr  career  was  cut  short  by  a  bil^bus  fi^er,  followed  by 
iipdplexy,  Noir.  1,  1789',  in  the  forty-second  year  of  his 
age.  Bodied  veijr  much  respected  and  lamented.  His 
museum  and  library  reveited  to  his  mother  and  sisters,  a^ 
he  had  never  beleh  married,  aild  #ere'  purchased  By  sii^ 
Jambs  SMith. ' 

LKyPARl>  (John  StepAbn);  ^  pklntei^;  daHed  fVofar  hi^ 
dfestt  ••  th^  Turk,"  was  borii  at  Gbnevi^  in*  1702^.  He 
fremf  td^  F^ris  to  study  in  1 72^,  and  thence^  a6cbm^anied 
the  miitquis  di^  Pdi^ieux  to  Ronve,  Where  the  ^drl^  of 
SiftridWieh  ^A  Blisboro'ugH'  engsig^  Him^  td  accooipah^ 
tHem  tb  Constantinople.  There^  he  became  ac^uattiti^d 
wfth'sir  Bferard*FaWkener,  our  ainbassadof,  who  perstiifded 
him  to  coik)6  td  England;  where  he  remaitied  two  y^aiV. 
f  paihtied  aUnliHibfy  in  miniaturi^,'  and  in  'edamel;  though 
BC>ldotii  pni^^tised'  the"  lakt,  butf  he"  is  be^t  kubv^n  by  his 
cn^tis.  The  earls'  of  Harrington  arid  Besborough  have 
sofiie  ot  his  tAo9t  capital  works.  His  pbrtraits,  boireV^i', 
were  so  e^aCt  as  to  displease  those  whasa:t  to  him,  for  he 
iMhr^r  coiild'  coitcctvte  the  absence  of  any  imperfection  or 
nwC  iff  this  fabci  that  presented  itself.  S'ucH  a  man  could 
ifot'  be' Ibug*  a  ftvdiirite,  arid  therdbre,  according  to  lord 
Orfofd,  aMiough  be  h^d-  grea^  btksiness  the  first  year,  he 
had  v^^  liMe  the  secof^l^  and  went  abroad:  It  is  istaid  that 
ht  bwcfdmuch  of  hisr ^clouragemeht  io  his  diakiiHg hiifls^ff 
Miispicudus  by  adopting'  the  manners  and'  babitb  of  thd 

1  Reet'f  Cyclop9di»— FaneralontioB  for  bin  inTirapp^s  edition  of  StoeTer's 
lik  ot  LiftiUBas. 


312  L  I  O  T  A  R  !]►. 

Levant     He  came  to  England  again  in  1772,  and  brooglif   ' 
a.  collection  of  pictures  of  different  masters^  which  he  sold 
by  auction  ;  and  somie  piec<^s  of  glass  painted  by  himself 
with  surprizing  effect  of  light  and  shade,  but  more  curioa$ 
than  useful,  as  it  was  necessary  to  darken  the  room  before  / 
they  could  b^  seei^  to  advantage.     He  staid  two  years  like- 
wi|e  on  this  visjt.     He  went  to  th^  continent  afterwards, 
but  we  find  no  account  qi  his  death.     He  carried  his  love 
of  truth  with  him  on  all  occasions ;  and  we  are  told  that  bX 
Venice  and  Milaui  and  probably  elsewhere,  a\l  but  first- 
rate  beauties  were  afraid  to  sit  to  him,  and  he  wopld  havei 
starved  if  he  had  not  so  often  found  customers  ^q  wer^  of 
opinion  that  they  belonged  to  that  class. ' 

LIPENIUS  (Martin),  a  learned  German  divine,  lya^ 
born  Nov.  1 1,  1630,'  at  Goritz  in  JBrandenburgh,  and  stu^ 
died  at  the  schools  of  Brandenbiirgh  and  Ruppin,  whence 
be  went  to  Stetin,  and  made  great  progress  in  his  studies 
under  Micrelius  and  other  eminent  professors  of  that  col- 
lege.    In  1651  he  studied  philosophy  and  divinity  at  Wit- 
temberg,  and  after  two  y^ars  residence  was  admitted  tq 
the  degree  of  master  of  arts.     He  had  now  some  advan- 
tageous oifiprs  of  settlement  in  other  places,  but  he  could 
not  bring  himself  to  quit  an  university  wbene  he  was  so 
likely  to  add  to  his  stores  of  knowledge.    At  lengthy,  how^ 
ever,  in  1659,  he  accepted  the  ofiice  of  corrector  at  Hallci^ 
ijrhich  he  retained  until  1672,  when  he  was  appointed  rec- 
tor and  professor  in  the  Caroline  college  at  Stetin.     This 
be  quitted  in  1676,  and  accepted  the  office  of  corrector  at 
Lcubeck,  where  he  died,  Noy.  6,  1692,  nforn  out,  as  Ni- 
ceron  informs  us,  by  labour,  chagrin,  and  ^i^^^^*     ^^ 
works  a^e  ye^y  numerous,  consisting  of  disputations,  efoges, 
and^  other  academics^l  productions  j  b\it  be  is  now  princi- 
pally known  by  his  **  Bibliotheca  realis  Th^ologica,"  Franc-^ 
fort,  1685,  2  vols.;  "  Biblioth.  Juridica^'Mb.  1679  ;  "Bibl. 
.   Philosopbica/  ibid.  1682  3  and  ff  Bibliot^.  Medica,''  ibid. 
1679,  making  in. all  si^  folio  volumes,  containing  an  ac- 
count of  works  published  in  each  of  these  departments. 
The  ^^  Bibl.  Juridical'  was  reprinted  at  Leipsic  in  1757^ 
2  vols,  and  corrections  and  a  supplement  were  published 
by  Aug.  Fr.  Scott,  in  1775  ;  another  supplement  was  pub- 
lished by  Senkenberg  in  1789,  making  in  all  four  volume^ 
.  .  ,f  . 

t  Walpole's  AD««lotefl.-.Dict.  ^t8t 


H  P  P  L  Hi 

foUOi .  jBAojchoff  speaks  favourably  of  tlie  original  work^  and 
^IB  ^  BibU  Juridical'  is  doubtless  greatly  improved.  * 

LiPPI  (Fra.  FaiPPO),  an  eminent .  historical  paiixter,. 
y99s  born  at  Florence,  probably  about  the  beginning  of  the 
fifteenth  century^  as  he  was  a  scholar  qf,  and  of  course 
pearly  contemporary  with,  Masss^ocip.     At:  the  age  of  six- 
teen, being  entered  a  noviciatie  in  the  convent  of  Carme- 
lites at  Florence,  be  had  there  an  opportunity  of  i^eeing 
that  extraordinary  artist  at  work  uppq  the  astonishing  fres-* 
cbes  \vi|h  which  be  adojrned  the  chapel  of  ^ri^ncacci,  in  the 
pburch  there ;  and  being  eager  to  embr^ice  (he  an,  such 
was  his  success,  that  after  the  death  of  his  master,  U  .^^. 
said>  by  common  consent,  that  the  soul  of  Massaccio  still 
abode  with  Fra.  Filippo.     He  now  forsook  the  habit  of  bia 
<:bnvent,  and  devoted  himself  entirely  to  punting ;  but  his 
studies  were  for  a  time  disturbed  by  his  being  unfortunately 
takeuy  while  out  on  a  party  of  pleasure,  by  some  Moors, 
^nd  carried  prisoner  to  Barbary ;  where  he  remained  in 
slavery  eighteen  months.     But  having  drawn,  with  a  piece, 
pf  charcoal,  the  portrait  of  his  master  upon  a  wall,  the 
latter  was  so  affected  hf  the  novelty  of  the  performance, 
and  its  exact  resemblance,  that,  after  exacting  a  few  more 
specimens  of  his  art,  he  generously  restored  him  to  his 
liberty.     On  bis  return  home  he  painted  some  works  for 
Alphonso,  king  of  Calabria.     He  employed  himself  also  in 
Padua ;  but  it  was  in  ^is  native  city  of  Florence  that  his 
principal  works  were  performed.     He  was  employed  by 
Ifhe.  grand  duke  Cosmo  di  Medici,  who  presented  bis  pic* 
tures  to  bis  friends;  and  one  to  pope  Eugenius  IV.     He 
was  also  employed  to  adorn  the  palaces  of  the  republic,  the 
phurchesi  and  many  of  the  houses  of  the  principal  citizens ; 
amiong  whom  his  talents  were  held  in  high  estimation.     He 
jvas  the  first  of  the  Florentine  painters  who  attempted  to 
design  figures  as  large  as  life,  and  the  first  who  remarkably 
fiiversifie^  the  draperies,  and  who  gave  his  figures  the  air 
pf  antique?.    It  is  to  be  lamented  that  such  a  man  should 
'^t  last  perish  by  the  consequences  of  a  guilty  amour  he 
indulged  in  at  Spoleto ;  where  he  was  employed  at  the 
cathedral  to  paint  the  chapel  of  the  blessed  virgin.    This 
.  js  differently  told  by  different  writers,  some  saying  that  he 
^educed  a  nun  who  sat  to  him  for  a  model  of  the  virgiD,^ 
and  others  that  the  object  of  his  passion  was  a  iharrieGL 

>  i^riqeroD,  ?ol.  i^lX.— .MorbofltPolyhist— Saxii  OnomasU 


914  L  t  y  t»  t 

woman.  Irr  eithar  eaare,  it  m  eartseitt  tlrtrt  te  wift«  [Sbltofied  bjr 
the  r^iatioffs  of  the  bdjr  wlf ds^  fef ocirs  Ir6  was  sirptidsect  t^ 
itnJ9y.  Lorenza  di  Itfedrrt  etect^  ar  ifittrble  tdmb  hi  the 
eathedral  xo  \A%  nrremofyy  wbiefa  PuMiai^  atdoitiecf  witlri 
LatiiY  epkaptr.  His  son'  Lippi  PiLifl^a,  ws(s  reifov^ed  fot 
excellent  imitattons  of  arcMteeturat  ordamattis.  He  died 
itt  1305,  at  the  age  of  foi^t)  five.  Theife  was  also  a  Fl<s»r€«- 
tin^e  p^nter^  L0KEM20  LfPPi,  bonr  iti  1666,  and  likewise 
a  grestt  musician  and  a'  poet  hi  the  latter  character  be 
jrabfisbed  '^  I(  Mafmawtife  tacqui^tato,^  which  id  comi- 
d^ed  as  a  classical  work  in  the  Tuscan  language".  Rc^  (Hed 
id  ia64.* 

LIPPOMANI  (L^wis),  a  Venetian,  diMidgnisbed  hiDa« 
self  much  at  the  councif  of  Trent,  where  be  stirongfy  op^ 
posed  the  plurality  of  benefices,  add  was  one  of  the  three 
presidents  of  that  council  under  pope  JuUus^  III.  Pad! 
iV.  scfnt  him  into  Poland  as  nuncio  in  1556,  and  aftefwiirds 
appointed  him  his  secretary.  The  sanctity  <A  LippooiadFi 
fife  gained  him  no  less  esteettt  thifcn  bfs  doctrine ;  he  wa^ 
fcisbop  of  Mondonedo,  then  of  Verona,  a^d  aifterwartfe  of 
Bergamo,  and  acquitted  himself  honourably  in  variou^ 
ntinciatures,<  bur  was  jdstly  accused  of  great  cruelties  tO« 
wards  the  Jews  and  ppotestant»  when' in  Poland.  Re  died 
in  1559.  His  works  are,  at  compilation  of  <^  Lives  of  thii^ 
Saints,"^  in  8  vols,  but  httte  valued;  and'  <^  Catena  in  Ge* 
nesim,  in  Cxodum,  etin  aliquot  Psalmos,'*'  2i  volb.  foF.  jtc* 

Ll'PSICJS  (Jostus),  a  very  liearned  critic,  was  born  ai 
Iscb,  a  country-seat  of  his  fother,  betweten  Bruisseis'  ihd 
Lpuvain,  Oct.  )8»  1547.>  HeWasr  descendisd  from  ance^* 
tors  who'  bad  been  ranked  among  the  principal  i^habttadt^ 
of  Brussels.  At  sisr  years  of  age  he  was  sedt  tbtbe  pdblii^ 
school  at  Brussels  add  croon  gave  proo6  of  uncommoa 
pait»:  He  telt^  us  himsdf  in'  one  of  his  lie^tens,  that  he 
acquired  the  French  language^  without  the' assi&taneeof  a' 
master,  so  perfectly  ar  tb  be  abte  tb  write  it  before  he  wai 
eight  yearir  old.  From  Brusselk  he  was  sent,,  at  ten  y^at^ 
old,  to' Aeth  ;  and,  two  years  afiter,  to  Cologne,  where  at 
&e  Jbstiits^' college  he  prosecuted  his  literary  add'pMlbso- 
phicaj.studiies.  Among  the  ancientsr,  he  Ibamed  the  pre- 
cepts of  morality  from  £pictetus  lind  dime64,  and  th^ 
majims  of  civil  prudeuce  fiiom  Tacitd^.    AV  si'&teen,  he 

1  PiIkiDgtpn.----Vaiari.'---Ro8ooe*(i  LorcDzo.'«--Boll«rt's  Academie  des 
▼ol.  I.  s  €t«i(.  Di4itv-^AMreni*->SaiiS?  OttenML 


L  I  P  S  I  U  S.  US 

•  »  -  *  "  »  ' 

wis_9eAl  10  the  mmenity  of  Loufaan;  .$mA  luLving  now 
aequirad  a  knowledge  of  the  ttsomed  langitagieB,  applied 
hioiself  to  the  eivil  law ;  but  his  pr incipail  d:eligfat  wm  til 
belles  lettres  and  ancient  Hterafturef  and,,  therefore^  loskvg 
his  parents^  and  becoimng  bis  own  itiavcer  before  be  was 
eighteei^,  heprcjeotedajoiirfBey  tobafy,  for  the  Sgke  of 
culkivadng  tbeoi.     Before,  however,  he  set  out,  he  ^  pob^ 
lished  three  books  of  larions  readings^  ^^  Variaran^  Lee« 
liornxm  Libri  tres,"  which  kid  the  fofandblionf  olt  bis  literary 
frflse  ;  and  his  dedication  of  thesa  to  oatrdinei  P^evenettos^ 
ai  great 'patiop  of  learned  men,  servedi  to  ftitroduce  him  t9 
the  cardinal,  on  bis  arrival  in  ise7,  aft  Rome,  where  be 
liaed  iwo^  years  vidi  bioi,:  was  notnnated  his  seeretary, 
and  treated  with  the utmostkioKlness^  and  generosity.     Hfs 
tiine  he  used  to  employ  in  the  Vaticaav  tte  Faraesiafn,  thd 
S&urtiaD,  «nd  othec  principal  libraries,  which  were  operr  to^. 
hiiii,>anlb  wbene  hecarefoUy  coilated  the  manescr^pts  of 
atKsieait  aiutbofrs,  of  Seneca,  Tacimt^  Kaotusi  Piropertkis; 
&a. .  <  His  leuuire  boarshe  spent  in  inspecting  the  most  re^ 
lEmaricable  aasiqmtiei,   or  ia  cultivating  tbe^  aei^aadfitMe^ 
of.  the  literati  then  residing  at  Rowfe^  Antewipe»  M uretes^ 
Paelus  Manutius,  Folvins  Ifrsinns,  HiefDiiyttiu»  Merctiri-^ 
4.1t«^  Carohis  Sigonins,  Petros  Victorios,  sttidr  otbens,  A'oait' 
vBhose  eevtversatibn  be  could  iratfail  to  reap  adirantage  aodl^ 
encouragement  in  his.  stecbea; 

;In  1569  he  retunaed  to  Lou^inMn,  and  spent*  dn^yeatr  ytk 
habits  of  disMpation^  very  unswitable  to  bis  charaeteri  and! 
def^nsttle  only  asfae  says  by  pleading  the  heat  of  youth. 
Sensible  of  bis  folly,  he  resolved  upon  a  journey  to  Yienna;' 
butJitappiugat  Dole,  a»  universi^  in  tbeFranehe^Comt^, 
]^.«elap9ed  into  an  esces»  which- produced  si  lit  6f 'illness. 
9^  >  his  recovery  he  pursued  his  journey  to^Vieifna,  an^l 
there  fell  into  the  acquaintance  of  Busbequius,  and  otbec^ 
learned  naen^  who  used  many  arg>uments  to  induce  him^ttf 
Sivttle  tbere ;  bet  the  love  of  his  own  native  soil  premlecf; 
Md  he  directed  his  course  through  Bohemia,  Misnia,  and 
ThurlngiO)  in  order  to  arrive  at  it*  But  being  in%iitedf 
of  the  diuDigeroua^  state^  of  the  Low  Countries  fiviat  the 
war,  and  that  bis  own>  patrimony  was  laid  waste'  by  solcKer^,;^ 
be  stopped,  at  the  ueivevsiiy  of  JeniH  where  be  wds  invested' 
with  t4e  professorship  of  elidquenee^  and^becaofen  disciple 
of  Luchc^.  This  latter  ci#ciMnstan>ce  oMigiiig  h'^  to  leave 
JN^na,  heiaurmvdd  at  Odogtt^,  whepe  he  miitTied  a  widow  in 
1574,,  by  wbom^  he  had  no  childrem     Daring  his  stliy  at 


316  L  i  P  S  I  U  & 

.1 

Cologne,  he  wrote  .his  ^'Antiqase  Lectiones,'*  which  diiefty 
consist  of  emendations  of  Plautus.;  he  also  began  there  his 
notes  upon  Cornelius  Tacitus,  which  were  afterwards  so 
universally  applauded  by  the  learned. 

}I^  then  retired  to. his  own  native  seat  at  Isch^  in« 
(ending  to  devote,  hioiself  entirely  to  letters ;  but  the  war, 
which  >  was  still  raging,  ^iisturbed  his  plans,  and  be  was 
obliged  tQ  go  to  Louvain,  where  he  resumed  the  study  of 
the  civil  law,  though  with  no  intent  to  practise.  At  Loti* 
yain  he  published  his  ^M^istoIicfeQusstiones,^'  and  some 
othe^r  things ;  but,  being  again  obliged  to  quit  his  resi- 
dence,  went  to  Holland,  and  'spent  thirteen  years  at 
Leyden,  during  which  time  he  composed  and  published, 
what  he  calls,  his  best  works.  These  are,  '^  Electorum 
Libri  duo  ;'*  ''  Satyra  Menippaea  ;^'  '^  Saturnalium  Libri 
duo ;''  ^*  Commentarii  pleni  in  Cornelium  Tacitum ;"  'f  De 
Const^ntid.  Libri  duo;*'  *^  De  Amphi theatre  Libri  duo;"' 
*^  Ad,  Valeriiim  Maximum  Not®  ;^'  *^  Epistolarum  Centurisa 
duas;^^  «  Epistolica  Institutio ;''  *^  De  rect&  Pronunciatione 
Linguae  Latinae  ;^'  *^  Animadversiones  in  Senecae  Trag«- 
dias;'*  ^^Animadversiones in VelleiumPaterculum;'*  <^Po« 
liticorum  Libri  sex  ;*'  **  De  uo&  Religione  Liber/'  These 
he  call  his  best  works,  because  they  were  written,  he  sayn, 
ip  the  very  vigour  of  his  age»  and  when  he  was  quite  at 
leisure;  ^^  in  flore  aevi,  &  ingenii  in  alto  otio;"  and  'he 
^dds  too,  that  his  health  continued  good  till  the  Jatter 
part  of  his  life ;  *'  nee  valetudo,  nisi  sub .  extremos  annos, 
titubavit*''  The  intolerant  principles,  however^  which  he 
divulged  here,  raised  so  much  indignation  against  him  that 
he  was  obliged,  to  retire  suddenly  and  privately  from  Leji* 
den,  in  1590;  and,  after  some  stay  at.  Spa,  went  and 
settled  at  Louvain,  where  he  taught  polite  literature,  as 
he  had  done  at  Leyden,  with  the  greatest  credit  and  repu* 
tation.  He  spent  the  remainder .  of  his  life  at  Louvain, 
though  he  bad  received  powerful  solicitatioes,  aiul  the 
off&rs  of  vast  advantages,  if  he  would  have  removed  else- 
where. Pope  Clement  VUL  Henry  IV.  of  France,  and 
Philip  II.  of  Spain,  applied  to  him  by  advantageous  pro- 
ptosals.  Several  cardinals  would  gladly,  have  taken  him 
under  their  protection  and  patronage;  and  all  the  learned 
in  foreign  countries  honoured  him  in  the  highest  d^ree* 
The  very  learned  Spaniard,  Arias  Montanus,  who,  at  the 
command  of  Philip  II.  superintended  the  reprinting  the 
Cpmplutensian  edition  of  the  Bible  at  Plantings  piess, 


L I  p  s  I  y  s.  3it 

1»ad  such  a  regard  for  him,  that  be  treated  him  as  a  son 
rather  than  a  friend^  and  not  only  admitted  him  into  all 
his  concerns,  bat  eren  offered  to  leave  him  all  he  bad. 
Lipstas,  nevertheless,  ^continued  at  Lou  vain,  and,  among 
others,  wrote  the  following  works  r  ^*  De  Cruce  Libri  tres;** 
^^  De  Militia  Romana  Libri  quinqoe  f'  **  Poliorceticon- 
Libri  quiiique ;"  *'  De  Magnitudine  Romana  Libri  qua-^ 
tuor ;''  ^<  Dissertatiuncula  &  Commentarios  in  Plinii  Pane* 
gyricuih  ;**  <^  Manaductio  ad  Stoicam  Philosopbiam,''  Sec. 
AJl  his  works  have  been  collected  and  printed  together,  in 
folio,  more  than  once.  The  best,edition  is  that  of  Vesel, 
1675,  4  vols.  foL  usually  bound  in  eight.  His  crittodtl 
notes  upon  ancient  authors  are  to  be  found  in:  the  bdst 
editions  of  each  respective  author;  and  several  of  his 
btli<$r  pieces  have,  for  their  peculiar  utiUty,  been  reprinted 
separately. 

Lipsius  died  at  Louvain,  March  23,  1606,  in  his  59tti 
year,  and  left,  says  Joseph  Scatiger,  the  learqed  ifirorld 
and  his  friends  to  lament  the  loss  of  him.  LipMus  is  said 
to  have  been  so  meaa  in  his  countenance,  his  dress,  and 
his  conversation,  that  those  who  bad  accustomed  them- 
selvies  to  judge  of  great  men  by  their  outward  appearance, 
asked,  after  having  seen  Lipsius,  whether  that  was  really 
he.  But  the  greatest  blot  in  his  character  was  his  incon* 
stancy  with  regard  to  reiigion.  He  was  educated  a  RoiiHia 
Catholic, 'but  professed  the  Lutbemn  religion  while  h9 
was  professor  at  Jena.  Afterwards  retumihg  to  Brabant, 
ha  appeared  again  a  Roman  Catholic ;  but  when  he  ac- 
eepi^  ia  professor's  chair  in  the  university  of  Leyden,  he 
published  what  was  called  Calvinism.  At  last,  he  removed' 
from  Leyden,  and  went  again  into  the  Low  Countries, 
where  he  adopted  the  extreme  bigotry  of  the  Roman  com- 
munion. This  is  obvious  from  his  credulous  and  absurd 
accounts  of  the  holy  virgins,  in  his  '^  Diva  Virgo  Hallen* 
sis,**  &c.  and  "  Diva  Schemiensis,**  &c.  in  both  which  he 
admits  the  most  trifling  stories,  and  the  most  uncertain 
traditions.  Some  of  his  friends  endeavoured  to  represent 
how  greatly  all  this  would  diminish  the  reputation  he  haid 
acquired ;:  but  be  was  deaf  to  their  expostulations.  He 
even  went  so  far  as  to  dedicate  a  silver  pen  to  the  Holy 
Virgin  of  Hall ;  and  on  this  occasion  wrote  some  veif^ses 
which  are  very  remarkable,  both  on  account  of  the 
elogies .  he  bestows  on  himself,  and  of  the  extravagant 
wQrsbip  .he  pays  to  the  Virgin.  By  his. last  will,  he 
left  his  gown,  lined  with  fiir,  to  the  image  of  the  same 


318  L  I  P  S  I  U  S. 

1«^.  >  With  Aete  superstitioDs  he  joined  an  inconuitency 

<(f  3  niore  KiHoDs  nature  j  for  when,  a*  we  hare  Blreadv 

iNticed^  be  livcNl  at  Leydeta  io  an  outward  profession  of 

the  reformed  rdig:ioD,  be  gave  bi>  public   approbation  of 

the  peneauting  principies  whic^wsre  eAerted,  tlirougboiit 

^  £un^,  against  the  professors  of  it,  mait 

•tate  ought  to  suffer  a  plurality  of  religtonti, 

mercy  towards  those  who  diatnrbed  tbc  estab 

hut  pursue  them  witb  6re  and  sword,  h  bi 

one.membcr  should  perish  rattier  tliui  the 

'*  Clementt*  non  hie  loess';   tire,   seca,  i 

potiuB  aliquod  quam  totiim  cotpns  conruiu|: 

■ttafcked  for  these  priitciptes  and  expressi 

Toared  to  explaih  ^etn  in  a  very  erasive  mi 

iog  that  tbc  wontif  ttre  uid   seca  were   or 

rowed  from  cbinn^ery,  ilot  literaHy  to-  si 

siBard,  bun  only  some  eifcctual  remedy.    All 

are  to  b«  met  with  in -his  trratise"  De  n 

the  wont  of  bis  writli^.     His  works  in  ge.r 

aut^ectaof  anti<{nily  and  criticism.     la  bis  i 

imitated,  with  tolerable  success,  the  style  < 

aftieiwuiUs  sfaose  rather  to  adopt  the  conois 

nMBoerrof  Seneca  aodTacitns.     For  this  cor 

he  waa  severely-  oensBted  by  Buopptus  ai 

jriteitt ;  but  his  ezami^  was  foflowed  by  • 

irarary  .writers.    On  tUs  iuiiovation  Haet , 

that  ahfaoiqgh  the  abrupt  and  antithetical  ' 

tain  the  apphuaea  of  unskilfol  youth,  or  an 

tttde^  itcamotbepleafing  to  ears  whicfa.t 

inarad  to  g<^iiiae  Ciceronian  eloqaenee. 

Captivated,  says  Brooker,  with  the  appec 
rior  wiadom  and  vtrtne  wUefa-he  observed 
acbootof  Zeao,  Lipsius  sought  for  oonsoli 
preoepls  of  the  Stoic  philosophy,  aadatteni 
eileits  doctiiaes  with  those  of  Gbristmnity 
ioipoaed  upon  by  the  vaumn^  language  u*  wh  >.  -ig. 
ooneemtng  fsoe^wid  pttevidMiee;  aad  exphiins  its  tene^^  ■' 
...  .  ■,,....,...  -"VTT^" 


a  BsaBoeT'whidi  oatMot  bercconcUed  with  the  history '>^^7*^«t  i,^  , 
geteral  mtem  af  Stoicism,  in  order  to  revive  an  a'^|^?^<K  1^^. 
tioa  to  the  doctrines  of  this  ancient  sact^  be  wroW^^T^  to  ^ 
treaBsei,  "  Manudactio  ad   Fbilosophiaoi   Stokamfit^^  «^  f„ 


Intruditction    to  the   Stoib   PhitoBopfay;  and  "  Bis_       ^'^<*b«v, 
tioees  de  Physidlo'gia  Stoica,"  0isscrtatio||UP  ^'''^'•^^lo^ 
aidogy  ;  to  wtiieh  he  intended  to  hatr  ''"''^^^^i^^^  '^ 


L  I  P  8  I  U  S.  31» 

« 

tbe  fnom)  doctrine  of  |be  stoics,  but  wm  |ijreT^nt^  Iqr 
^eatb.  Hit  edition  of  Seneca  is  eiiriohed  with  mwy  valM** 
^biie  notes,  bi!it  he  w^  too  oaucb  biased  by  bis  p^krtiility 
for  stoicism  to  perceive  tbe  feeble  am}  qn^^ufid  pwUot 
the  systenip.aQd  g4ve  too  easy  credit  tQ  the  #rrojriait  olaimil 
of  this  schpQiy  to  b^  a  judicipus  and  useful  lot^rpit^ifMr  of 

its  (Jot^itrine. ' 

LISI.E  {CtAiJDf;  D^)|  histoT^gr^pber  and  cwMor  foyfd» 
an$i|  the  first  qf  a  family  of  men  of  cpnaidemble  emioraoe 
in  iFriincey  WM  born  Nov,  5,  16H|  at  Vwopuleiirs.  He 
g^ve  private  lectures  pn  history  ^ud  gepgrmphy  At  PfHiifl, 
and  bad  npt  oply  the  prinqpa|  Iprd^  pf  t|]#  couit  mpug  hit 
pupils,  but  the  dukp  of  Qrlei^ps^  afterwf^ds  regpiit  ^ 
France^  who.  always  retained  a  particular  valu^  for  biiHy 
and  gave  him  frequent  proofs  of  bis  ^stam.  |Ui  di«d  at 
P^is,  M^y  ^  17?0,  ag^d  76,  t<iaving  twQlvf^  cbildien,  pf 

wbooi  thrive  ^on^  will  form  tbe  mty^ot  of  the  ^suing  arti'* 
client  His  works  are^  ^  Relation  bi{|toiiqu9  du  Ho'^uipe  dt 
Siam/*  \^^^f  12010;  ^*  An  Abridgement  of  tlie  Uotversal 
history/'  n^\f  7  vo}s*  ISmo,  and  a  Gem«ilQgie»l  and 
Di^torical  AtlaSf  on  eqgnived  pUtes*' 

LJSt^  (Wii4fV^M  !>*),  spu  to  the  preceding,  and  » ipery 
learned  French  geographer,  w?is  bppo  at  P#ri4  feb.  giy 
1675.  His  faiher  being  much  oecttpied  ip  lbp>  same  way, 
ypung  Lisle  b^gan  at^  uinp  yf  ars  of  f^ge  to  draw  maps,  and 
spon  m^d^,  a  gr<9at  prpgr<iss  ip  this  art.  In  1699  be  fira^ 
distinguished  himself  by  ei(;ecuting  a  Piap  pf  tbe  wortd^ 
^l\^  otb^r  pip^e^  which  proourpd  biiP  a  piapp  in  the  aPA« 
denqy  of  spiepces,  1702,  Be  w«»  af^erwai^ds  appptnted 
gppgrapber  to  the  l^ing,  with  «  peusipn,  and  bad  thci 

honour  of  in^tru^ung  tbe  king  hio^elf  in  gWgi^phy,  for 
whogp  particular  M&e  i>e  drew  up  i^everal  wpirks«  Qp  Lisle^a 
reputation  was  59  great,  that  scarcely  any  histpry  PC  Iravela 
caPi^e  put  without  the  embellishi»ent  of  bis  caape^  .Nor  waa 
his  namf  lefs  celebrated  abroad  tbpn  iu  bis  pwp  eenniry« 
Many  sovereigns  in  vain  attempted  tp  draw  him  put  of 
France^  The  Caar  Peter,  when  at  Paris  pn  h^  .travels, 
paid  hiix^  a  vi^i;,  to  eompuipipate  |o  him  SPQia  fOiMf ka 
upon  M^sppvy ;  but  esppA>ialiy,  says  Fpntepplie^  to  leatfi' 
from  h(na»  better  taan  he  could  anywhere  pls^,  thp  eaueui 

>  tipnii  Vita  li  M'lpBo^  Aniw.  1 608.— MelcMor  Adam.— Gen.  Diet.— -IV^ererh 
-^NiMron,  yoI.  XXIV.— ^BjfM.  i5«lg.— Bloniit'«  Cei»ur«.-^Brucdter.— Bonart's 
Academie  des  Sciences,  vol.  il.-^axii  Ouomaat. 

t  Mwe^i.— Diet.  HitH.  .         . 


J^O  LISLE. 

Aid  situation  o£  bis  own  dominions.  De  Lisle  died  of  an 
apoplexy  Jan.  25,  1726,  at  51  years  of  age.  Besides  the 
excellent  maps  be  published,  be  wfote  many  pieces  in  th^ 
Mebioirs  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences.  ^ 

LISLE  (Lewis  de),  brother  of  the  preceding,  and  art 
astronomer,  promoted  the  interests  of  science,  by  som^ 
very  hazardous  journeys  and  voyages.  In  1726  he  wenttd 
Russia  with  his  brother  Joseph^  who  had  been  appointed 
astronomer  to  the  laead^my  of  sciences  at  Petersburg. 
Lewis,  at  this  time,  made  excursions  beyond  the  utmost 
boundaries  of  ihe  immense  Russian  empire.  He  took 
several  journeys  to  the  coasts  of  the  Icy  sea,  to  Lapland^ 
and  the  government  of  Archangel,  to  determine  the  situa- 
tion of  the  principal  places  by  astronomical  observations. 
He  afterwards*  traversed  a  great  part  of  Siberia,  with  M^ 
Muller  and  M.  Gmelin,  professors  of  the  academy  at  Pe* 
tersburg.  In  1741  he  proceeded  alone  to  Kamtschatka, 
and  thence  to  Cape  Beering,  to  examine  the  unknown 
northern  coasts  of  America,  and  the  seas  between  them 
and  the  Atlantic  continent.  He  died  in  the  same  year. 
On  account  of  his  great  merit  he  obtained  a  seat  in  the 
academy  of  sciences,  and  was  the  author  of  some  papers  in 
the  ^'  Memoirs''  of  that  learned  body,  and  of  the  academj 
of  sciences  at  Petersburg.* 

LISLE  (Joseph  Nicholas  de),  younger  brother  of  thef 
preceding,  was  born  at  Paris  April  4,  1688,  and  at  first 
educated  under  his  paternal  roof.  He  then  pursued  hb 
studies  at  the  Mazarine-college,  where  the  eclipse  of  the  sun 
in  1706  seems  to  have  directed  his  attention  to  "astronomy, 
for  which  he  soon  displayed  so  much  genius,  as  to  be  ad«r 
mitted  into  the  academy  of  sciences,  to  the  memoirs  of 
which' he  contributed  many  valuable  papers.  In  1715~he 
calculated  the  tables  of  the  moon  according  to  the  theory 
of  sir  Isaac  Newton.  He  also,  in  Ae  course  of  his  pur-> 
suits,  made  many  observations  on  the  spots  of  the  sun,  and 
from  them  formed  a  theory  to  determine  the  sun's  rotation 
on  his  axis.  In  1720  he  delivered  a  proposal  to  the  aca- 
demy for  ascertaining  in  France  the  figure  of  the  earth,  and 
some  years  afterwards  this  was  carried  into  execution.  In 
1724  he  paid  a  visit  to  England,  where  he  became  ac^ 
quainted  with  Newton  and  Halley,  who  shewed  him  eveiy 
mark  of  respect,  and  Halley  in  particular  highly  gratified 

i  ^ficerao,  folf.  I.  aod  X.— Diet.  Hist.— Huttoo's  Diet.  *  Moiwt. 


LIS  L  E.  3ii' 

*  * 

himtiy  a  present  of  a  copy  of  his  astronomical  tablet,  o^^ 
the  suBy  moon,    and  planets,  which  be   had  printed  in' 
ni9j  but  which  were  not  published   for  many  years  after*' 
hi  1726  he  was  appointed  astronomer  royal  in  the  imperial 
academy  of  sciences  at  Petersburg,  where  for  twenty-one 
yearly  he  residied  in  the*iobservatory*hou8e  built  by  Peter 
tfae^  Great,  incessantly   occupied  in  the  improvement  of- 
astronomy  and  geography.     During  this  period  he  pub* 
lished  **  Memoirs  illustrative  of  the  History  of  Astronomy,'*' 
2  voIs«  4to ;  and  an  atlas  of  Russia,  first  published  in  th^ 
Russian  language,  and  afterwards  in  Latin,>  He  constructed 
aiso  a  thermometer,  differently  graduated  from  those  in 
use,  tbe  degrees  beginning  at  the  beat  of  boiling  water, - 
and  thence  increasing  to  150,  which  was  the  freezing  point.' 
la  1747,  after  mvLck  ill-tteatment  on  the  part  of  the  Rus- 
sian, government,  he  obtained  bis  dismission,  and  arrived 
in  Paris  in  September  of  the  same  year.     He  was  then  ap- 
pointed professor  of  the  mathematics  at  the  college  royal, 
in  wbich  situation  he  lived  to  render  the  greatest  service  to 
the  interests  of  science,  by  training  up  some  learned  pu- 
pils, among  whom  was  the  celebrated  M.  de  la  Lande.     lot 
1^.499  his  pupil,  M.  Monnier,  took  a  voyage  to  Scotland  to 
observe. an  annular  eclipse  of  the  sun,  and  on  this  subject' 
De  Lisle  published  a  large  advertisement,  which  was  reck-' 
oned  a  complete  treatise  on  annular  eclipses.     He  after*' 
u4rds  entered  more  fully  on  the  consideration  of  the  theoryj. 
of  eclipses,  and  he  commuuicated  a  part  of  his  researches 
on  the  subject  to  the  academy  in  1749.     He  was  so  expert 
in  calculations,  that  he. made  many  founded  on  the  pbser^ 
yations  of  Greenwich,  Berlin,  Scotland,  and  Sweden.     In 
1750  and  1753  he  published  ^'  New  charts  of  the  Disco- 
veries of  admiral  de  Fonte,  or  Fuente,  made  in  1640,  and 
those  of  other  navigators,  Spanish,  Portuguese,  English, 
Dutch,  French,  and  Russian,*  in  the  Northern  seas,  with 
explications."     In  1753  appeared  his  map  of.  the  world,  .in 
which  he  represented  the  effect  of  the  parallaxes  of  Mer- 
cury in  different  countries,  in  order  to  point  out  the  proper 
peaces  for  making  such  observations  on  the  then  expected 
transit,  as  should  furnish  a  method  of  determining  the  dis- 
tance of  the  sun,  in  a  manner  similar  to  that  applied  by. 
Halley  to  the  transit  of  Venus.     Another  work  of  his,  jmb- 
li^ed  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Academy,  was  on  the 
comet  of  175S,  which  was  visible  several  months;  but  he  was 
principally  attentive  to  the  one  predicted  by  Dr,  Halley, 
Vol.  XX:  Y 


324  L  I  S  T  E  R. 

expenaient$i  iit  "various  branches  of  natural  pbilosophyv^^ 
.the  same  friend  ;>  who  commumcadng  some  of  tbekhtQ  tfafe 
royal  society^  our.  author  was  recomtnended,  and  elected 
a  fellow.  In  16^4,  resolving  by  the  advice  of  hi?  frkaidg 
tp  iremoye  to  Lobdon,  he  was  cra»ted  doctor  of  pliysie,  by 
diploma,  at  Oxford  ;  the  chancellor  himself  recommending 
him  as  a  person  of  exemplary  loyalty,  of  high  esteem 
among  the  most  eminent  of  his  profession,  of  singular  merit 
to  t^t  university  in  particular,  by  having  enriched  their 
museum  and  library  with  presents  of  valuable  books,  both 
printed  and  manuscript,  and  of  general  merit  to  the  lite- 
rary, world  by  several  learned  bboks  which  he  published. 
Soon  after  this,  he  was  elected  fellow  of  the  *  college  of 
physicians. 

In  1685  he  published  his  "  Historia  sive  Synopsis -Con- 
chy liorum,^'  2  vols.  fol.  containing:  very  accurate  figures 
of  all  the  shells  known  in  his  time,  amounting  to^npwii^ds  > 
of  a  thousand ;  and  what  renders  the  book  a  singular  cur 
rio$ity  is,  that  they  wei^  all' drawn  by  his  t\Vo  daughters, 
Susanna  and  Anne.  The  copper-plates  of  this  work*  be^ 
coming  the  property  of  the  university  of  Oxford,'  a  new 
ediiion  was  published  there  in  1770,  und^r  the  care  of 
.Huddesford/  keeper  of  the  Ashmolean  museUm.  This 
editipn  wants  two  or  three  of  the  plates  belonging  to  the 
original ;  but  to  make  up  for  this  deficiency,  two  or  three 
new  plates  have  been  added,  and  notwithstanding  the  pro- 
gress \vbich  the  study  has  since  made,  the  work,  still  re- 
tains its  valu^,  and  is  indispensable  to  the  student  of  con- 
chology. 

In  1698,  he  attended  the  earl  of  Portlai^d  in  his  embassy 
from  king  William  to  the  court  of.  France ;  and  having 
the  pleasure  to  see  his  **  Synopsis  Conchyliorum**  iti  the 
king^s  library,  he  presented  that  monarch  with  a  second 
edition  of  the  treatise,  much  improved,  in  1699,  not  long 
after  his^  return  from  Paris.  Of  this  journey  he  publiAed  an 
account,  with  observations  on  the  state  and  curiosities  of  that 
metropolis ;  which,  containing  some'things  of  a  trifiing  nar 
ture,  was  pleasantly  ridiculed  by  Dr.  Wm.  King,  in  another, 
entitled  "  A  Journey  to  London."  In  1709,  upon  the  in* 
disposition  of  Dr.  Hannes,  he  was  made  second  physidian  ifk 
Ordinary  to  queen  Anne ;  in  which  p<|st  he  continued  to 
his  death,  Feb.  2,  1711-12.  He  was  buried  in  Glapham- 
church,  near  the  body  of  his  wife  Hannah,  who  died  in 
1695,  leaving  six:  children.     One  of  bia  daughten>  who 


.   L  I  S.T.E  R.  325 

•  t 

4i6d  in  lISS^  was  the  wife  of  the  rev.  Owen  Eva^s,  o£ 
8i.'  .Martinis,  Canterbury.  Besides  the  books  already 
meftlio^ed,  be  published^  l.  'MlistorisB  AnimaUum  Angli® 
tret  Tractalus,"  &c.  1678.  2.  <^  John  Goedertius. of  In- 
sects,^' &c.  1682,  4to.  3.  The  same  book  in  Latin.  4. 
^<  De  Fpntibus  medicalibus  AnglitB/'  Ebor.  1682^  There 
is.  an  account  of  most  of  these  in  Phil.  Trans.  Nqs.  139^ 
143,  144,  and  166.  5.  *^  Exercitado  anatomica,  in  <)ua 
de  Ccfchleisagitur/'  &c.  1694,  8vo.  6.  *^  Cochlearuoi  & 
Limacum  Exercitatio  anatomica;  accedit  de  Variolis  Exer- 
<^alio^"  1695,  2  vols.  8vo.  7.  ^^  Conchyliorum  Bivalvium 
litnorque  Aquse  Exercitatio  anatom.  tertia,'*  &c.  1696, 
4to«  .  8.  ^'  Exercitationes  medicinales,^'  &c.  1697,  8vo. 
In  his  medical  writings  he  is  rather  too  much  attached  to 
bypotfaeses,  and  preserves  too  great  a  reverence  for  an-* 
cient  and  now  untenable  doctrines ;  but  his  reputation  is 
well  minded  on  his  researches  in  natural  history  and  com- 
jaavative  anatomy.^ 

,  LITHGOW  (Wiluam),  a  Scotchman,  born  the  latter. 
eind  of  the  fifteenth  century,  whose  sufferiiigs  by  impris;on*'. 
ment  and  torture  at  Malaga,  and  whose  travels  on  foot 
over  Europe^  Asia,  and  Africa,  seem  to  raise  him  almost 
to  the  rank  of  a  martyr  and  a  hero,  published  a  well-knpwnk, 
account  of  bis  peregrinations  and  adventures.     The  iirst 
dditipn  of  this  was  printed  in  1614,  4to,  and  reprinted,  ia 
tbent^xt  reign,  with  additions,  and  a  dedication  to  (Ibarles  L 
Though  the  author  deals  much  in  the  marvellous,  the  ac-^ 
counts  of  the  strange  cruelties,  of  which  he  tells  us  he  wa$; 
the  subject,  have,  however,  an  air  of  truth.     Soon  after, 
his., arrival  in  England  from  Malaga,  he  was  carried  to 
Theobalds  on  a  feather-bed,  that  king  James  might  be  aoi 
eye-witness  of  his  martyred  anatomy,  by  which  he  means 
bis. wretched  body,  mangled  and  reduced  to  a  skeleton. 
The  whol^  court  crowded,  to  see  him  ;  and  his.  majesty  or* 
der^d  him  to  be  taken  care  of;  and  be  was  twice  sent  to^ 
Bath  at  his  e^pence.     By  the  king's  command,  he  applied 
to.Gondamor,  the  Spanish  ambassador,  for  the  recovery  o| 
mon^y  and  other  things  of  value  whic^  the  governor  o^ 
Mals^had  taken  from  him,  and  for  a  thousand  pounds 
for  his  support ;  but,  altboiigh  promised  a  full  reparatioa. 
£or  the.daouiges  he  had  sustained,  that  minister  never  per- 
fo^ed  his  promise.     When  he  was  upon  the  poin^  ot 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  T.  and  II.— -Biog.  Brit. — Granger,  and  Granger's  Letters,  p. 
14iO|  and  400,-«Thom8on's  Hist,  of  the  Royal  Society^^-Lysons'i  JSuviions,  toI.  I. 


Stf  L  I  T  H  G  O  W. 


bnvitig  Ebgland,  Lithgow  upbraided  him  with  ^e  breach 
0f  Wf  wotA^  in  the  pretence**cbaiiiber»  before  ieveral  gea-^ 
llemeii  cf  tbe  ooort.  Tbit  occasioned  their  fighting  tty«a 
Ae  spot ;  and  the  ambassador,  as  the  traveller  oddly  ex* 

Csssed  it,  **  bad  his  fistula  Contrabanded  with  his  fist  ;*' 
t  the  «infortunate  Lithgow,  although  generally  com-' 
asended  for  his  spirited  behaviour,  was  sient  to  the  Mar* 
idiakea,  where  be  continued  a  prisoner  nine  months.  At 
the  conclusion  of  the  &vo  edition  of  his  travels,  he  informs 
US,  that  **  in  his  three  voyages  his  painful  feet  iiave  traced 
over,  besides  passages  of  seas  and  rivers^  thirty-six  tbon* 
sand  and  odd  miles,  which  draweth  near  to  twiee  the  circum* 
lerence  of  the  whple  earth/'  Here  the  marveUoua  seems 
to  rise  to  the  incredible ;  and  to  set  him  in  point  of  vera^ 
city  below  Coryat,  whom  it  is  nevertheless  certain  that  he 
fiMr  outwalked.  His  description  of  Ireland  is  whimsical 
and  curious.  This,  together  with  the  narrative  of  his 
sufferings,  is  reprinted  in  Morgan's '^  Phceqix  Brita&ai*. 
Ciis.'*  He  published  also  an  swecount  of  the  siege  of  Breda, 
M37,  of  which  the  deader  wiU  find  a  notiee  iu  tbe  <<  Re^ 
stitnta."* 

LITTLETON  (Adam),  ale«t)ed  scholar,  wiM  descended 
fiom  the  Westcot  family  of  Mounsjow,  in  Worcestershire, 
and  born  Nov.  8,  1627,  at  Hates-Owen,  in  Shropshire^  of 
which  place  his  father,  Thomas,  was  vicar.  He  was  educated 
under  Dr.  Busby,  at  Westminster-school,  and  in  1 644  was 
thosen  student  of  Christ^church,  Oxford,  but  was  ejected  by 
file  ptrliament  visitors  in  Nov.  1648.  This  cgeetion,  how- 
ever, does  not  seem  to  have  extended  so  for  as  in  other  cases, 
for  we  find  that,  soon  after,  he  became  usher  of  Westmin* 
ster-school;  and  in  1658  was  made  second  master,  having 
for  some  time  in  the  interim  taught  school  in  other  places. 
In  July  1 670,  being  then  chaplain  in  ordinary  to  the  king, 
be  accumulated  his  degrees  in  divinity,  which  were  con- 
ferred upon  him  without  taking  any  in  arts,  as  a  mark  of 
respect  doe  to  his  extraordinary  merit.  This  indeed  had 
Wn  amply  attested  to  the  university  by  letters  from 
Henehosan,  bishop  of  London,  recommending  him  as  a 
man  eminently  learned,  of  singular  humanity  and  sweeter 
ness  of  mahners,  blameless  and  reKgious  life,  and  .of 
genius  and  ready  ftculty  in  preaching.  In  Sept  167#,  he 
was  inducted  into  the  rectoiy  of  Chelsea,  was  made  a  plre« 

>  6nui|er.— ResUtuts,  No,  11,  p«  19^ 


LITTLETON.  MT 

h^nitiry  ot  W0stmin«ter»  end  afterwards  sub -dean.     Ibl 
16$S  Be  was  licensed  to  the  churcb  of  St>  Botolph  Alders- 
gafee$  which  he  held  about  four  years,  and  tbea- resigned 
itf  pqssibty  On  account  of  some  decay  in  his  ceD«titu(ii|j^. 

He  dieid  Jane  30,  i€94,  aged  <sixty-*seven  years,  and 
wiM  buried  on  the  north  side  of  the  chancel  of  Obelsea 
chiaircfh^'  where  there  is  a  handsome  monumeati  with  an 
epkaph  to  his  metnory.     He  was  an  excellent  philologi^ 
aod-^giaminarian,  patrticularly  in  the  Latin,  a^  appears  from 
his  Dictionary  of  tbett  language  ;  be  appaars  a4so  to  have 
studied  the  Gr^ek  with  equal  minuteness,  a.  Lexicon  of 
wbMi  he  had  ioAg  been  compiiing>  and  left  unfinished  at 
•his  deadi.     Hd  was  also  wi^U  skilkd  in  the  Oriental  laa- 
Jff»^gt8  ahd  in  rabbinical .  learjiing ;   in    pr^seeuti^m   of 
which  he  exhausted  great  part  of  bis  fortune  in  purchasing" 
liiMlts.Md  manuscripts  from  all  p«*ts  of  Europe,  Asia,  and 
Africa.    The  consequence  of  this  improvid^ce^  we  mtp 
8orr)fr,  however,  to  add,  was  bis  dying  lasol^nt,  and  leaav^. 
iiig  Mb  widow  in  viery  distressed  oircumstamces.  -  Sonne 
time  before  hfiA  death,  he  made  a  ««iaU  essay^tewards.  fa^' 
dfitsting  the  knowledge  of  the  Hebrew,  ChaU^e,;  and 
AnMc  tongues,  which  he  intended  to  hftve  brought  into 
a  narrower  compass.     He  was  versipd  also  in  the  abstrust 
parts  of  the  mathematics,  and  wrote  a  great  many  piecei-. 
concerning   mystical   numeration,   whica   came  into<  i^ 
hands  of  bis